Global Warming how to help slow it down Dr. Sandra Cruz-Pol Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering CLiMMATe Lab Director (Cloud Microwave Measurements of ATmospheric Events) UPRM-PI for the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA)
UPRM Campus Verde 2009 This presentation can be found at: http://ece.uprm.edu/~pol/outreach ______________________________ Materials for Teachers: http://ece.uprm.edu/~pol/maestros
*Please give proper credit. Documentales recomendados: 1. The Story of Stuff : 20 mins, free @ www.storyofstuff.com 2. Too Hot not to Handle: 50min 3. Who Killed the Electric Car?4. An Inconvenient Truth5. Renewable Energy 6. Human Footprint- National Geographic, YouTube 7. Home, available on the web (1.5 hrs)
Global warming. . . 1. Is not a Theory; is a Fact.* 2. Is happening right now* 3. Scientific consensus: is caused mainly beause of human activity, like emissions of CO2.* 4. Some of its consequences are irreversibles!* * According to the most recent report of the
UN-IPCC 4th 2007. Coasts of Puerto Rico If we continue with business as usual Human Activities For example: CO2 emissions to the atmosphere: cars, electricity,
water Deforestation construction Contamination other emitted gases like Methane, NOx Global Warming Lake Chad Was the 6th largest lake in the World!
A study by U. Wisconsin-Madison and NASA's EOS, the lake is now 1/20th of the size it was 35 years ago. W. Africa (Chad, Niger, Nigeria, & Cameroon), the region has suffered
from an increasingly dry climate, experiencing decline in rain since early 1960s. We are causing Extreme poverty in Africa due to our emissions which accounts for 25% of all world emissions compared to Africas 3%.
The Ethical Dimension of Climate Change "If sea levels rise at the rates they are predicting, we may see hundreds of millions of refugees" "Where will they go? Who will take them in? What does it mean about immigration regulations?" "The future will be catastrophic for all communities, for all countries, but particularly for those who have already been identified as
particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change," Specially small island states which might disappear entirely under the rising ocean. "It is a moral obligation, beyond political obligation or economic obligation, to help countries like Tuvalu and small island developing states, and of course the least developed countries," "We have to do something urgently." Social impacts Sub-Saharan Africa produces
about 3% of the worlds greenhouse gases, yet Its climate and ecological systems have already been altered by global warming and will undergo further damage in the years ahead. Demonstrators in Nairobi, Kenya, protest failure of
www.un.org developed countries to curb A 2006 report by economist Sir Nicholas Stern suggests that global warming could shrink the
global economy by 20%! CO2 in the atmosphere Years: 1960-2000 CO2 in Atmosphere Years: 1000 -2100
ICE AGE, T was only 6oC Global average temperature Years: 1860-2000
} Cold due to sulfuric emissions: (1940-1970) which caused lung cancer, asthma & acid rain Clean Air Act Several scenarios En estas grficas se compara los
modelos naturales y antropognicos con las medidas reales. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/ shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/ climate_change/html/ climate.stm
Adverse Consequences of global warming: Polar caps melt Sea level rise
Water (potable) scarcity Extinction of animal species, corals, vegetation Worst case scenario: stop ocean conveyor belt Worst Case Scenario: abrupt change IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
Due to change in salinity, if Artic keeps melting, this current could stop, creating a small ice age in Europe and North America.
Worst case scenario: Ocean conveyor belt stops Due to change in salinity, if Artic keeps melting, this current could stop, creating a small ice age in Europe and North America. [IPCC] Kilimanjaro (Tanzania, Africa)
30 years later Patagonia (Argentina) Longest Glacier in S.A. 1928 2004 Costa Rica
First official lost species due to Global warming: golden toad Female Male Not so PERMAfrost Erosin de las playas
Rincn antes Puerto Rico antes antes
Crditos: Prof. Aurelio Mercado, Ciencias Marinas Rincn despus Crditos: Prof. Aurelio Mercado, Ciencias Marinas Luquillo Crditos: Prof. Aurelio Mercado, Ciencias Marinas
Icebergs with caves = broken food chain 60% of krill population killed because of this. Krill are small shrimp-like crustaceans zooplankton,
food for baleen whales, mantas, whale sharks, seals, and a few seabird species Asuntos Polticos Oil Industry : lobbyist Gobiernos alterando evidencia cientfica (e.g. NASA climatlogo, Jim Hansen)
Costo real de energa Nuclear versus costo de energa limpia como solar o viento Riesgos de salud, desperdicios radioactivos Carro Elctrico tecnologa desde 1995, destruido en 2003. On top of this New blooming
economies want to live their own version of the American Dream. Example: in China, the traditional bicycle lane was closed to lay way to an extra automobile lane. India is now also flourishing economically and greatly increasing their CO2 emissions. World Population Growth
2000 6 1987 It took all human history to reach 1 billion in 1800. 5 1975 4
3 1930 2 1800 1 0 10,000 BC
5,000 BC Year 0 1000 2000 billions
1960 The Good News is that we can make a difference While saving $$$ Ahorra $$$, Salva el
planeta Everytime we use: electricy gasoline products water We send emissions to the atmosphere that warms it more.
Water Puerto Rico Puerto Rico Dry Season Wet Season
In PR global warming is expected to decrease rain by 10-20%! Water When we save water, we save $ and CO2 emissions Buy shower head of 1.6gpm
Paper use Print on both sides, minimize color. Use recycle paper, 100% post-consumer Cancel Catalogs Subscribe to online magazines, Pay online
Avoid millions of tree from being chop down Zinio.co m Reforestati on Plant trees Lower your home temperature up to 10F!,
Increase value of your property! Reduce CO2 emissions *El Fideicomiso te regala 200 rboles gratis! Small changes, make a big difference: Products
Buy Less! Consumerism is affecting the environment immensely. Save Money! Products generate emissions when manufactured. Generate trash, toxics. Many cant be recycled Are designed to last little to make you buy more. If DEMAND goes down, PRODUCTIN goes down This is why REDUCE is sooo important.
www.thestoryofstuff.com Rechargable Batteries (4 AA + 4 AAA) Saves $100+ for each one! *
*Las recargables de pueden usar entre 100 a 1000 veces dependiendo del tipo, y cuesta slo par de centavos recargarlas. Nunca eches ningn tipo de batera al zafacn, tienen muchos txicos que daan el ambiente. Recclalas en OfficeMax, RUM, y otros centros de acopio. Dont throw batteries in the trash! They contain many toxics, heavy metals like mercury that poison our water, when
it rains on the landfills. Recycle them. Use rechargable batteries. Save $100 on EACH!. Busca la lista de centros de acopio de bateras en http://campusverde.uprm.edu Styrofoam Generate many toxic gases & CO2 during their production.
Are NOT biodegradable, are prohibited in many cities in the U.S. Styrofoam cuesta $$$ Avoid using disposable dinnerware (Styrofoam , Plsticos o Papel) *Vajilla = $7k=10k monthly savings @RUM Cafeteria. Eat less Meat
Methane gas is 20x stronger than CO2 Could be captured and used as fuel. Landfields produce it. Cattle farms produce it. raising animals for food generates more greenhouse gases
than all the cars and trucks in the world combined. 2006 U.N. report According to a 2006 study by U. of Chicago; Eating a vegan diet prevents the equivalent of 1.5 tons of CO 2 emissions every year, more than the 1 ton of CO2 emissions prevented by switching from a typical large sedan to a Toyota Prius. So why does meat cause so much global warming? Growing feed for farmed animals requires intense use of synthetic fertilizer, which releases N2O a far stronger greenhouse gas than even CO2 .
The tens of billions of farmed animals of the world produce massive amounts of flatulence and liquid manure, which release large amounts of methane into the atmosphere as well as forming nitrous oxide, both of which are powerful green house gases. Heating buildings that house farm animals emission of green house gases "Rearing Cattle Produces More Greenhouse Gases Than Driving Cars, UN Report Warns," UN News Centre, 29 Nov. 2006. Agua necesaria para producir una libra de: 7000
Libras de Agua Necesarias 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0
carne papas trigo maz http://www.usatoday.com/news/graphics/plastics/flash.htm
arroz The Water link To produce 1 lb of MEAT You need 1,000-12,000 lbs of Water! To produce 1 lb of potatoes, wheat, corn and rice You need 60, 108, 168, 229 pounds
of water, respectively According to a 2006 study by U. Chicago; Changing to vegetarian saves more emisions (1.5 tons CO2 annual) Than changing from a large car to a Toyota Prius! (ahorro 1 ton de CO2 anual) Recycla, Reuse , Reduce:
Centro de reciclaje en Cabo Rojo: WR Recycling Inc. Carr103 Km 2.3 Bajura Cabo Rojo 538-1486, 255-4772 Compra Aluminio, vidrio y cartn No acepta plsticos. Oil Energy 832-5757 Recicla aceite usado
Ponce Resources en Mayaguez 824-3503 CC Reciclaje del Norte, Hatillo Carr2 Km 88.1, 262-0305 What should I buy? Reduced packaging Concentrated Products *All packages need large amounts
of energy to be produces, and many emit tons of CO2 in the atmosphere annually. X3 x1 Compost Recycle leaves, and
other waste Its better for your health and the environment. Organic food (better health, less Br) What should I buy? A fiberglass pool
employs 1/3 of the energy than a concrete pool. Save Mbytes! Saves materials & energy How? Cut each Picture, then Paste Special in
JPG or GIF Format. OR> Right-click on figure, press Format Figure, Compress , All, or change with Paste Special to Jpeg or gif Format. Save a lot of space on your USB memory sticks! Up to 20x!! Gasoline Increase your MPG
[MPG = miles per gallon] Car Accelaration optimum smaller MPG MPG
Pression on pedal Dont press gas pedar too much. Learn to drive at optimum accelaration. Improve your MPG Optimum Speed
1. Use minimum acceleration 2. Drive less, combine trips 3. Dont leave your car on > 1min 4. Remove excess loads 5. Park on the shade 6. Tune-up your car & keep tires inflated 7. Consider a hybrid car 8. Turn off A/C when driving uphill & in good weather 9. Avoid holes
10. Use Overdrive *http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_vehicles/fuel_economy/ practical-driving-tips.html Every gallon saves 20 pounds of CO2 emissions! Whats the optimum speed? Respect speed limits and save $ Velocidad ptima
55 Hybrids Cars Save $6,000 in 5 years* Takes into account initial costs and gas cost at $0.65 per gasoline liter.
Electricit y DMSP Puerto Rico used 3 times more electricity per person than in Spain! Yet, quality of life is not better. Electric appliances use electricity
even when turned off. Theyre called Phamton Loads! Some examples Sum of the phantom loads is 55W, which is 40 kWh/mo! Save $5 - $50 a month
when: unplug appliances when not using them. Use a power strip to connect several appliances then you can turn them off all at the same time. Turn off printer & speakers when
not in use. Unplugged them every night. Computers Turn off PC if you will not use it in 1hr or more. Dont let the
adaptor plugged in!!! Cellphone chargers Dont leave the charger connected! Uses 70-95% of the energy as if
charging. Inside of an adapter Myth vs. Reality: turning on and off appliances, damages them. FALSE! That was 2 decades ago. Unplug and save!
What should I buy? a laptop uses 1/3 of the electricity of a desktop! versus And it doesnt need a UPS. What should I buy? Plasma
LCD LCD uses 1/3 less energy than a Plasma TV! Compact fluorescent Lights (CFL) Save $150 per lightbulb during its life
Use 1/4 electricity. Last 10 times more. www.energystar.gov/ia/business/bulk_purchasing/bpsavings_calc/Calc_CFLs.xls A/C If you use air conditioner, set the temperature 1-2 degrees less cold, this will save $ and many emissions. A window fan
brings in fresh air from outside. Save $25 /month for each A/C unit! What should I buy? Its worth buy appliances that are energy efficient.
Compare! Saves $10-60/ mo. each!! What should I buy? A solar water heater Saves $40-$100/mo. Lasts 30+ years!
What should I buy? GAS appliances save $25-$50/month! Using a clothlines, saves even more. Electric Bill: AEE(house of 4) Average Consumption:
$260 1390 kWh Electric Bill: : After eliminationg Electric phamtons & changing some CFL $195 (1160 kWh)
Electric Bill: After using 3 fans instead of 3 A/C $113 (690 kWh) Electric Bill: Factura de AEE:
After installing a solar water heater $74 (400 kWh) Every day solutions
Living Green is about changing our patterns of consumption and seeking out greener, natural and ethical alternatives to every conceivable type of product and service. Its about buying more wisely, consuming less, wasting less, thinking through the consequences of our purchases. Its about reducing our impact on the planet
and our fellows by making choices that are better for us, better for the environment, and better for other people. It doesnt preach, but it does show that there is a way forward to one-planet, sustainable living, a means to combat climate change and a way to protect the worlds scarce resources. http://www.greenguide.co.uk/
haz la diferencia deja tu huella Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere We only have ONE planet. Lets use its
resources efficiently so that we can all benefit from it. Its our moral responsability Dont eat pesticides!
nor herbicides, fertilizers chemicals or insecticides. These chemicals damage the ozone layer and emit GHG. Por qu Orgnico? Son productos sembrados sin fertilizantes qumicos, plaguicidas, herbicidas ni insecticidas. Slo composta e insecticidas naturales. Los pesticidas artificiales contienen Bromuro:
el cual daa la capa de ozono y empeora el Calentamiento Global. Los fertilizantes artificiales contienen Nitrgeno: el cual es un gas de invernadero y empeora el Calentamiento Global. Cleaning Products Usa productos de limpieza que no daen el
entorno natural. Evita usar cloro, y otros productos que daan el ambiente y a la larga nos envenenan nuestra salud y el entorno natural (fauna, flora, cuerpos de agua), causando asma, y otras enfermedades. Ahorras$$ usando: vinagre, polvo de soda, borax, limn para limpiar. Avoid plastic or
paper bags! Plastic bags are made out of petroleum, & take over 100 yrs to biodegrade. Were banned in Uganda, China & Irlanda. China will save 37 millions barrils of oil every year. Paper bags foment desforestation Less than 1% are recycled Damage wildlife. Usa bolsas re-usables
Las bolsas plsticas estn hechas de petrleo, y tardan ms de 100 aos en biodegradarse. Las prohibieron en Uganda, China e Irlanda. En China se ahorrarn anualmente 37
millones de barriles de petrleo debido a la prohibicin de las bolsas plsticas. En algunas tiendas si usas su bolsa de tela te devuelven dinero. (ej. Vitamin World te devuelve $1 cada vez que usas su bolsa de canvas en compras de $10 o ms). Anualmente, miles de tortugas, anguilas y otros animales mueren debido a que se comen
las bolsas plsticas y vasos plsticos creyendo que son agua viva. : o t O N y a
S DRY Cleaning Utiliza muchos qumicos (percloroetileno) que daan el sistema nervioso, afectando al trabajador de la lavandera y a tu salud. Adems contaminan el ambiente. Se ha relacionado a incidencia de cncer www.ehponline.org/docs/2005/8425/abstract.html :
o t O N y Sa Antibacterial soaps are helping to promote growth of resistant bacteria, according
to a 2000 World Health Organization report. Antibacterial Contribuye a que las bacterias creen resistencia a antibiticos (super bugs) : o l
a O N e l i D Desechabl e
Aumenta los desperdicios en el vertedero, por lo tanto a ms gas metano! El metano atrapa 20 veces ms calor en la atmsfera que el CO2 RECICLA BIEN: NO sorbetos NO vasos Slo plstico #1 y #2
We do not inherit the Earth from our ancestors. We borrow it from our children. - Native-american Proverb Book References:
The End of Poverty by Jeffrey Sachs Weather Makers by Tim Flannery
An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore The World is Flat by Thomas Friedman Global Warming by Chris Spence Pathologies of Power, Paul Farmer Mini Atlas of Global Development, The World Bank Economics of Climate Change, Sir Nick Stern Web References
The Art of Financial Projection. The Human Capital Risk Factors. The Evaluation of Human Capital. Identifying and Managing Risk. The role of human capital in the growth and development of new technology-based ventures, based on longitudinaldata from 198 high-tech ventures...
Proposal. Land owned locally with oversight provided by a responsible agency. Collins Model Aviators would be the host club, offering site owner liability insurance through their charter from the Academy of Model Aeronautics ("AMA").
(In GREEN) LE 45-7 Mammary glands, uterine muscles Hypothalamus Kidney tubules Oxytocin HORMONE TARGET ADH Posterior pituitary Neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus Axon Anterior pituitary Cytokines IL 1 - Helper T to Cytotoxic T Cell IL2 - Helper T to...
'Inspections find defect, while testing - which usually occurs one or more development phase after the opportunity to inspect has passed - finds only the symptoms' Priscilla Fowler, Software Engineering Institute. * * Inspection - Textbook Also called Formal Inspection,...
Credit agreements under NCA. Services supplied under employment contract. Clause 60 and 61 deals with unsafe goods. Apply to all goods introduced to the market, even when exempt. Other exemptions. ... Meaning of service. Accommodation e.g. restaurant or hotel.
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