Greek Philosophy

Greek Philosophy

GREEK PHILOSOPHY BIOGRAPHY OF SOCRATES 469 399 B.C. Philosopher of Athens Married to Xanthippe One of the founders of western philosophy Very wise man, Plato was one of his students He never recorded anything or wrote it down, only passed information on to his students He questioned the gods and whether objective goodness could exist Trial of Socrates: 2 charges, corrupting the youth and impiety, discussed in Platos The Republic

Sentenced to death : drank hemlock and died at the age of 71 3 BIOGRAPHY OF PLATO Plato was born to upper class parents in Athens around 427 BC (The 88 th Olympiad) Was chosen to be a student in Law due to the familys close relation to Solon, the lawgiver of Athens Became a disciple of Socrates at the age of 20, developing his passion for Philosophy Plato traveled across the Mediterranean, going to Sicily, Persia, and other Greek lands Unlike Socrates, he was loved by all of Athens, garnering attention from nearly all citizens Would later go on to teach Aristotle in his Academy Died between 348 and 347 BC

It is unclear how Plato died, some sources saying he died in his sleep while others say he died at a wedding feast. 3: PLATONIC AND SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY The philosophy of the two men are difficult to discern from each other due to Platos apprenticeship and Socrates refusal to write or record any of his work The most important contribution from Socrates is the described Socratic Method, a method of solving problems by breaking the problem down into questions and answering each question, much like the Scientific Method Plato published his theories in the form of dialogues, usually using the

character Socrates, leading to confusion as to who originally developed these theories Plato was one of the first to publish work on the philosophic theory of Realism, often called Platonism due to his contributions Platonic Realism is the ontological belief that metaphysical abstractions (i.e. gods, called universals by Plato) exist independent to the existence of humanity PLATONIC AND SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY (CONT.) Platos epistemological theories was heavily intertwined with his theory of Realism Plato believed that the original soul given to a human held all knowledge, but the knowledge was lost when the human was born, leaving everything to be re-learned by the human during

its life Platos theories of society were inspired heavily by Socrates and were mainly depicted in Platos greatest work, The Republic The Republic is a complex Socratic dialogue that discusses everything from the meaning and definition of justice, the social contracts between government and the people, forms of government, and Platos view of the problem of universals. The dialogue is told through the character Plato calls Socrates The problem of universals is the question of whether properties (an attribute of an object i.e. redness) actually exist or are created by humans BIOGRAPHY OF ARISTOTLE

Probably born in 384 BC His father was the doctor of the King of Macedonia and started educating Aristotle in science and medicine Aristotle was 15 when Socrates was executed under Athenian law, making his teacher, Plato, 43 years old Aristotles parents died when he was young and was raised by his uncle who sent him to Platos Academy at the age of 18 Despite Aristotles status as the brightest student in the academy, ownership was given to Platos nephew After leaving the Academy, Aristotle traveled the Mediterranean, bringing him to Atarneus, where he would marry the niece of the King, an alumni of the Academy Aristotle would return to Athens and form his own school, Lyceum, where he would teach Alexander the Great Aristotle would eventually leave Athens and seek refuge in Calchus after the fall of Alexanders Empire, claiming, "I will not allow the Athenians to sin twice against philosophy, Aristotle would eventually die of natural causes in his mothers home in Calchus in 322 BC

ARISTOTELIAN PHILOSOPHY Aristotle expanded on the Socratic Method, taught to him by his mentor, Plato It eventually developed into the Scientific Method we use today Aristotle also expanded on Platos work in the metaphysical field of Universals. The Aristotelian view of Universals is that they exist intertwined with our dimension, contrasting with Platos belief that Universals exist independent of our world. Aristotle would eventually move from metaphysical philosophy to what he called natural philosophy, studying the physical phenomena that occur in the natural world This branch of philosophy would eventually develop into the study of Physics,

Biology, Geology, and other natural sciences Aristotle divided his fields of study into Logic, Theoretical BIBLIOGRAPHY "Socrates." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition (2013): 1. MAS Ultra - School Edition. Web. 16 Aug. 2013. Kremer, Mark. "Socratic Philosophy And The Cleitophon." Review Of Politics 62.3 (2000): 479. MAS Ultra School Edition. Web. 16 Aug. 2013. "Socrates." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition (2013): 1. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 17 Aug. 2013. Richard, Kraut. "Socrates." Britannica Biographies (2012): 1. MAS Ultra - School Edition. Web. 17 Aug. 2013. "Socrates." Calliope 21.4 (2011): 11. MAS Ultra - School Edition. Web. 17 Aug. 2013. Ritchie, David George. Plato,. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1902. Archive. Web. 18 Aug. 2013. Kahn, Charles H. Plato and the Socratic dialogue: the philosophical use of a literary form. Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Downey, Ed. "Aristotle." Aristotle (2006): 1. MAS Ultra - School Edition. Web. 16 Aug. 2013. Nederman, Cary J. "The Puzzle Of The Political Animal: Nature And Artifice In Aristotle's Political Theory." Review Of Politics 56.2 (1994): 283. MAS Ultra - School Edition. Web. 16 Aug. 2013. Armstrong, D. M. A Theory of Universals. Cambridge [etc.: Cambridge UP, 1978. Web. Rist, John M. Plato's Moral Realism: The Discovery of the Presuppositions of Ethics. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America, 2012. Web. Da Urbino, Raphael Sanzio. The School of Athens. 1510. Apostolic Palace, Vatican City.Wikimedia Commons. Web. 18 Aug. 2013. David, Jacques-Louis. The Death of Socrates. 1787. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, USA. Wikimedia Commons. Web. 18 Aug. 2013.

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