Grammatical Terminology

Grammatical Terminology

Grammatical Terminology Espaol V/SPA 204 1. Infinitive The most basic form of a verb Equivalent to to + action in English Identifiable in Spanish by the endings: -AR, -ER, -IR Examples: Hablar: to talk, speak Comer: to eat

Vivir: to live Subject The person(s) or thing(s) doing the action in a sentence. It can be left out of a sentence if previous information tells us who is doing the action. Example: Mara habla mucho. Mara talks a lot. Habla con sus amigos.

(She) talks with her friends. Los perros comen la carne. The dogs eat meat. Comen cada da. (They) eat everyday. Subject pronoun A subject pronoun replaces the noun who is doing the action in a sentence Example: Mara habla mucho. Ella habla mucho. Loss perros comen. Ellos comen.

Verb A verb is the action in a sentence. Examples: Juan corre rpidamente. Juan runs quickly. Los alumnos aprenden. The students learn. Adjective Describes a noun and usually comes after the noun Examples:

Ella es una profesora estricta. She is a strict teacher. Es un chico rubio. He is a blonde boy.. Los exmenes son difciles. The tests are difficult. To conjugate To change the verb to a form to match the subject doing the action Examples: Hablar=to talk, speak

Yo hablo espaol. I speak Spanish. Ella habla alemn. She speaks German. Sentence a grammatical unit of one or more words that expresses an independent statement, question, request, command, exclamation, etc., and that typically has a subject as well as a predicate... (Source: www.dictionary.com) Examples:

Juan estudia. Juan studies. Juan=subject estudia=verb Ellos nadan. They swim. Ellos=subject nadan=verb Number Refers to whether a noun or adjective is singular or plural Examples: Singular nouns: el chico la chica

Plural nouns: los chicos las chicas Singular adjectives: alto alta Plural adjectives: altos altas Gender Indicates whether a noun or adjective is masculine or feminine General rule:

Most nouns/adjectives that end in o are masculine (Ex: alumno, bueno, maestro, loco) Most nouns/adjectives that end in a are feminine (Ex: alumna, buena, maestra, loca) Noun/Adjective agreement An adjective must agree in number and gender with the noun(s) it describes Examples: La chica es alta. (chica= feminine, singular noun; feminine, singular adjective)

Los chicos son altos. (chicos= masucline, plural noun; altos = masculine, plural adjective) Subject/Verb Agreement The verb ending must be in the form to match the subject(s) doing the action. Each verb has its own conjugation ending to match each subject pronoun. Examples: Yo hablo.

T hablas. Ella habla. Nosotros hablamos. Ellas hablan. Stem/Root The part of the verb that remains after removing the AR, -ER or IR ending from the infinitive. Examples:

hablar - ar = habl comer er = com vivir ir = viv Regular/Irregular verb A Regular verb is one that follows the set rules of conjugation: Remove the AR, -ER or IR ending, leaving the stem To the stem add the corresponding endings assigned to each subject pronoun for the verb

tense being used Regular/Irregular verb Examples: Hablar (regular present tense conjugation) Yo hablo nosotros/as} hablamos T hablas l}ellos} Ella} habla ellas} hablan Ud.} Uds.}

Regular/Irregular verb comer como comemos comes come comen Regular/Irregular verb

vivir vivo vivivimos vives vive viven Regular/Irregular verb

An Irregular Verb is one that does not follow the given set of rules for conjugation. It may have a spelling change in one or more forms, a stem change or may not resemble the infinitive at all. -AR verbs have the fewest irregularities, -ER a few more, and IR verbs have the most irregularities Regular/Irregular verb Example:

Ir (present tense conjugation) Yo voy nosotros/as vamos T vas l}ellos} Ella} va ellas} van Ud. Uds.} Regular/Irregular verb ser

venir traer Common Irregular Verbs in the Present Indicative Tense ir dar decir ver tener estar hacer poner caber haber salir or

Present Tense (indicative) Describes: What happens What is happening What does happen What will happen in the (near) future Present Tense (indicative) Example: Ella camina.

She walks. (what happens) She does walk. (what does happen) She is walking. (what is happening) She will walk. (near future, i.e. this afternoon) Formal/Informal Formal: Usted (Ud). is the pronoun for you (singular) when talking to a stranger, boss, authority figure, someone with whom you must use a title, such as Seor (Sr), Seora (Sra), Seorita

(Srta), Doctor/a(Dr(a)). Formal/Informal T is the pronoun for you (singular) used with people with whom you are on a first name basis, e.g. family, friends, classmates, colleagues, peers, etc. Formal/Informal Ustedes (Uds). is the pronoun used for you-all (plural) in Latin America for both formal and

informal situations. However, in Spain there is a distinction. Vosotros/as is the informal pronoun used for you-all, whereas Uds. is used only for formal situations. Formal/Informal Formal Titles of Respect Seor (Sr.): Mister (Mr.), Sir Seorita (Srta.): Miss, Ms. Seora (Sra.): Misses (Mrs.), Maam

La Seo: Ms. Formal/Informal Informal Titles of Respect (used with first names) Don: used with males (no English translation equivalent) Doa: used with females(no English translation equivalent) Examples: Don Juan Doa Mara Interrogatives

Interrogatives are question words. Quin?/Quines? Who, whom A quin/A quines? To whom De quin/De quines? Of/From whom Para quin/Para quines? For whom Interrogatives Qu? De qu?

What Of/from what Por qu? Why Para qu? For what (purpose)

Interrogatives Dnde? Adnde? De dnde? Where To where Of/from where Interrogatives

Cundo? When Cunto?/Cunta? Cuntos?/Cuntas? Cul?/Cules? How much/how many Which/which one(s)

Interrogatives Cmo? How Interrogatives Examples: Quines son las chicas nuevas? Who are the new girls? A quin escribes la carta?

To whom are you writing the letter? De quin es el libro? Whose book is it? Para quin es el regalo? For whom is the gift? Interrogatives Qu comes? Como una pizza. De qu es la botella? Es de plstico.

Por qu estudias? Estudio porque quiero sacar buenas notas. Para qu es un lpiz? Es para escribir. Interrogatives Dnde vives? Vivo en Nueva York. Adnde van ellos? Van a la biblioteca. De dnde es Paco?

Paco es de Guatemala. Interrogatives Cundo sales para la escuela? Salgo a las siete. Cunto cuesta el libro de historia? Cuesta veinte dlares. Cuntas chicas hay en la clase? Hay quince chicas. Cul clase es tu favorita? Mi clase favorita es espaol.

Cognate/False Cognate A cognate is a word in Spanish that looks and/ or sounds like a similar word in English and has the same meaning Examples: Animal = animal Familia = family mam = mother telfono = telephone

Cognate/False Cognate A false cognate is a word in Spanish that looks and/or sounds like a similar word in English but has a different meaning. Example: Embarazada = pregnant colegio = high school Librera = bookstore experimentar = to experience Word Order

In Spanish, word order rules can be different than the word order rules in English 1. Adjectives follow Nouns Es una casa roja. (It is a red house). 2. Object pronouns usually precede the conjugated verb. Nos gusta el gato. (The cat is pleasing to us). Stem-changing Verbs (a.k.a boot/shoe/whale verbs) Stem changing verbs have a spelling change in their

stem. In the present tense, there are 4 types: o:ue, e:ie, e:i and u:ue Example: Poder puedo podemos puedes puede

pueden Stem-changing Verbs (a.k.a boot/shoe/whale verbs) Common e:ie stem-changing verbs of the Present Indicative Tense: recomendar despertarse querer empezar divertirse sentarse comenzar

encender sentirse pensar entender sugerir confesar perder defender preferir Stem-changing Verbs

(a.k.a boot/shoe/whale verbs) Common o:ue stem-changing verbs of the Indicative Tense acordarse dormir recordar acostarse encontrar resolver almorzar morir soler colgar mostrar soar contar mover volver costar probar poder Present

Stem-changing Verbs (a.k.a boot/shoe/whale verbs) Common e:i stem-changing verbs of the Present Indicative Tense pedir servir despedirse sonrer impedir vestirse rer repetir

Stem-changing Verbs (a.k.a boot/shoe/whale verbs) The only u:ue stem-changing verb of the Present Indicative Tense jugar Acabar de + infinitive Expression used to express someone just done/finished doing something. Example:

Acabamos de hacer la tarea. We just finished the homework. Ir + a + infinitive Used to express what someone is going to do Example: Voy a comer el almuerzo. I am going to eat lunch. Present participle Equivalent to the ing verb form in English

Present participle Formation: -AR verbs: stem + ando Example: hablando = talking, speaking Present participle -ER and IR verbs: Stem + iendo Examples:

Comer: comiendo Vivir: viviendo Present participle Irregulars (examples) Diciendo pudiendo Pidiendo prefiriendo Sirviendo repitiendo Leyendo viniendo Creyendo trayendo Oyendo yendo

Present Progressive Tense Used to express an action currently in progress Formation: Estar (present tense) + present participle Examples: Estoy hablando. I am talking/speaking. Ests comiendo. You are eating. Estamos decidiendo. We are deciding.

Verb Tense Expresses when in time an action happens/happened Indicative Tenses (Factual) Present Present progressive Past (preterite, imperfect, perfect tenses) Future Conditional Subjunctive Tenses (Hypothetical) Present subjunctive

Past (Imperfect) subjunctive Spelling Change Verb A verb that has a spelling (orthographic) change to the stem in one or more conjugations. The change may occur to avoid a tripthong or for preservation of sound. Examples: Preterite: yo jugu (ggu)sound preservation Preterite: ella ley (iy)-----avoids a tripthong

Preterite A past verb tense that expresses a completed past action. Also used to express: Specific time or number of times an action occurred When an action began or ended Interrupted an ongoing past action Series of completed past actions Imperfect A past tense used to express habitual or ongoing

past actions. Also expresses: What someone used to do What someone was doing Background information /sets the scene Descriptions Weather Mental and physical sensations Age Telling the time Reflexive verbs

Used to express what one does for oneself (daily routines) Me lavo el pelo. I wash my hair. Often have a non-reflexive counterpart, but the meanings are not the same Duermo. I sleep. Me duermo. I fall asleep.

Can be used as passive voice La depresin se experimenta por milliones de personas. Depression is experienced by millions of people. Impersonal se expresses what one does/should Se habla espaol. Spanish is spoken here. Reflexive verbs Reciprocal se (also nos) refers to each other Juan y Pedro se hablan a menudo.

Juan and Pedro talk to each other often. --Lola y yo nos visitamos durante los veranos. Lola and I visit each other during the summers. Can be identified in the infinitive form with endings arse, -erse, -irse lavarse --ponerse --vestirse

Reflexive Object Pronoun me = myself nos = ourselves te = yourself se = himself/herself/yourself se = themselves, yourselves Reflexive Object Pronoun

Me lavo el pelo. I wash my hair. Nos lavamos las manos. We wash our hands. Te lavas la cara. You wash your face. Ella se lava los pies. Ellos se lavan las orejas. She washes her feet. They wash their ears.

Diacritical Accent Marks Accent marks whose omission or inclusion changes the meaning of the word el = the si = if papa = potato tu = your l = he s = yes

pap = father t = you Future Tense Expresses future events that are probable and further away in time (NOTE: near future events use present indicative tense OR ir + a + infinitive) Formation: Stem = infinitive Add the following endings to the stem:

emos s n Future Tense Viajar. I will travel. Leers. You will read.

l trabajar. He will work. Comeremos. We will eat. Uds. vern. You-all will see. Future Tense 12 irregular stems: tendrpondrpodrsaldrvaldrvendr- dirquerrcabrsabrhabrhar- Conditional Tense

Expresses what would/could happen Also used for making polite requests Formation: Stem = infinitive Add the following endings to the stem: a amos as a an * Same irregular stems as in Future tense Conditional Tense

Yo llorara. I would (could) cry. Cocinaras. You would (could) cook. Ella vera. She would (could) see. Iramos. We would (could) go. Ayudaran Uds? Would (could) you-all help?

Clause Contains a subject and a predicate. May be a complete sentence OR part of a sentence that cannot stand alone as a complete sentence. Clause as a complete sentence: John eats ice cream. Subject = John Verb = eats Predicate = eats ice cream Clause

Clause that cannot stand alone as a sentence Carmen hopes that Dora travels safely. There are 2 clauses in this example: 1. Carmen hopes (this could be a complete sentence on its own) 2. that Dora travels safely. (this cannot stand alone as a sentenceit is dependent upon the previous clause) Clause Carmen hopes (this could be a complete sentence on

its own) subject = Carmen verb = hopes predicate = hopes Clause that Dora travels safely. (this cannot stand alone as a sentenceit is dependent upon the information in the previous clause) subject = Dora

verb = travels predicate = travels safely Direct Object Pronoun the who or what receiving the action substituted with a pronoun Bob eats pizza. Bob eats it. pizza = direct object

it = direct object pronoun Bob come pizza. Bob la come. pizza = direct object la = direct object pronoun Direct Object Pronoun me me

te you lo him, it la her, it nos us los them lasthem Direct Object Pronoun Placement: Before the conjugated verb

Bob la come. Bob eats it (pizza). Attached to the end of an infinitive Bob va a comerla. Bob is going to eat it. Attached to the end of the present participle Bob est comindola. Bob is eating it. Attached to the end of an affirmative command Bob, cmela! Bob, eat it!

Indirect Object Pronoun To or for whom the action is being done me to/for me te to/for you nos le to/for him/her/you to/for us les to/for them/you-all

*Placement rules are the same as for Direct Object Pronouns Indirect Object Pronoun Linda me da el regalo. Linda gives the gift to me. Juan te paga. Juan is paying for you. Indirect Object Pronoun

The IOP is often repeated with a prepositional phrase to repeat/clarify/emphasize to or for whom the action is being done. Linda me da el regalo a m. Linda gives the gift to me. Juan te paga por ti. Juan is paying for you. Adverb Indicates how and when an action takes place 3 types:

1. adjective (fem) + -mente 2. con + noun 3. adverbial expressions (time, frequency, how) Adverb 1. adjective (fem) + -mente contentocontentacontentamente interesanteinteresanteinteresantemente popularpopularpopularmente Adverb

2. con + noun con frecuencia = frequently (with frequency) con felicidad = happily (with happiness) con cuidado = carefully (with care) Adverb 3. adverbial expressions a menudo often

a tiempo on time a veces sometimes de vez en cuando now and then; once in a while

en aquel entonces at that time en el acto immediately; on the spot Adverb a escondidas

secretly a propsito on purpose apenas hardly; scarcely

as like this; like so; in this way bastante sufficiently casi almost

de costumbre usually hbilmente skillfully de improviso

unexpectedly por casualidad by chance

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