Geology Midterm Review

Geology Midterm Review


chalcopyrite magnetite

Magnetic Heavy Metallic

Black streak galena 3= 90 cleavage

Metal heavy graphite

writes quartz

Most common mineral Scratches glass NMV Hexagonal crystals


Fizzes 3 90 cleavage Double refraction Soft

Main mineral in limestone and marble biotite

muscovite Flakey- 1 directional cleavage

Light in color halite Salty

3= 90 cleavage soft talc

kaolinite HEMATITE

Red streak Metal Heavy

Olivine green plagioclase

Scratches glass White 2 directional cleavage

K-feldspar (orthoclase) Pink Scratches glass 2= 90 cleavage

gypsum Soft; chalky

garnet Deep red Hard= 8

fluorite Soft Many colors; purple and green

4 directional cleavage chalcedony Microcrystalline quartz

White-blue Globby looking AMPHIBOLE

Hornblende Dark black Hardness 6

PYROXENE Dark green to black augite

Amphibole vs. pyroxene IGNEOUS ROCKS


Intrusive igneous Cooled slowly

Felsic Has quartz, plag., biotite, K-feld, hornblende

Formed underground (dikes, sills, batholiths)


black granite Intrusive

Mafic Formed underground (dikes, sills, batholiths)

Granites mafic cousin rhyolite Felsic

extrusive Rhyolite porphyry

This rhyolite is usually on the test!! basalt

Extrusive Mafic Shield volcanoes

From runny lava flows Pahoehoe and Aa are types of basalt

andesite Andesite Porphyry

Contains plag From strato volcanoes (extrusive) pegmatite

Coarse granite diorite Salt and pepper


conglomerate Round pebbles sandstone

Gritty From beach/desert clastic

shale Fine clastic From mud

dolostone Looks like limestone Slow fizz


Bioclastic From swamps

Organic lightweight Fossiliferous limestone



Chemical precipitate Forms in deep ocean From dissolved shells

Oolitic limestone siltstone Like shale

Not as flat Metamorphic

Gneiss Banded (striped) Foliated Parent rock- granite



Highly reflective May have garnets Amphibole- black sparkly

Mica schist slate

Metamorphosed shale foliated

marble Can be many colors Metamorphosed limestone

Not foliated Will fizz (calcite) Quartzite

Metamorphosed sandstone Non foliated Will scratch glass

Any color metaconglomerate

OTHER STUFF Lava or pyroclast?

Earths layers Crust Continental- feldspar, quartz Oceanic- pyroxene, plag, olivine

Mantle- olivine outer core- liquid iron Inner core- iron

Ocean crust

Denser Mafic

Thinner Only 200 million years old How do plates move?

Convection currents Slab pull Where does heat come from? Radioactive decay

Plates Sea floor spreading

Oldest ocean crust= 200 my Polar reversals New crust in center of ridge

Plate boundaries Pangea

Why wasnt Wegeners cont. drift accepted? No seafloor data

No earthquake data No mechanism to move plates Convection currents Slab pull

Ridge push (thermal plumes) isostasy is a term used in geology to refer to the

state of gravitational equilibrium between the earth's lithosphere and asthenosphere such that the tectonic plates "float" at an elevation which depends on their

thickness and density Accretionary wedge

Magmatic arc Half life problem If you begin with 80 grams of 14C after a

time, 20 grams are left. How old is the sample? One half life= 14,000 years

Magnitude scale Each step is 10x Passive plate margins

Non- tectonic Continental shelf- slope- rise Rock cycle

dissolution Usually limestone Acid rain

unconformities volcanoes

Wegners evidence? faults

EARTH LAYERS louie/class/plate/composition.html

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