Greek Tragedy -

Greek Tragedy -

Greek Tragedy Aristotles definition Aristotle defines tragedy as the imitation of an action which is serious, complete, of a certain magnitude, couched in poetic language. It should be dramatic, with incidents arousing pity and fear, which bring about a purgation of these emotions. Pity is aroused in the audience for the character(s), and we fear lest the same misfortune happen to us. Purgation/catharsis is

a cleansing; a release of emotions. According to Aristotle, comedy portrays men as worse than they are and tragedy as better than in actual life. He also notes that Sophocles drew men as they ought to be. Tragic Hero Characteristics Undergoes of a tragic hero: a morally significant struggle that ends disastrously. Essentially a superior person who is treated sympathetically (we like them in spite of what the hero might do) Their destiny or choice is to go down fighting rather than submit and thus

pluck a moral victory from a physical defeat. Not all good or all bad (very human) Has a high, respected position; falls to ignominy or unhappiness or death. Tragic flaw (Hamartia) Hamartia some defect in the tragic character that helps cause his own ruin. For the Greeks this flaw is hubris (excessive pride). The flaw may seem to be jealousy, anger, ambition, etc., but it will always be because the character thinks himself too superior in some way. Because of this hubris, whatever happens to the tragic hero is not all undeserved.

Classic Moments in the tragic plot: Reversal of situation (peripety) good begins to slide or go bad 2. Recognition (a.k.a. epiphany) discovery of the critical fact the hero realizes his own flaw has brought him to this low point. 3. Scene of suffering destructive or painful action such as a death on the stage, bodily agony, wounds, etc. (the suffering and final submission of the hero) 1. Greek Playwrights 3 Tragedians:

Euripides (480-406 B.C.) expresses weariness and disillusion of wartorn years at the end of the 5th century. Concern for realism and a determination to expose social, political, and religious injustices. He believes in the existence of irrational forces (gods), but he does not deem them worthy of respect (therefore, he was charged for impiety). Shows man as he is. Wrote 90 plays including Medea, Hippolytus, The Trojan Women, and Electra. Aeschylus (525-456 B.C.) earliest writer of Greek tragedy. Wrote about 80 plays most famous is Oresteia. Plays are deeply patriotic and religious. Aesychylus added a second actor to plays. Concerned with problems of guilt and punishment over several generations. Sophocles (496-406 B.C.) not concerned with problems of guilt and punishment over several generations; he dealt with a specific struggle of a strong individual against fate. Wrote single plays (rather than trilogies); Sophocles added a third actor, a fixed chorus size at 15, and used scene-printing. Wrote 100 plays including Ajax, Antigone, Oedipus Rex, Philoctetes.

One Comedy Writer: Aristophanes: greatest Greek writer of comedy. Wrote Clouds, Birds, Frogs, and Lysistrata. The Greek Theater 2 Main types of drama: tragedy and comedy. Theatrical events were performed annually at the festival of Dionysus, which lasted 5 or 6 days: the

Dionysis. Going to the theater was to take part in a religious ritual. Competition among writers: Each author submitted 4 plays (tetralogy) to be performed in one day (3 tragedies trilogy and a satyr play. Plots were religious and drawn from mythology (dealt with the relationship between humans and the divine). Actors wore masks, costumes, and raised shoes. Audiences were familiar with the stories. Knowing the story allowed for dramatic irony (situations or speeches that have one meaning to the plays characters but another for the audience, who knows more than the character Dramatic Unities Time 24 hours for the action of the

play. Place no change of scenery Action no subplot (an action which happens elsewhere is told by another character) Structure of Tragedy Prologue introductory section that gives the background (usually expository rather than dramatic) 2. Parados entrance of chorus; chorus chants more background to the story. 3. Episodes and Stasimon Action begins with the first episode (usually 5 episodes) followed by a parados (chorus). The choral odes are called stasima. 4. Kommos a lyrical song of lamentation sung between the dramatic characters and the chorus. Occurs when the tensions of the play have reached a climax.

5. Exodus the final action of the play. 2 common features: messenger speech and the deus ex machina, in which the deity is brought in to intervene in the action. The Chorus there is always a chorus in Greek tragedy. Chorus fulfills several functions: 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. Members sang, danced and played instruments Ideal audience responding to the action as the poet intended. Modulated the atmosphere and tone (representative of typical Athenian citizens conservative but not submissive) Questions new characters as to origin or purpose

Theater and Equipment Open air theater. The theater of Dionysus in Athens had more than 17,000 seats. Theatron the seats for the audience were arranged like a horseshoe in rising tiers. Orchestra circular area at ground level. Thymele an altar in the center of the orchestra to Dionysus on which sacrifices were made. Skene the scene building on the side of the orchestra that had a backdrop with doors for entrances and exits. Proscenium the level area in front of the skene for action of the play.

Technical equipment: Eccyclema wheeled platform rolled out of the skene to reveal action that had taken place indoors (very violent scenes) The machine mechanical contrivance to lower gods to the proscenium from the tope of the skene. Devices to imitate lightening and thunder. Painted scenery. Greek Theater Additional Reading From Elements of Literature, 4th course: Greek

Drama: Out of Ritual pp. 685- 687 The Myth of Oedipus pp. 688-689 Meet the Writer: Sophocles p. 738 What is a tragic hero? p. 739 From Edith Hamiltons Mythology: The 280 Royal House of Thebes pp. 266- Sophocles Antigone Set

in Thebes (a city in ancient Greece) Antigone is the daughter of Oedipus and Jocasta Antigones brothers, Eteokles and Polyneces, took opposite sides in a war Eteokles and Polyneces killed each other in battle Antigones uncle, Kreon, became king of Thebes Sophocles Antigone by Sophocles Summary: (see E. Hamiltons summary pp. 273-277)

Major conflict: Individual conscience at odds with established authority. Questions for discussion: When we know that those in power are morally wrong, do we break their laws, or do we collaborate with them by obeying? How important is doing the right thing? [What is right and what is wrong?] Cast of Characters: Scene: Antigone Before the

daughter palaceofofOedipus Creon, king and Jocasta of Thebes. A central double door and two side doors. A platform extends of theOedipus length of theJocasta stage, and from this platform three steps lead down Ismene daughter and into the orchestra, or chorus-ground.

Creon king of Thebes, uncle of Antigone and Ismene, brother of Jocasta Haimon Creons son, engaged to Antigone. Time: Dawn of the day after Eurydice Creons wife the repuls of the Argive army from the assault of Thebes. Teiresias a blind prophet Chorus made up of about fifteen elders of Thebes Choragus leader of the Chorus A Boy who leads Teiresias

A Sentry Guards Servants A Messenger Analysis of Structure: Episodes and odes have strong relationships. Odes should emphasize the same mood as the episode that precedes it. They also have an underlying theme. Explain how each ode comments upon the action of the episode which precedes it. Prologue Parados Episode 1 Ode 1 Episode 2 Ode 2 Episode 3

Ode 3 Episode 4 Ode 4 Episode 5 Paean Exodus Exodus (last lines) Example: The prologue contrasts Antigone and Ismene (foil characters) and mentions the family curse. The Parados comments on this curse by explaining how the curse has taken their two brothers. (Mood in the Parados shifts from grief to joy ironic) Antigone: Prologue and Parados Each character represents one side of the argument: individual conscience vs. established authority. On the left side, list three reasons why Antigone believes she must bury Polyneices. On the right side of the diagram, list three arguments Ismene uses to persuade Antigone that Polyneices must remain unburied.

Antigone Ismene 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 1. Based on the arguments above, how would you describe each characters personality? 2. With which character do you agree more? Why?

Antigone: Scene 1 and Ode 1 Do you sympathize with some characters and how they resolve internal conflicts, but not with others? Under each name, list an internal conflict with which that character struggles and write your reasons for supporting or disagreeing with the characters resolution of that conflict. Antigone The Sentry Conflict Conflict Your View Your View

Ismene King Creon Conflict Conflict Your View Your View Antigone: Scene 2 and Ode 2 Irony is the contrast or discrepancy between expectation and reality. In verbal irony a speaker says one thing but means the opposite. In situational irony what actually happens is the opposite of what is expected or appropriate. Dramatic irony occurs when the reader or the audience knows something or important that a

character does not know. Identify examples of irony in this scene. Type and example (lines that Explanation: demonstrate the irony): Dramatic irony: Verbal irony: _________: Antigone: Scene 3 and Ode 3 Figurative language imaginatively describes one thing in terms of another. For example, Haimon says that his father is in a public brawl of justice. He does not literally mean that Creon and some person named Justice are trading blows. He uses the word brawl figuratively, to create a picture of Creons actions. In the chart below, write a sentence or two describing each character with a figurative comparison. Character

Antigone Creon Haimon The Choragus Figurative Description Give one example of how figurative language is used in Scene 3 to create an image. Then discuss what the image conveys about a characters action. Antigone: Scene 4, Scene 5, Paean, and Exodus More on Irony. Use the chart below to illustrate the use of irony in the final scenes. For each line listed, summarize the ironic contrast. The first one has been completed for you as an example. Scene and Line What is said or expected What is actually true or will actually happen

Scene 5, line 5 Creon says he always listens He failed to listen to Haimon and to public opinion, and he will not listen to Teiresias either. Scene 4, lines 51-52 Scene 4, line 57 Scene 4, line 58 Scene 5, line 6 Scene 5, lines 52-53 Scene 5, line 68 Exodus, lines 88-90 How does the use of irony enhance the argument that fate rules the lives of the characters?

Role of Women Women in most city-states of ancient Greece had very few rights. They were under the control and protection of their father, husband, or a male relative for their entire lives. Women had no role in politics. Women with any wealth did not work. They stayed indoors running their households. The only public job of importance for a woman was as a religious priestess. Marriage: Marriages in ancient Greece were arranged by the parents of the intended bride and groom. A financial arrangement was made between the families in the form of a dowry. Girls married between the ages of fourteen to eighteen, while typically men married in their twenties or even thirties. Spartan men continued to live in the

barracks, even after the wedding, until they reached the age of thirty when they could move home with their wives. Terms to know: Loaded Words words that carry heavy emotional overtones. Catalyst character and/or event that initiates the transformation of another character and/or event. (brings about change) Foil character who, by contrast, sets off or defines another.

Kommos - the emotional lyric between actors and chorus in ancient Greek tragedy. Tone the attitude a writer takes towards his subject. Aphorism a short, wise saying.

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