GSE SS8H6 Impact of Reconstruction on Georgia

GSE SS8H6 Impact of Reconstruction on Georgia

GSE SS8H6 Impact of Reconstruction on Georgia GSE SS8H6 Analyze the impact of Reconstruction on Georgia.

GSE SS8H6.a Explain the roles of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments in Reconstruction.

13TH AMENDMENT 13th Amendment The 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and

involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. 14TH AMENDMENT 14th Amendment

The 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments. The amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws, and was proposed in response to issues related

to former slaves following the American Civil War. 15TH AMENDMENT 15th Amendment

The 15th Amendment ensures the right to vote to all male citizens of the United States, regardless of color or previous condition of servitude.

GSE SS8H6.b Explain the key features of the Lincoln, the Johnson, and the Congressional Reconstruction plans.

Reconstruction Time of major change in GA Time after Civil War in the South Short period of time (1865-1872) Reconstruction

Much of Georgia was destroyed during Shermans March Over 40,000 Georgians had been killed or wounded in the Civil War Many lost their land

LINCOLNS RECONSTRUCTION PLAN Lincolns Reconstruction Plan Presidential Reconstruction

(1865-1866) Lincoln = Bring the U.S. together Lincolns Reconstruction Plan 2 Conditions for a state to be readmitted to

the Union: The 10% Plan 10% of the voters had to pledge allegiance to the U.S. Lincolns Reconstruction Plan

Agree to 13th Amendment Amendment Banned Slavery Forever Lincolns Reconstruction Plan Lincoln was shot on April 14, 1865 (dies the next morning)

Vice-President Andrew Johnson became the new president Vowed to continue Lincolns plans Andrew Johnson | Lincolns Vice-President Became 17th President

AFTER Lincoln is killed by John Wilkes Booth Lincolns Reconstruction Plan GA knew this was an easy policy Held a constitutional convention in 1866

Passed the 13th amendment Lincolns Reconstruction Plan Due to the passage of the 13th amendment:

Georgia was readmitted into the Union in December of 1865 JOHNSONS RECONSTRUCTION PLAN

Johnsons Reconstruction Plan RADICAL (Extreme) Republicans Favored harsher punishments for the South Thaddeus Stephens - Radical Republican

Pushed the Passage of the 13th Amendment to Abolish Slavery Wanted to Punish the South for the Civil War Johnsons Reconstruction Plan In Georgia, the people elected two former Confederate officials to the U.S. Senate

Former Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens Former Confederate Senator Hershel Johnson Alexander Stephens

Hershel Johnson Johnsons Reconstruction Plan Radical Republicans were angry at having high ranking CSA

officials in Congress Refused to allow them to take their seats Accused President Johnson of abusing his power

Johnsons Reconstruction Plan Johnson wanted the Union back together Pardoned former Confederates Did not pardon former officer or rich landowners

Johnsons Reconstruction Plan Republicans brought IMPEACHMENT (formal charges) proceedings against Johnson Just barely escaped removal from office

19-18 was the final / Johnson had no power CONGRESSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION PLANS Congressional

Reconstruction Plans CLICK HERE: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtid=2&psid=3103 The South began to pass BLACK CODES: (Laws that banned free black men from) Voting

Testifying against whites in court Serving as Jurors in Trials Congressional Reconstruction Plans Congress introduced the 14th

amendment African-Americans were now citizens of the United States They must be given the same rights as all U.S. citizens.

Congressional Reconstruction Plans Southern states were required to pass 14th amendment to be readmitted into the Union If they refused, they were stripped of

statehood Would be run by a military governor Congressional Reconstruction Plans Georgia refused to ratify the 14th

amendment Taken over by the military Run by military governors, John Pope and George Meade General John Pope

Georgias 1st Military Governor after the Civil War General George Meade Replaced Pope in Atlanta

Congressional Reconstruction Plans During this period, Georgia held another constitutional convention Held in Atlanta (not the capital of Milledgeville)

Milledgeville refused to accommodate Republican or black delegates Congressional Reconstruction Plans Atlanta was chosen because it accepted:

Elected Republican delegates 37 African American delegates Congressional Reconstruction Plans Georgia created a new constitution:

Created black voting rights Allowed new public schools Moved the capital to Atlanta Congressional Reconstruction Plans

After this convention: Republican Rufus Bullock was elected Governor Republicans controlled General Assembly

Rufus Bullock Last Republican Governor of GA until Sonny Perdue in 2002 Congressional Reconstruction Plans

The military remained in Georgia Georgia refused to pass the 15th amendment This amendment gave Black men the right to vote

Congressional Reconstruction Plans Georgia finally readmitted into the Union in 1870 It had to reinstate Republican and black legislators

Had to vote for the passage of the 15th amendment Congressional Reconstruction Plans 1872

Southern Democrats called redeemers voted back into office Reassumed control of the Governorship and General Assembly. GSE SS8H6.c

Compare and contrast the goals and outcomes of the Freedmens Bureau and the Ku Klux Klan. FREEDMENS BUREAU

Freedmens Bureau Created to help African-Americans adjust to freedom Also supported poor whites Provided food to whites and blacks

Freedmens Bureau Freedmens Bureau Helped build freedmens schools and hospitals Supervised labor contracts/legal disputes

Freedmens Bureau was moderately successful Freedmens Bureau Freedmens Bureau

Fed, clothed, and offered shelter Created the first public school program for either blacks or whites THE KU KLUX KLAN (KKK)

Ku Klux Klan (KKK) 1867 - Ku Klux Klan (KKK) began in Tennessee Loosely governed organization Consisted mostly of

Confederate veterans Ku Klux Klan (KKK) Began as a social club Became more political and violent Used terroristic actions to

intimidate freed blacks and white Republicans Ku Klux Klan (KKK) Tried to stop them from voting and running for office

Used tactics of intimidation, physical violence, and murder Hoped to establish social control over African Americans and their white allies

Ku Klux Klan (KKK) KKK was successful in their political goals: Democrats gained control of Georgia politics in 1871 Many were members of the KKK

Ku Klux Klan (KKK) It would be 100 years before Republicans regained political control of the state KKK used severe acts of violence White supremacy and racial

segregation became the norm in Georgia and the rest of the South Ku Klux Klan (KKK) KKK disbanded sometime around 1871 Democrats regained political control of

the state President Ulysses S. Grant pushed Congress to crack down Ulysses S. Grant U.S. President

for two terms (1868 - 1877) Enforced Congressional laws to control the KKK

Ku Klux Klan (KKK) Congress passed: The Force Act of 1870 The Civil Rights Act of 1871 (also called the Ku Klux Klan Act)

Ku Klux Klan (KKK) Acts authorized federal authority to fight and arrest members of the Klan President Grant sent federal troops to enforce the acts

Klan would go underground until 1915 Ku Klux Klan (KKK) GSE SS8H6.d Examine reasons for and effects

of the removal of African American or Black legislators from the Georgia General Assembly during Reconstruction. REMOVAL OF

BLACK LEGISLATORS Black Legislators During Reconstruction During Reconstruction: African-American freedmen

briefly gained political rights Biggest victory: the right to vote Black Legislators During Reconstruction 1867

32 black legislators elected to the Georgia General Assembly Most well-known: Henry McNeal Turner Black Legislators

During Reconstruction Received threats from the KKK Mr. Turner was expelled from his General Assembly seat in 1868 ON THE NEXT SLIDE

Actor Danny Glover reads Henry McNeal Turner, "On the Eligibility of Colored Members to Seats in the Georgia Legislature" (September 3, 1868). Part of a May 2, 2007 reading from Voices of a People's History of the United States. Black Legislators

During Reconstruction The other black legislators suffered hardships Constantly harassed Many were expelled from General Assembly in 1868

Black Legislators During Reconstruction ALL threatened by the KKK 1/4 of the black legislators were beaten, jailed, or killed.

Black Legislators During Reconstruction Most important contribution of these black legislators: 1868 Constitution called for free

general public education in the State of Georgia GSE SS8H6.e Give examples of goods and services produced during the

Reconstruction Era, including the use of sharecropping and tenant farming. SHARECROPPING & TENANT FARMING

Sharecropping & Tenant Farming After the Civil War: Southern states suffered a serious shortage of money

Had printed tons of now worthless money Sharecropping & Tenant Farming Landowners were unable to pay workers

Workers were unable to find work that paid them wages Sharecropping and tenant farming should have helped both sides Sharecropping & Tenant Farming

Cash poor land owners provided land and other resources Laborers provided the work on the farm Most laborers wound up in debt

Sharecropping & Tenant Farming Landowners hoped to prevent economic equality Poor Blacks and Whites could not afford to buy land

Sharecropping & Tenant Farming Sharecropping & Tenant Farming Many similarities between

sharecroppers and tenant farmers Mostly poor, illiterate blacks and whites Both agreed to work and give a portion of their crops Sharecropping & Tenant Farming

Both groups had to buy certain necessities from the landowner Caused deep debt to the laborers Decreased their chances of getting out of the system

Sharecropping & Tenant Farming Major difference: Tenant farmers usually owned their own tools, animals, and other equipment

Sharecroppers brought nothing but their labor into the agreement Sharecropping & Tenant Farming Both were part of Georgias agricultural system into the mid-1900s

System began to fall apart for many reasons Great Migration of African-Americans and rural whites to the North and cities in the South

Sharecropping & Tenant Farming The devastation of the boll weevil in the 1910s and 1920s Technological advances in farming This system is almost completely gone As of 1997, 2,607 Georgians were

classified as tenant farmers

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