Function and Structure Notes for School

Function and Structure Notes for School

Function and Structure Notes Master List A Proficiency Planning Document Novice Levels I and II Function: Getting to Know Someone Examples: Lkja;skdj Jljk jlkjj Practice: 1.Kljl

2.Kjlj 3.Lkjl 4.Lkjl 5.jlkjl Structure: Personalized Question and Answer 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. PQ+A is used to get to know someone in a Spanishspeaking country. These questions and answers must be memorized; by doing so, you will look much smarter in Spanish than you really are. Questions and Answers (Preguntas y respuestas) Cmo te llamas?

Me llamo Scott. De dnde eres? Soy de Newport. Cuntos aos tienes? Tengo quince (15) aos. Dnde vives? Vivo en Newport. Cmo ests? Estoy bien / mal / regular. Cmo eres? Soy alto, flaco, y popular. Qu es sto? Es un libro. Structure: Nouns (singular and plural)

1. 2. 3. A noun is a word that represents a person, place, thing or concept. To make most nouns plural in Spanish, add an s if the word ends in a vowel (a, e, i, o, u). If a word ends in a consonant (any letter other that a,e,i,o,u), add an es. If a noun (or adjective) ends with the letter z, the z becomes a c when plural and you add an es. Lpiz = lpices. Examples: El coche = los coches El rbol = los rboles La actriz = las actrices Structure: Adjectives and Noun/Adj. Agreement

An adjective is a word that describes a noun. Good = bueno Spanish adjectives generally follow the nouns that they modify. El coche rojo. Nouns that end in O are masculine and most nouns that end in A are feminine. THIS IS IMPORTANT for AGREEMENT Spanish adjectives must agree in GENDER and in NUMBER with the nouns they modify. Most adjectives can be spelled 4 different ways in Spanish: Bueno Bueno, buena, buenos, buenas. They all mean the SAME thing. Some adjectives that end in E can only be made plural by

adding an S Structure: Subject Pronouns The subject is the person, place, thing or idea that DOES the verb. Subject pronouns are words used to represent the subject in a sentence. Subject pronouns include: I, you, he, she, it, we, they. In Spanish, these pronouns are: I = Yo You = T He = l She = Ella You (formal) = Usted We = Nosotros / Nosotras They = Ellos / Ellas You all = Ustedes Structure: Present tense AR verbs

Verbs are the action or power words in a sentence; they describe what someone is doing. In Spanish, verbs must be changed (conjugated) to match the person (subject) using the verb. There is nice, easy pattern to these changes (conjugations) of the verb. Simply memorize the pattern in order to conjugate verbs. Remember: YOU MUST CHANGE THE VERBS TO MATCH THE SUBJECT! Pattern:

To conjugate AR verbs, you must first take the STEM of the verb. The stem of any AR verb is the INFINITIVE minus AR (the infinitive is the stem + AR). HABLAR = infinitive meaning to speak The STEM of HABLAR HABL Once you have the stem of the verb, simply add the ending that match each subject. Yo = O I speak= Yo hablo. T = AS You speak= T hablas. l / Ella / Usted = A He/She speaks= Habla. Nosotros (as)= AMOS We speak= Nosotros hablamos. Ellos / ellas / Uds. = AN They/You all speak = Hablan. Structure: Present tense ER/IR verbs

Verbs are the action or power words in a sentence; they describe what someone is doing. In Spanish, verbs must be changed (conjugated) to match the person (subject) using the verb. There is nice, easy pattern to these changes (conjugations) of the verb. Simply memorize the pattern in order to conjugate verbs. Remember: YOU MUST CHANGE THE VERBS TO MATCH THE SUBJECT! Pattern: To conjugate ER/IR verbs, you must first take the stem of the verb. The STEM of any ER/IR verb is

the INFINITIVE minus ER/IR (the infinitive is the stem + ER/IR). VIVIR = infinitive meaning to live The STEM of VIVIR VIV Once you have the stem of the verb, simply add the ending that match each subject. Yo = O I live = Yo vivo. T = ES You live = T vives. l / Ella / Usted = E He/She lives = Vive. Nosotros(as)=EMOS/IMOS We live= Vivimos. Ellos / ellas / Uds. = EN They/You all live = Viven.

Structure: Using cardinal numbers Counting in Spanish is as easy as counting in English; you just use different words to express each number. 1. Uno 16. diez y seis 31. treinta y uno 900. Novecientos 2. Dos 17. diez y siete 40. cuarenta 1,000. un mil 3. Tres 18. diez y ocho50. cincuenta 1,000,000. un milln 4. Cuatro 19. diez y nueve 60. sesenta 5. Cinco 20. veinte 70. setenta 6. Seis 21. veintiuno 80. ochenta 7. Siete 22. veintids 90. noventa 8. Ocho 23. veintitrs 100. ciento / cien 9. Nueve 24. veinticuatro

200. doscientos 10. Diez 25. veinticinco 300. trescientos 11. Once 26. veintisis 400. cuatrocientos 12. Doce 27. veintisiete 500. quinientos 13. Trece 28. veintiocho 600. seiscientos 14. Catorce 29. veintinueve 700. setecientos 15. Quince 30. treinta 800. ochocientos Structure: Question words

Use question word vocab at the beginning of the sentence to ask ?. Quin es la maestra? They do not say DO in questions; just use the correct form of the verb. To ask a question without a question word, simply place the verb before the subject: Vas t a la clase? Question Words Cmo?=How?/What? De dnde?=From where? Qu ?=What? Quin / quines?=Who? Cul / cules? = Which?Cundo?=When? Dnde?=Where? Por qu?=Why? Cunto(s)?=How much/many? Structure: The verbs SER and ESTAR

The verbs SER and ESTAR both mean to be in English. SER = Soy/Eres/Es/Somos/Son ESTAR = Estoy/Ests/Est/Estamos/Estn I am = Soy/Estoy You are = Eres/Ests He/she/it is = Es/Est We are = Somos/Estamos They are = Son/Estn The tricky part is to know when you should use one and not the other. The general rule of use is: Use SER for more permanent or lasting qualities and ESTAR for more temporary conditions.

How you feel and where you are, always use the verb ESTAR. Structure: HACER expressions To ask about the weather, use Qu tiempo hace? Use the following expressions with the verb HACER (Hace it makes/it does) to describe weather. Hace fro. Hace sol. Hace viento. Hace calor. Hace fresco. Hace mucho sol.

Sometimes, use ESTAR to discuss weather. Est nublado. Est lluvioso. Structure: NEVAR and LLOVER To ask about the weather, use Qu tiempo hace? Use the verbs NEVAR (eie) and LLOVER (oue) to discuss when it snows or rains. Its snowing Nieva. Its raining. Llueve.

To discuss if it is SNOWY (nevado) or RAINY (lluvioso), use the verb ESTAR. Structure: IR + A + Infinitive To discuss what is going to happen or what someone is going to do, use the IR + A + Infinitive An INFINITIVE is an unconjugated or unchanged verb. IR means to go and its forms include: Voy, Vas, Va, Vamos, Van. Examples: Voy a acechar el animal. Im going to stalk the animal. Vamos a cazar los tigres. Were going to hunt the tigers.

Structure: The Verb ESTAR and Prepositions Use the verb ESTAR (to be) to describe the location of nouns. Use prepositions to locate the object. Prepositions: Cerca de = near or close to lejos de = far from al lado de = next to or beside alrededor de = around or surrounding delante de = in front of en frente de = facing detrs de = behind a la derecha de = to the right of a la izquierda de = to the left of dentro de = inside of afuera de = outside of Structure: Adverbs

Use these adverbs to express frequency of actions. Adverbs do not change like adjectives do! Siempre = always nunca = never rara vez = rarely a veces = sometimes todos los das = everyday poco = a little Mucho = a lot / often de vez en cuando = once in a while Structure: TENER QUE or HAY QUE Use the verb TENER (to have) + QUE + Infinitive (2nd verb) to tell what someone has to do.

Use HAY QUE + Infinitive (2nd verb) when there is no specific subject. Be sure to conjugate TENER Examples: 1. Ella tiene que salir. 2. T tienes que hablar en la clase. 3. Hay que estudiar en la escuela. Structure: Class and Weekday Vocabulary words Use class (una materia) and weekday vocabulary words to describe when you have classes. Use EL or LOS in front of the days of the week in order to mean On Examples: El lunes tengo la clase de arte.

On Monday I have Art class. Los martes y mircoles ellos tienen la clase de historia. On Tuesdays and Wednesdays they have History class. Structure: Using the verb SER for TIME Use the verb SER in the forms of ES or SON to tell what time it is. Add minutes up to the :30 mark. Subtract minutes after the :30 mark.

Es la una y diez. (1:10) Son las dos menos veinte. (1:40) Use cuarto(:15/:45) and media(:30) instead of quince and treinta. Structure: The Verb IR (to go) Use the verb IR to say GO or GOES or IS GOING Voy, vas, va, vamos, van Use A for to Adnde? is the correct question word to use with the verb IR. Example: Ella va a la tienda. She goes to the store. Structure: QUERER (to want)

The forms of the verb QUERER are: Quiero, quieres, quiere, queremos, quieren. To say that you want TO DO something: Add the infinitive (2nd verb) immediately after QUERER to describe wanting TO DO something. Example: I want to eat the pizza. Yo quiero comer la pizza. Structure: Sequential Vocabulary To explain the order of events in Spanish, use Sequential Vocabulary. Vocabulary Words: Primero= first por fin= finally Entonces= then antes (de)= before Luego= later despus (de)= after

When a noun or infinitive follows antes or despus, use the preposition de. Structure: Comparison Phrasing To compare nouns to one another, use comparison phrases. Use ms___que or ms de + # to say more___than or more than (#) Use menos__que or menos de + # to mean less__than o less than (#) Use tan__como or tanto como to mean as___as or as much as Mayor (older), menor (younger), mejor

(better), peor (worse) stand without the ms or menos before them. Examples: Ella es ms bonita que el perro. Soy menos gordo que un elefante. Somos tan guapos como los chicos Me gusta tenis ms que ftbol. Ella es mejor que el hombre. Soy mayor que mi hermano. T eres peor que Molly! Practice: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Kljl Kjlj

Lkjl Lkjl jlkjl Structure: The verb DAR (to give) and Indirect Object Pronouns The forms of the verb DAR are: Doy, das, da, damos, dan It is an irregular verb in the first person (DOY = I give). Place an indirect object pronoun in front of the verb to tell to whom you give the gift. Te doy = I give you Indirect Object Pronouns are:

Me = me Te = you Le = him/her/it Nos = us Les = them / you all Structure: Stem-changing verbs in the Present tense 1) 2) 3) When conjugating (changing to match the subject) certain verbs, you need to make an

extra change in some of the STEMS. Remember that the STEM is the INFINITIVE without the AR/ER/IR ending. These changes happen in one of three ways; E to IE CERRAR = Cierro, cierras, cierra, cerramos, cierran O to UEDORMIR=Duermo,duermes, duerme, dormimos,duermen E to I PEDIR = Pido, pides, pide, pedimos, piden These changes do NOT take place in the WE form View the next page to see commonly stemchanging or boot verbs. Common Stem-Changing Verbs EIE stem-changing verbs: CERRAR (to close) PERDER (to lose) PENSAR (to think) COMENZAR (to begin) PREFERIR (to prefer) SENTAR (to sit) ENTENDER (to understand) QUERER (to want) SENTIR (to feel) OUE stem-changing verbs:

VOLVER (to return) MORIR (to die) RECORDAR (to remember) CONTAR (to count/tell) PODER (can) ENCONTRAR (to meet) DORMIR (to sleep) MOVER (to move) MOSTRAR (to show) EI stem-changing verbs: COMPETIR (to compete) PEDIR (to ask for/order) SEGUIR (to follow) CORREGIR (to correct) RER (to laugh) SERVIR (to serve) ELEGIR (to elect) REPETIR (to repeat) SONRER (to smile) Structure: Irregular Verbs in the Present tense CABER (to fit) - quepo / cabes / cabe / cabemos / caben CONSTRUIR (to construct)-construyo/construyes/construye/construimos/ construyen COGER (to grab)- cojo / coges / coge / cogemos / cogen SABER (to know)- s / sabes / sabe / sabemos / saben TENER (to have)- tengo / tienes / tiene / tenemos / tienen VER (to see)- veo / ves / ve / vemos / ven

CAER (to fall)- caigo / caes / cae / caemos / caen DAR (to give)- doy / das / da / damos / dan HACER (to do/to make)- hago / haces / hace / hacemos / hacen PONER (to put/to set)- pongo / pones / pone / ponemos / ponen TRAER (to bring)- traigo / traes / trae / traemos / traen SALIR (to leave)- salgo / sales / sale / salimos / salen VENIR (to come)- vengo / vienes / viene / venimos / vienen DECIR (to say/tell)- digo / dices / dice / decimos / dicen OIR (to hear)- oigo / oyes / oye / omos / oyen SEGUIR (to follow)- sigo / sigues / sigue / seguimos / siguen VALER (to be worth)- valgo / vales / vale / valemos / valen CONOCER (to know)conozco / conoces / conoce / conocemos / conocen Structure: Conjunctions Conjunctions are words that join parts of

sentences or even entire sentences. They are connecting words such as and, or/either, nor/neither, but. Here are the forms in Spanish: Y = and O = or Ni = neither / nor Pero = but Spanish requires the use of the double negative There are other ways to say but, including SINO and SINO QUE; these are used for specific reasons and will be discussed later. Structure: Definite and Indefinite articles Articles are adjectives that help to identify nouns. In English, we have 1 definite article, THE, which refers to

specific things (the boy, the idiot). We also have indefinite articles, A and AN, which refer to one of those things in general (a boy, an idiot). Here are the Spanish definite articles. There are 4 of them because they act like adjectives and must match the noun they are describing for Noun/Adjective agreement. El coche La puerta Los coches Las puertas Indefinite articles also have 4 forms, one to correspond to the gender and number of the noun they modify Un libro Una persona Unos libros Unas personas These adjectives are different because they are in front! Structure: Negative sentences If one answers a question negatively, a negative word must come before the verb. Here is a list of negative words that will come in handy:

Nada Nadie Ni, ni No Nunca = = = = = nothing no one neither, nor no, not never In addition to saying no, you must use one of the words to continue the negative meaning through the verb phrase.

Example: Vas a la tienda? No, no voy a la tienda. Structure: Expressions with the verb TENER The Spanish word, TENER (to have), combines with many other words to form commonly-used expressions. These expressions will seem weird to an English-speaker but you must simply memorize them. Tengo sed. = Im thirsty. Tengo diez aos. = Im ten years old. Tengo calor. = Im hot. Tengo fro. = Im cold. Tengo hambre. = Im hungry.

Tengo miedo. = Im scared/afraid. Tengo sueo. = Im sleepy. Tengo suerte. = Im lucky. Tengo razn. = Im right. Tengo prisa. = Im in a hurry. These expressions can be used with any form of TENER. Structure: Possessive Adjectives Possessive adjectives are words that let people know to whom or to what something belongs. Unlike most adjectives, these are ALWAYS found BEFORE the nouns that they modify. These words are adjectives; they must match the nouns that they modify. Possessive Adjectives Mi /mis = my Tu / tus = your Su / sus = his /her

Nuestro/nuestros/nuestra/nuestras = our Su / sus = their Structure: Possessive adjectives The long forms of possessive adjectives can serve either as adjectives or pronouns. As adjectives, they must FOLLOW the nouns that they modify and correspond to those nouns. These long forms tend to be used for slightly greater emphasis. E.g. Its mine, not yours! Possessive Adjectives Mo/a (s) = mine, my Tuyo/a (s) = yours, your Suyo/a (s) = his, her, her Nuestro/a (s) = our, ours Suyo/a (s) = theirs, yours, your, their

Structure: The verb GUSTAR GUSTAR is one of several Spanish verbs that always use Indirect Object Pronouns. The construction of a sentence with GUSTAR places an Indirect Object Pronoun first, then a form of GUSTAR, and then the subject. IOP + GUSTAR + Subject = Correct Sentence Because the subject is most often an object or objects, GUSTAR is usually seen as gusta/gustan. You can also use gusta with Infinitives! Indirect Object Pronouns Me = me Te = you Le = him, her, you (formal) Nos = us Les = them, you all Structure: Adverbs

Adverbs are used to modify or qualify verbs, adjectives, or even other adverbs. These words help to describe how, where, or with what intensity or purpose something was done. There are several different types of adverbs: A. Adverbs formed from Adjectives B. Stand Alone adverbs C. Adverbial phrases The following pages will address each type. Structure: Adverbs formed from Adjectives

By taking the feminine form of an adjective and adding the suffix (ending) mente, you form an adverb. This suffix mente is the equivalent of adding ly to an adjective (Quick Quickly). Rpido=fast/quick and to change to quickly: Rpido Rpida + mente = rpidamente If there is more than one mente adverb in a sentence, simply drop the suffix from the first one. Yo como rpida y furiosamente. I eat quickly and furiously. Multiple mente words are not typically used in a single Spanish sentence. Structure: Stand alone adverbs Many adverbs in Spanish are totally independent words and are not formed from adjectives.

Here is a list of very common adverbs. Abajo = down mal = poorly, badly Afuera = outside maana = tomorrow Ahora = now mucho = a lot, often Antes (de) = before muy = very Arriba = up nunca = never As = so, thus (un)poco = a little Ayer = yesterday siempre = always Bien = fine, well (ms) tarde = late Despus (de)= after temprano = early Hoy = today Structure: Adverbial Phrases

By combining a preposition with a noun, you can form an adverbial phrase. Nouns will combine with three different prepositions: a , con , en Common Adverbial Phrases: A menudo = often con cuidado = carefully A veces = sometimesen cambio = on the other hand Con cario = en ritmo = rhythmically Affectionately Structure: The Progressive tense

The Present Progressive tense is a tense that gives extra emphasis to an act that is actually in progress an event that is occurring when the speaker is describing it (in the present or past). FORMATION: This tense is normally made by combining a form of the verb ESTAR (present or imperfect tense) with a Present Participle. The Present Participle is equivalent to the -ing form of a verb in English (I am speaking). To form the Present Participle, take the STEM of the verb and add -ando (AR verbs) or iendo (ER/IR verbs). Estoy hablando. Ella est comiendo. Structure: Irregular Forms of The Present Progressive tense

IR stem-changing (BOOT) verbs have a special vowel change, the same vowel change that occurs in the 3rd person Preterit tense. DORMIR durmiendo (sleeping) PEDIR pidiendo (asking for) SENTIR -sintiendo (feeling) MORIR muriendo (dying) You will need to memorize the following irregular Present Participles to use the Progressive tense. CAER Cayendo (falling) IR Yendo (going) LEER Leyendo (reading) TRAER Trayendo (bringing) Structure: ACABAR de + INFINITIVE

To talk about what just happened, use the following equation: ACABAR + de + INFINITIVE You must change the verb ACABAR to match the subject. You must NOT change the INFINITIVE, or second verb, in the sentence Examples: I just ate. Yo acabo de comer. They just threw up. Ellos acaban de vomitar. Structure: Common Cognate rules Structure: Using Ordinal Numbers

Ordinal Numbers describe numbers in order (or Sequence) The most common ordinal numbers in Spanish are the first TEN. Above TEN, you can use cardinal #s. The words primero + tercero lose the O before a masculine, singular noun. All ordinal #s change the o to an a to match a singular, feminine noun following the #. Ordinal Numbers (First through Tenth) 1st = Primero 6th = Sexto 2nd = Segundo 7th = Sptimo 3rd = Tercero 8th = Octavo 4th = Cuarto 9th = Noveno 5th = Quinto 10th = Dcimo Intermediate Level II Honors and above

Structure: Pronouns after prepositions You remember the subject pronouns we learned earlier (yo, t, l/ella/Ud., Nosotros, Ellos/ellas, Uds.). These pronouns served as the main actors or stars in the sentence, doing the action of the verb. When a pronoun follows a preposition, the 1st and 2nd person pronouns must change. Pronouns that follow prepositions: M = me Ti = you l, ella, Ud. = him, her, it, You (formal) Nosotros(as) = us Ellos, ellas, Uds. = them, you all. To say with me or with you= conmigo/contigo

Structure: PRETERIT tense To talk about specific past events use the Preterit tense To form the Preterit, you simply take the STEM of the AR/ER/IR verb and add different endings. AR verb endings: , aste, , amos, aron ER/IR verbs: , iste, i, imos, ieron Example: Yo com la pizza ayer. Anoche ella habl con su amigo. Structure: CAR, GAR, ZAR verbs Some verbs require spelling changes in the 1st person (YO) form of the Preterit tense. The rest of the forms use the same Preterit endings

In the YO form only, Verbs that end in -gar change g to gu Verbs that end in -car change c to qu Verbs that end in -zar change z to c jugu (jugar) = I played busqu (buscar) = I looked for almorc (almorzar) = I ate lunch Structure: Stem-changing verbs in the Preterit tense AR and ER stem-changing verbs do NOT change at all in the Preterit tense. These verbs will simply attach the appropriate endings to the STEMs. IR stem-changing verbs, however, do change in the 3rd Person forms (singular/plural). The changes take on a different pattern that normal.

O U = Dorm,dormiste,durmi,dormimos,durmieron E I = Sent,sentiste,sinti,sentimos,sintieron Structure: Irregular verbs PRETERIT Some verbs are completely irregular in the Preterit tense with a different set of endings. These verbs and endings must be memorized. Poder- can pud- Poner-to set/put pus- Saber-to know sup- Hacer-to do/make

hic- cup- Querer-to want/try quis- hub- Venir-to come vin- Andar to walk anduv- Estar- to be estuv- Tener- to have tuv-

Caber- to fit Haber- there are estuve supe estuviste supiste estuvo Supo HACER = HIZO estuvimos supimos estuvieron supieron Structure: PRETERIT vocabulary ayer (yesterday) anteayer (the day before

yesterday) anoche (last night) desde el primer momento (from the first moment) durante dos siglos (for two centuries) el otro da (the other day) en ese momento (at that moment) entonces (then) esta maana (this morning) la semana pasada (last week) el ao pasado (last year) hace dos das, aos (two days, years ago) ayer por la maana ayer por la tarde Structure: Object Pronouns Pronouns are words that stand for nouns.

Object pronouns, as opposed to subject pronouns, RECEIVE the action from the verb; they do not DO the verb. There are 3 types of Object Pronouns Direct Object Pronouns Indirect Object Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns The following three pages will discuss each type of pronoun and explain when or when not to use them. Structure: Direct Object Pronouns

Direct object pronouns are used in place of nouns which get acted upon directly by verbs. For example, in the sentence The Jonas Brothers used the guitar, the word guitar is the direct object. In the related sentence, The Jonas Brothers used it, the word it is the direct object pronoun. It stands for the guitar. If the noun/pronoun directly receives the action from the verb, answering the question Whom or what?, then it is a direct object or DOP. Direct object pronouns usuall come before the conjugated verb in a sentence. They can also attach to the back of INFs Direct Object Pronouns Me = me Te = you Lo/la = him/her/it Nos = us Los/las = them/you all Structure: Indirect Object Pronouns

Indirect Object pronouns are used when the action affects a noun or pronoun in an indirect way. The indirect object is still affected by, or may benefit from, the action, but it does not take the direct hit from the verb. For example: I give Mr. Twehues an apple. In this sentence, the apple is given, so it is the direct object. Mr. Twehues loves to eat, and he will benefit from the apple, so he is the indirect object. The IOP answers the question To whom/what or For whom/what? Indirect Object Pronouns Me = me Te = you Le = him/her/it Nos = us Les = them/you all There has to be a Direct Object for there to be an IOP

Structure: Reflexive Object Pronouns When a subject and object refer to the same person or thing, a reflexive object is used. In the sentence, I call myself John, the subject (I) refers to the same person as the object (John). In the sentence, They showered themselves after the game. The subject (They) matches the object (themselves), and a reflexive object pronoun is used. Reflexive Object Pronouns Me = myself Te = yourself Se = himself / herself Nos = ourselves Se = themselves / yourselves Structure: The personal a

1. 2. 3. In Spanish, the word a is placed between a vreb and a direct object when the object is a definite person. This a does not translate into English. Its almost as if this a protects or buffers the person from the force of the verb. Since we dont have anything like this in English, it may take you awhile to get used to it. Examples: I love Lucy. Yo amo a Lucy. They see two boys. Ellos ven a dos chicos. Were waiting for her. Esperamos a ella. Function: Talk about events that did not

have a definite ending or beginning. Structure: IMPERFECT tense To talk about non-specific + recurring events, use the IMPERFECT AR verb endings: aba, abas, aba, bamos, aban ER/IR verbs: a, as, a, amos, an Example: Yo coma la pizza mucho. Ella siempre hablaba con su amigo. Function: Talk about events that did not have a definite ending or beginning. Structure: Irregular verbs IMPERFECT

There are only 3 irregular verbs in the imperfect tense. Ser to be Ver to see Ir to go era eras era ramos eran vea veas vea veamos vean iba ibas

iba bamos iban Function: Talk about events that did not have a definite ending or beginning. Structure: IMPERFECT vocabulary a menudo (often) a veces (sometimes) cada da (every day) cada semana (every week) cada mes (every month) cada ao (every year) Con frecuencia (frequently) de vez en cuando (from time to time) en aquella poca (at that time) frecuentemente (frequently) generalmente (usually) muchas veces (many times) mucho (a lot) nunca (never)

por un rato (for awhile) siempre (always) tantas veces (so many times) todas las semanas (every week) todos los das (every day) todo el tiempo (all the time) varias veces (several times) Function: Discuss ongoing/incomplete events in the past tense. Structure: IMPERFECT tense She was talking when They were yelling when While I was closing the door I was walking through the park when Example: Yo mataba la bruja cuando entr su amiga. Mientras ella estaba en el castillo, los

hombres lobos robaron su carro. Function: Talk about weather/atmosphere and time in the past tense. Structure: IMPERFECT tense Eran las once = It was 11:00. Era la una y media = It was 1:30. Estaba nublado = It was cloudy. Haca mucho calor = It was very hot. Llova mucho = It was raining a lot. Haca sol = It was sunny. Function: Describe people, places, things, in the past tense. Structure: IMPERFECT tense Use the verb SER, which is irregular, to describe people, places, and things in the past tense Examples: 1.

2. 3. Ella era repelente. Los tigres eran enormes. La casa era aterradora. Function: Narrate a story in the past PRETERIT IMPERFECT is used for actions that can be viewed as single events. is used for actions that were repeated a specific number of times. is used for actions that occurred during a

specific period of time. is used for actions that were part of a chain of events. is used to state the beginning or the end of an action. is used for actions that were repeated habitually. is used for actions that "set the stage" for another action. is used for telling time and stating one's age. is used to set the scene in a story with weather. is used for descriptions in the past.

Structure: Double Object Pronouns Do you remember all of the object pronouns youve studied so far? Do you know when/how to use them? Oftentimes, a speaker will choose to use two object

pronouns in the same sentence. The nouns for which these pronouns stand will already have been made clear to the listener or reader. Examples: I gave a present to my sister I gave her it. We bought the dogs for you. We bought them for you. The traditional order for when multiple pronouns are used in a sentence is RID : Reflexive, Indirect, Direct I give you it Te lo doy. You (te) is the indirect object pronoun. It (lo) is the direct object pronoun. They both are placed BEFORE the conjugated verb. Object pronouns can also be attached to the ends of INFs! Structure: Double Object Pronouns There is a special case in Spanish in which the third person indirect object pronouns le or les are replaced by the word se. This change occurs when le or les is followed by any third person direct object pronoun (lo, la,

los, las). Why? Its just easier to say Se lo than Le lo and others. Examples: I told him it Se lo dije. We gave them to her Se los dimos. They sold it to us Nos lo vendieron. 1. 2. 3. Structure: Choosing between SABER and CONOCER To use the past tense of SABER and CONOCER, you should know that the translation is dfferent when using the Preterit vs. the Imperfect.

1. Spanish has 2 ways to say to know: SABER and CONOCER CONOCER is used when you want to say that you are familiar with someone, something, some place, etc. 1. 2. 2. SABER Preterit = Found out. Imperfect = Knew CONOCER Preterit = Met . Imperfect = Knew, used to know I know the city of Newport well. She knows me, we dated in high school! SABER is used when a person is speaking about a fact, something that could usually be said easily. Eg. I know where you live. Yo se donde vives. To say you know how to do something, use SABER as well. l sabe bailar.

Structure: HACER expressions HACER is commonly used to mean to do or to make. It is also used when describing weather. There are a number of special expressions that use the verb HACER. These must be memorized! Expressions with HACER HACER caso a = pay attention to HACER cola = to stand in line HACER frente = to face up to HACER la maleta = to pack a suitcase HACER puente = to take a long weekend HACERSE amigos = to become friends

HACER una pregunta = to ask a question Structure: Reflexive Actions In a reflexive construction, the subject and the object of a sentence refer to the same thing. In other words, the subject is doing something to/for him or herself. These constructions make use of the reflexive object pronouns. Eg. Me llamo Craig. I call myself Craig. For even more emphasis, you can add the word mismo/misma/mismos/mismas according to the gender and number of the subject.

Me digo a mi mismo (a). I tell myself Structure: Reciprocal Actions Sometimes two people do the exact same thing to eachother. If two people write a letter to eachother, it is a reciprocal action. For reciprocal actions, two or more people are needed; therefore only 2 object pronouns are used: SE and NOS. For added emphasis and to avoid confusion with reciprocal sentences, the following words may be added after the verb: uno a otro, una a otra, unos a otros, unas a otras. These are the only 4 possibilities. It is not possible to mix genders here.

The boy and the girl talk to eachother. El chico y la chica se hablan unos a otros. Structure: Formal Command forms (Ud./Uds.) We use direct commands to ask or tell someone to do something. One person can look at another and say Do it! or Dont do it! A formal command is addressed to a person or persons with whom you would use Ud./Uds. Formation: Use the subjunctive tense for conjugating these command forms. Remember to take the STEM of the verb and to add the opposite ending to make the subjunctive, or in this case, the formal command conjugation. AR: Hable, hablen! or No hable! No hablen! ER/IR : Viva, no viva! Vivan, no vivan! Object pronouns are attached to + commands and come before the verb with negative commands. Structure: Formal Command forms (Ud./ Uds.)

With stem-changing boot verbs, change the stem, and then add the opposite ending: Spelling changers in the 1st person preterit will change as well in command forms: Busque!, Conozca!, Paguen!, Dirijan!, Comience!, Toquen! Any verbs that have an irregular YO form in the first person will be irregular in the command form. Sienten! Sientense! No se sienten! Haga!, Diga!, Ponga!, Salgan!, etc. There are some super-irregulars as well:

SER= Sea / Sean IR = Vaya / Vayan DAR = D / Den ESTAR = Est / Estn SABER = Sepa / Sepan Structure: Demonstrative Adjectives Demonstrative adjectives help to distinguish one noun from another. They use spatial imagery (?) to place an object in relationship to the speaker or listener. Demonstrative adjectives Este = this esta = this Estos = these estas = these Ese = that esa = that Esos = those esas = those Aquel= that (over there) aquella= that (over there) Aquellos /aquellas = those (over there) These adjectives are placed in front of nouns. Also, aquel/aquellos refer to objects farther away

Structure: Demonstrative Pronouns Demonstrative pronouns are used in the place of nouns (previously referred to with demonstrative adjectives). These demonstrative adjectives can be turned into pronouns (and stand alone) simply by adding an accent mark. Demonstrative pronouns ste = this (one) sta = this (one) stos = these (ones) stas = these (ones) se = that (one) sa = that (one) sos = those (ones) sas = those (ones) Aqul= that (over there) aqulla= that (over there) Aqullos /aqullas = those (over there) There are 3 neuter forms as well; these are used when a noun isnt specific or is an idea: esto, eso, aquello. Structure: Uses of POR and PARA Por and para are very confusing because they both mean for. Uses of POR 1. In exchange for: Ill pay you for the toy. 2. Duration of time: I studied for 3 hours.

3. Rate: He charges $70 an hour! (for one hour). 4. Movement through space: through the forest. 5. Motive/reason: I sang for my parents. 6. By means of: We travel by car. 7. Taking the place of: He is playing for me. 8. Before an infinitive meaning because of or by: By practicing often, they learned a lot. By arriving early Structure: Uses of POR and PARA Por and para are very confusing because they both mean for. Uses of PARA 1. Destination: I am leaving for Florida. 2. Intended for (recipient): Its for you. 3. Deadline: Send it in by tomorrow. 4. Purpose/use: The gun is for protection. 5. Exception: She is strong for a woman. 6. Before an infinitive meaning in order to: In order to win, you have to play. 7. Viewpoint: For me, this is the best school.

There are some verbs in Spanish where the for is built in: BUSCAR, ESPERAR, PEDIR, etc. Structure: Uses of the INFINITIVE 1. The infinitive of a verb is the form that ends in AR/ER/IR. The infinitive is used frequently in these four ways. The infinitive is often found following a conjugated verb: 2. It must follow a preposition: 3. The infinitive, not the ING form of the verb, must follow the preposition Despus de hablar = After speaking The infinitive can function as a noun:

4. The first verb is conjugated and carries the subject. The two verbs work together for one meaning = Me gusta hablar. Often in combination with El El comer es bueno = Eating is good. The infinitive can take the place of the subjunctive: This only happens with certain verbs in an indirect command A speaker can choose to use the infinitive or the subjunctive with the following: DEJAR, HACER, MANDAR, PERMITIR, PROHIBIR Examples: Mi madre me hace estudiar. = My mom makes me study. Te prohibo fumar en la clase. = I prohibit you to smoke. Structure: Informal (direct) commands

Use t commands to tell someone what to do or to give someone directions. To form affirmative t commands, take the verb (COMER) and change it to the third person form (COME). Come el sandwich! = Eat the sandwich! To form negative t commands, take the verb (COMER) and change it to the opposite 2nd person (t) form (COMAS). No comas la serpiente! = Dont eat the snake! Examples: Talk! = Habla! Dont talk! = No hables! Climb! = Sube! Dont climb! = No subas! Structure: IRREGULAR T Commands

Unfortunately, there are many irregular forms of T Commands. You have to memorize these. Affirmative DECIRDime! = Tell me! HACERHazlo! = Do it! IRVe! = Go! PONERPon! = Put! SALIRSal! = Leave! SERSe! = Be! TENERTen! = Have! VENIRVen! = Come! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Negatives No me digas! = ?

No lo hagas! = ? No vayas! = ? No pongas! = ? No salgas! = ? No seas! = ? No tengas! = ? No vengas! = ? Structure: PRESENT PERFECT The Present Perfect tense is used to talk about what you have done. I have eaten pizza. She has studied for the test.

Use HABER in present tense (he, has, ha, hemos, han) w/ past participle to form the Present Perfect Form the past participle by removing AR and ER/IR endings from the infinitive and adding either ADO or IDO. hablar - ar + ado = hablado comer - er + ido = comido vivir - ir + ido = vivido Structure: Irregular Past Participles Structure: Past Participles as adjectives 1. 2. 3. The past participles used in the Present Perfect

tense (and all perfect tenses) end in o and can were used in a verbal function. However, past participles can be used as adjectives as well. These past participles can follow a noun directly, and are often found after the verb ESTAR. Examples: La puerta est cerrada. Las sillas rotas no sirven para nada. El televisor est roto. Structure: The Future tense The future tense is used when discussing what will happen or what someone will do. The true future tense (will) is used to describe events that are a little further away in the mind of the speaker. All AR/ER/IR verbs take the following endings attached to the INFINITIVE:

Hablar, Hablars, hablar, hablaremos, hablarn. Comer, comers, comer, comeremos, comern. There are several irregular verbs in the future tense; the only thing to remember is the different stem. The endings are the same! DECIR -- dir SABER -- sabr PODER -- podr PONER -- pondr TENER -- tendr SALIR -- saldr CABER -- cabr VALER -- valdr HABER -- habr VENIR -- vendr QUERER querr HACER -- har Advanced Levels III and above Structure: Relative Pronouns 1. 2. 3. 4.

A relative pronoun is a word or group of words that connect a dependent clause to a subject found at the beginning of the sentence. A relative pronoun relates these two parts of a sentence and, as a pronoun, refers to the subject of a sentence. There are four common Relatives. QUE QUIEN/QUIENES EL QUE, LA QUE, LOS QUE, LAS QUE EL CUAL, LA CUAL, LOS CUALES, LAS CUALES These relative pronouns will be described in detail on the following 3 pages. Structure: Relative Pronouns: QUE Que can be used to refer to a person, place, or thing. In English it can be translated as Who, Whom, Which, or That. La escoba que compr es verde. The broom that I bought is green.

Que follows most one-syllable prepositions when referring to a place or thing. The word CONDENA contains all prepositions commonly used with que : con que, de que, en que, a que. El apartamento en que vivimos tiene muchos patios. The apartment in which we live has many patios. Structure: Relative Pronouns: Quien/Quienes The relative pronouns Quien/Quienes refer exclusively to people. They can mean either who or whom. These words are used after prepositions and in non-restrictive clauses, off set by commas. A non restrictive clause gives parenthetical, non-essential information. Los estudiantes de quienes yo hablo son

excelentes. The students of whom I speak are excellent. Quien/Quienes can also begin a sentencein that case they mean One who, or He or she who, or Those who. Quienes practican, ganan. Those who practice, win. Structure: Relative Pronouns: EL/LA/LOS/ LAS QUE EL/LA/LOS/LAS CUAL/CUALES These longer forms have 3 main uses: 1. When following all prepositions other than con, de, en, a. Like para, sobre, cerca de, por, sin 2. When referring back to the 1st of 2 or more antecedents (subjects). 3. As an alternative to que, quien, quienes in a clause that is NOT restrictive (giving non-essential information).

Structure: The Passive Voice The active voice usually has 3 parts: subject, a transitive verb (one with a direct object), and a direct object. Eg. The girl cut the cake. The passive voice turns everything around; the direct object now becomes the subject, the star of the show! Eg. The cake was cut by the girl. Here is the simple formula for the PASSIVE voice: Direct Object +SER + Past Participle + por+ subject Una estatua es comprada por los hombres. 1. A se sentence is used more often in Spanish. 2. 3. 4. Se habla espaol aqu. = Spanish is spoken here. Passive voice can use any form of SER. Past Participle agrees with the NEW subject. With some verbs, you can use DE instead of POR Structure: IF clauses

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. If clauses in Spanish contain the word si. These clauses may introduce a condition and a promise (If it rains, he will not come) or a hypothetical situation (If she were taller, she would be happier). There are 2 categories of If clauses in Spanish: those that use the Indicative and those that use the Subjunctive. We will discuss 5 separate types of If clauses: The Present with the Future The Present with the Present The Imperfect Subjunctive with the Conditional The Pluperfect Subjunctive and Conditional Perf. Sentences with Como si.

Structure: IF clauses: Indicative The Present/Future This type of If clause answers the question, If X happens, what will be the consequence? The formula for using the Present/Future If clause is simple: Si + Present tense + , + Future tense or Future tense + Si + Present tense Si llueve maana, l no viajar aqu. If it rains tomorrow, he will not travel here. No compraremos el sof si cuesta demasiado. We will not buy the couch if it costs too much. These sentences share the use of the Present Indicative tense after si with a form of the Future in

the other clause. Structure: IF clauses: Indicative Present / Present The If clauses that use the Present Indicative with the Present Indicative follow this pattern: If X happens, then Y always happens. 1. Examples: Vamos a la finca si tenemos tiempo. 2. Si llueve, no jugamos al bisbol. We go to the farm if (when) we have time. If it rains, we dont play baseball.

All of these sentences will express habitual activities; not one time events or conditions. Structure: IF clauses using the Subunctive Mood 1. 2. 3. In these sentences, a hypothetical situation is presented. The situation is explained in a way that makes it seem doubtful, unlikely to happen, or even contrary to fact. It is for this reason that the Subjunctive is used along with the Conditional.

Which form of the Subjunctive? Either the Imperfect Subjunctive or Pluperfect Subjunctive. There are three formations to examine: Imperfect Subjunctive with Conditional Pluperfect Subjunctive and Conditional Perfect Sentences with Como si (As IF clauses) Structure: IF clauses: Subjunctive Imperfect Subjunctive / Conditional The Present Subjunctive or Present Perfect Subjunctive is NEVER used with an If clause. These sentences follow the pattern: Si + Imperfect Subjunctive + , + Conditional or Conditional + Si + Imerfect Subjunctive 1. 2. Examples: Si lloviera, no jugaramos al beisbol.

Iramos a la finca si tuviramos tiempo. These sentences may be read as excuses for not doing something now, or for not having done something in the past. Structure: IF clauses: Subunctive Pluperfect Subjunctive / Conditional Perfect Similar to Imperfect Subjunctive/Conditional, these sentences will imply the same thing, only with a more complicated (perfect) translation into English. Formula 1= Si + PP.Subj + , + Cond. Perf. Formula 2= Cond. Perf + Si + Pluperfect Subj. Examples: 1. Si hubiera llovido, no habramos jugado al bisbol .

2. If it had rained, we would not have played baseball. Habramos ido a la finca si hubiramos tenido tiempo. We would have gone to the farm if we had had time. Structure: IF clauses: Subunctive Como si clauses (AS IF) 1. The words como si, meaning as if will always require a past subjunctive tense in the formula. Como si introduces an idea that appears to be

contrary to fact. Formulas: Present + como si + Imperfect Subjunctive Present + como si + Pluperfect Subjunctive Examples: Ella acta como si fuera una princesa. 2. She acts as if she were a princess. Los chicos hablan como si hubieran sabido todo. The boys talk as if they had known everything. Structure: Indefinite words: Negative and Affirmative Here are the most common indefinite words. Affirmative words are on the left and negative words are on the right. Affirmative Negative

Algo= something nada= nothing Lo demas= the rest Alguien= someone nadie= no one Los/las demas= the rest Alguno= some ninguno= none/any/ Ambos= both no one Cada= each Cualquier= any Otro= other/another Todo= all Uno= a Mucho= many/much poco= few Tanto= so much/many a little, so little Structure: Past Perfect Tense Use HABER in imperfect (haba, habas, haba, habamos, haban) w/ past participle to form the Past Perfect

Forming the Past Participle: Examples: Ellos haban puesto la mesa. They had set the table. Yo haba visto la pelcula. I had seen the movie. Structure: Accent Marks In Spanish, a syllable has one vowel sound If a word ends with a vowel or with the letters n or s, the stress, or emphasis, is naturally on the second to last syllable. Co-mo, vi-da, hi-jo, es-tu-dian-tes If a word ends with a consonant other than n or s, the stress is naturally on the last syllable

Dedo: de-do Varie-dad, trop-i-cal, cam-i-nar Accent marks are necessary to distinguish one word from another when they have the same spelling (si and s), with interrogatives (qu?), and to signal a break from the normal rules that indicate which syllable of a word is stressed (ingls) Structure: The Conditional tense The Conditional tense is used to explain what would happen in a hypothetical situation. It is also used commonly to describe an action subsequent to another past action or to a time in the past.

1. Keep the ar/er/ir and add a, as, a, amos, an (hablara, comeras, viviramos) Irregular Verbs 3. I would like to speak to the manager, please. Could you (would you be able to) tell me when the next train leaves? How its formed: Regular AR/IR/ER Verbs 2. My friends told me they would come to the party later.

The Conditional is also used to make a polite or softened requeset. I would go to the movies if I had money. Hacer: Har-a, as.Saber: Sabr-a, as Salir: Saldr-a, as Other irregulars Decir: Dir- a Poner: Pondr-a Tener: Tendr-a Structure: The Subjunctive The Subjunctive mood is used for a variety of things in the Spanish language such as talking about something that is wished for or something that may not be true (i.e. expressing doubt) For example, I hope she calls or I doubt he will come. Forming the Subjunctive:

1. Regular verbs Drop the AR and add the opposite ending: AR- e, es, e, emos, en ER/IR- a, as, a, amos, an 2. Examples: Casar- Case, cases, case, casemos, casen Comer- Coma, comas, coma, comamos, coman Vivir- Viva, vivas, vivamos, vivan Structure: Stem-changing verbs in the Subjunctive Mood Stem changing verbs in the subjunctive operate the same way as in the present tense. The stem change only takes place within the first, second and third person singular and also in the third person plural, making them boot verbs.

In other words, only the yo, tu, el/ella/usted, and ustedes forms are changed in the subjunctive of stem-changing verbs. Just as in regular subjunctive forms, the ending also changes in the word. Examples: 1. CERRAR- Cierre, cierres, cierre, cerremos, cierren 2. CONTAR-Cuente,cuentes,cuente,contemos,cuenten 3. IR verbs in the subjunctive are different. The stem change still occurs in the same places, but the first person plural (nosotros) also changes. 1. 2. SENTIR- sienta, sientas, sienta, sintamos, sientan DORMIR- duerma, duermas, duerma, durmamos, duerman. Structure: Irregular verbs in the Subjunctive Mood

Irregular verbs in the subjunctive are the same as they were in the 1st person of the present tense. CABER- quepa, quepas, quepa, quepamos, quepan CAER- caiga, caigas, caiga, caigamos, caigan DECIR- diga, digas, diga, digamos, digan HACER- haga, hagas, haga, hagamos, hagan PONER- ponga, pongas, ponga, pongamos, pongan SALIR- salga, salgas, salga, salgamos, salgan TENER- tenga, tengas, tenga, tengamos, tengan VALER- valga, valgas, valga, valgamos, valgan VENIR- venga, vengas, venga, vengamos, vengan VER- vea, veas, vea, veamos, vean

Structure: Spelling-changing verbs in the Subjunctive Just as in the present tense, the Subjunctive has a number of verbs that have spelling changes to help the pronunciation sound found in the infinitive. Found in verbs with endings CAR, CER/CIR, GAR, GER/GIR, and ZAR Ending Car- changes que Sacar- saque, saques Cer/Cir- zca Conocer- conozca, conozcas Gar- gue Pagar- pague, pagues Ger/Gir- ja Escoger- escoja, escojas Zar- ce Rezar-Rece, reces Structure: Super-irregular verbs in the Subjunctive There

are six verbs that do not follow the 1st person spelling rule of the present tense Dar, estar, haber, ir, saber, and ser. Dar- d, des, d, demos, den Estar- est, ests, est, estemos, estn Haber- haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayan Ir- vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayan Saber- sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepan Ser- sea, seas, sea, seamos, sean Structure: The Subjunctive after Indirect commands An indirect command features a main clause that asks someone to do something, and a dependent clause, after the word que, that mentions the action that the speaker wants the person to do. The subjunctive is used in the dependent clause, after que Example: Quiero que mi amigo me llame- I want my friend to call me In the sentence above, the dependent clause hasnt happened yet; its not yet true, which is why the subjunctive is used. Common command verbs which the Subjunctive follows:

Decir- to tell Desear- to desire Esperar- to hope Querer- to want Recomendar- to recommend Sugerir- to suggest Structure: The Subjunctive after verbs of Emotion

The Subjunctive is not only used for uncertainty; it can be found in any dependent clause after que when the main clause expresses an emotional reaction to the action in the second clause. Verbs that express emotion: Alegrarse de- to be glad that Frustrale a alguien- to be frustrating to someone Gustarle a alguien- to be pleasing to someone Molestarle a alguien- to bother someone Preocuparle a alguien- to worry someone Sentir (ie)- to regret Sorprenderle a alguien- to surprise someone Tener miedo de- to be scared Formula for this type of sentence:

Verb or expression of emotion in main clause + que + verb in the subjunctive Structure: Indefinite Pronouns Pronouns are words that take places of nouns Indefinite pronouns do not refer to specific people or things Yo, t, l, ella, usted, nosotros/as, ellos, ellas, ustedes Me, te, le, nos, les These can be direct, indirect, or reflexive.

The three most common indefinites are: algo- something, alguiensomeone/somebody, and alguno/a/os/as- some, someone (of a larger group). Before a masculine singular noun, alguno is shortened to algn! Corresponding negatives also go with these indefinites Algo- nada- nothing Alguien- nadie- no one Alguno/a/os/as- ninguno/a- none Before a masculine singular noun, ninguno is shortened to ningn! Structure: The Present Perfect Subjunctive The present perfect subjunctive is used in the dependent clasue after que when the main clause expresses emotion about an action that has occured in the recent past.

It is formed using haber in the subjunctive followed by a past participle Haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayan follwed by (hablar) hablado, (comer) comido, or (vivir) vivido etc. Examples: Me alegro de que hayan visto la pelcula. I am glad that you have seen the movie. Nos frustra que no haya llovido hoy. It frustrates us that it has not rained today. Structure: Temporal Expressions using LLEVAR + HACER

The verbs LLEVAR and HACER can be used to describe action that has been going on for a certain length of time The most common way to express ongoing action is with LLEVAR followed by a length of time and then a present participle; LLEVAR + length of time + present participle (i.e. hablando, comiendo, or viviendo) Construction of this tense with HACER is slightly more formal. This formula takes a form of HACER with que followed by a conjugated verb. For ongoing present actions, both the form of HACER and the verb following que must be in the present tense; for actions in the past, HACER and the verb after que must both be in the past tense. Hace or Haca + period of time + que + verb in present or imperfect Structure: Idiomatic Expressions with the following: (DAR/HABER/HACER/TENER/VOLVER)

Expressions with DAR Expressions with HABER Dar la luz- to bring out, come to light, also to give birth Dar con- to run into, to find Dar cuerda a- to wind

Dar de beber/comer- to give drink/food to Dar una vuelta- to take a stroll Darse cuenta de- to realice Darse la mano- to shake hands Darse prisa- to be in a hurry Haber de + infinitive- to ought to do something Hay mucho que hacer- theres alot to do Hay neblina- its foggy Hay que + infinitive- one must do something Hay sol- its sunny No hay de qu- youre welcome Expressions with HACER Hacerse viejo/a- to grow old Hacer el papel- to play a role Hacer caso a- to pay attention to Structure: Idiomatic expressions contd. Expressions with TENER

Tener Tener Tener Tener like Tener Tener Tener la culpa- to be guilty cuidado- to be careful xito- to be successful ganas de- to want to do something/to feel prisa- to be in a hurry que- to have to do something

que ver con- to have to do with Expressions with VOLVER Volver a + infinitive- to do something again Volver en s- to come to; to regain consciousness Volver(le) loco/a- to drive someone crazy Volverse loco/a- to go crazy Structure: The Future Perfect tense 1. Examples: Habrn hecho las enchiladas.

2. They will have made the enchiladas. Antes de las siete nos habremos cepillado los dientes. 3. The Future Perfect describes an event that will take place prior to another event, or before a time in the future. It is formed with the future form of HABER with a past participle Habr, habrs, habr, habremos, habrn + hablado, comido, vivido etc. Before seven we will have brushed our teeth. Lo habrs entendido todo. You will have understood it all. Structure: The Conditional Perfect tense The Conditional Perfect describes an event that would have taken place if something else had

happened. How to form it Habra, habras, habra, habramos, habran + past participle (i.e. hablado, visto, roto etc). Examples: 1. Habramos entendido las palabras si hubiramos estudiado. 2. We would have understood the words if we had studied. Habra comido las galletas si hubiera comprado leche. I would have eaten the cookies if I had bought milk. Structure: Unexpected Events (III p.96)

1. Examples: Se te cayeron los pantalones! 2. Your pants fell down! Se les olvid el libro. 3. The Spanish language makes use of a special construction with the pronoun se to refer to accidents or evens that we didnt expect to happen. Se + me, te, le, nos, or les + verb + subject Verbs that are commonly used in this construction are: ACABAR, CAER, OLVIDAR, PERDER, and ROMPER

They forgot the book. A Julia se le acab la comida. Julia ran out of food. Structure: The Imperfect Subjunctive tense The Imperfect Subjunctive is used when the tense in the main or dependent clause are in the past. It is found in the dependent clasue after que ususally describing the action in the past. The main clause will either be in a past indicative tense (preterite, imperfect, past perfect, or conditional) or possibly in a present or future tense. How its formed: Take the 3rd person plural form of the preterite 1. 2.

Hablar- hablaron Take off the on at the end and add the endings: a, as, a, amos, an The nosotros/as form as an accent on the third to last syllable (i.e. hablramos, comiramos..) Structure: The Past Perfect Subjunctive tense The Past Perfect (Pluperfect) is simply a form of the imperfect subjunctive. It refers to an action that occurred prior to another action, or prior to a specific point in time in the past. It is also found after verbs of emotion, like the imperfect subjunctive. How to form the Pluperfect: Take the imperfect subjunctive form of HABER and add a past participle Hubiera, hubieras, hubiera, hubiramos, hubieran + hablado, visto, vuelto..etc.

1. Structure: Which form of the Subjunctive to use? If the sentence calls for the subjunctive, and if the verb in the main clause is in the: Present, present perfect, future, future perfect, or command form Then choose: a present or past subjunctive: present subjunctive, present perfect subjunctive, imperfect subjunctive, or pluperfect (past perfect) subjunctive If the sentence calls for the subjunctive, and if the verb in the main clause is in the:

Preterite, imperfect, pluperfect, conditional, or conditional perfect Then choose: a past subjunctive: imperfect subjunctive or pluperfect (past perfect) subjunctive Structure: The Subjunctive after verbs and expressions of Doubt. The subjunctive reflects the fact that the action or idea of the dependent clause may not take place or may never have taken place. Examples of doubtful phrases: Dudo que, niego que, no creo que, no es probable que, es probable que, no es posible que, es posible que, no es cierto que..etc. After each que the subjunctive comes into use in the dependent clause. If the main clasue expresses doubt about the verb in the dependent clause, you must use the subjunctive.

Structure: The Subjunctive or the indicative after Impersonal expressions 1. Examples: Es verdad que uno y uno son dos. 2. Most impersonal expressions will require the subjunctive after que, however, some express certainty and do not need it. The most common ones are: Es cierto, es claro, es evidente, es indiscutible, es obvio, es seguro, and es verdad. All use que after them in the dependent clause with a verb in the indicative, not the subjunctive. All these phrases express certainty, not doubt. Its true that one and one are two.

Era claro que mi hermano poda nadar. It was clear that my brother could swim. Structure: The Subjunctive after undefined / indefinite Antecedents or Negatives 1. Examples: No hay nadie que hable mucho en esta clase. 2. There is no one that talks alot in this class. No existe un elefante que pueda volar.

3. This form of subjunctive occurs when the subject of the main clause is not definite or may not even exist. The subject in the main clause isnt true, doesnt or hasnt existed; it is a ghost clause. There is no elephant that can fly. Hay alguien que desee acompaarme a la fiesta? Is there anyone who wants to accompany me to the party? Structure: The Subjunctive after some Adverbial expressions 1. Examples: Voy a salir ahora a menos que quieras hablar conmigo.

2. The most common adverbial expressions can be remembered by ESCAPA: En caso de que- in case, Sin que- without, Con tal que- provided that, A menos que- unless, Para que- in order that, and Antes de que- before. Each of these expressions ends with que and must have the subjunctive, no matter what. Im going to leave now unless you want to talk to me. Vas a salir sin que yo te hable. You are going to leave without my speaking to you. Structure: The use of the Imperfect Subjunctive to make polite requests The imperfect subjunctive can also be used to make a polite request, an alternative to the conditional. It uses the following verbs: DEBER, PODER, and QUERER. Examples: Debiramos ir al cine. Tienes dinero?

1. 2. Pudiramos pasar un rato en el parque? 3. We should go to the movies. Do you have money? Could we spend time in the park? Quisira hablar con mis amigos, por favor. Id like to speak with my friends, please. Structure: The use of se to express the passive voice or an impersonal subject

1. Examples: Se busca una criada nueva en esa casa. 2. A new maid is being searched for in that house. Se desean profesores de espaol. 3. The passive voice can be formed by using se before the verb in the sentence. The verb will be in the 3rd person singular or plural. Se + verb + subject Spanish teachers are wanted.

Se venden carros aqu. Cars are sold here. Structure: The use of the 3rd Person Plural (undefined) to express the Passive Voice To form the passive voice, simply use the indefinite 3rd person plural form. Examples: Construyeron esos edificios en 1990. 1. 2. Hablan espaol in Puerto Rico. 3.

Spanish is spoken in Puerto Rico. Dicen que va a llover hoy. 4. Those buildings were built in 1990. They say that it is going to rain today. Lo descubrieron en Mxico. It was discovered in Mexico. Structure: Punctuation and Spanish Capitalization (Bk III p.220) Upside down question marks and exclamation point are found at the beginning of a sentence that is a question or an exclamation, or at the point in the sentence that is the actual question

Spanish notations: 5,000- 5.000 5.5%- 5,5% $1,000,000.55- $1.000.000,55 Cents- centavos In dialogue: Bailas bien, no? Periods and commas are found outside quotations, not inside like in English. Months, days of the week, and nationalities arent capitalized.

El martes, noviembre, norteamericano. Structure: The uses of the word lo Adjectives or adverbs can function as abstract nouns in combination with the article lo. Lo is often used with verbs such as SER, ESTAR, and PARECER to represent a previously stated idea or description. Lo is also used in many idiomatic expressions: a lo lejos- in the distance, a lo mejor- probably, lo de siempre- the same as usual. Examples: 1. Comprendo lo peligrosos que son esos ladrones.

2. Mi amigo y yo siempre pensamos lo mismo. 3. I understand how dangerous those robbers are. My friend and I always think the same. No nos gusta lo despacio que ella se peina el pelo. We dont like how slowly she combs her hair. Structure: The uses of PERO, SINO and SINO QUE Pero, sino, and sino que, meaning but, nevertheless, or but rather, are words used to help connect clauses within sentences.

Pero is the most common way to say but and is found after affirmative clauses or after negaive clauses when there are no direct contrasts of equivalent parts of speech. Sino can mean but rather and is used after a negative clause when there is a direct contradiction in the second clause. No soy alta, sino baja. Im not tall, but (rather) short. Sino que also means but rather and is found after negative clauses when there is a contradicting idea expressed with a conjugated verb in the second clause. No preparamos enchiladas en esta cocina, sino que las comemos. We dont prepare enchiladas in this kitchen, but rather we eat them. Intermediate Low (4) Function Make suggestions / Give Advice Structure: The SUBJUNCTIVE The SUBJUNCTIVE is formed by taking the yo form of the verb, dropping the o and adding the opposite (AR or ER)

ending. Hablar Habl- Hable, hables, hable, hablemos, hablen. Comer Com- Coma, comas, coma, comamos, coman. Tener Teng- Tenga, tengas, tenga, tengamos, tengan. Intermediate Low (4) Function Make suggestions / Give Advice Structure: Irregular SUBJUNCTIVE The following verbs are IRREGULAR in the subjunctive tense. DAR-d, des, d, demos, den ESTAR-est,ests,est,estemos,estn HABER-haya / hayan IR-vaya,vayas,vaya,vayamos,vayan SABER-sepa,sepas,sepa,sepamos,sepan SER-sea, seas, sea, seamos, sean Intermediate Low (4) Function Make suggestions / Give Advice

Practice: 1. I think that you are crazy. 2. She doubts that I am rich. 3. We hope they can drive well 4. I want you to shut up! 5. I need a person that is funny. Intermediate Low (4) Function Make suggestions / Give Advice Structure: The SUBJUNCTIVE with the verbs SUGERIR + RECOMENDAR Use RECOMENDAR, SUGERIR, y ACONSEJAR coupled with the subjunctive tense to give advice or make suggestions Les sugiero que corran mucho. Te recomiendo que no hables en la clase. Me aconseja que aplique ahora. Intermediate Low (4) Function Make suggestions / Give Advice

Practice: Completen las frases! 1. Te recomiendo que 2. Te sugerimos que 3. El doctor me aconseja que 4. Nos recomienda que 5. Me aconsejas que Intermediate Low (4) Function Express your opinion Structure: Impersonal Expressions (2-234) and the SUBJUNCTIVE Use impersonal expressions + the subjunctive to express your opinion. Es Es Es

Es Es Es bueno que Es malo que importante que Es mejor que lgico que Es peligroso que posible que Es probable que raro que Es ridculo que triste que Es una lstima que Intermediate Low (4) Function Express your opinion Practice: Completen las frases! 1. Es lgico que 2. Es probable que 3. Es raro que 4. Es una lstima que 5. Es peligroso que Intermediate Mid (5) Function Describing subsequent actions

Structure: The Conditional Tense The CONDITIONAL is used to describe an action subsequent to another past action or to a time in the past. Just as the present and future are linked, (T dices que llover), likewise the conditional and past are linked. Last week Tessa told me she would arrive by 9:00am La semana pasada Tessa me dijo que llegara a las nueve. Intermediate Mid (5) Function Describing subsequent actions Structure: The Conditional Tense The CONDITIONAL is formed by taking the infinitive of any AR/ER/IR verb and adding the following endings:

a, as, a, amos, an HABLARhablara, hablaras COMERcomera, comeras VIVIRvivira, viviras Intermediate Mid (5) Function Describing subsequent actions Structure: IRREGULAR verbs in the Conditional Tense The following verbs conditional tense. HACER - hara CABER cabra PODER podra SABER sabra SALIR saldra VALER valdra

are irregular in the DECIR dira HABER habra QUERER-querra PONER pondra TENER tendra VENDER-vendra Intermediate High (6) Function Express conjecture or wonder about past events Structure: The Conditional Tense The CONDITIONAL is used to express conjecture or wonder about past events, what may have happened Using the Conditional tense when the

preterit or imperfect would be expected creates this conditional of conjecture. Qu hora sera? (I wonder) What time was it? La chica estara en casa ayer. The girl was (probably) at home yesterday Novice Mid (2) Function Persuading Others Structure: The verb DEBER The verb DEBER means should or ought to

Debes comer buena comida. You Ella debe hacer ejercicios. She should eat good food. should exercise. Ellos deben ir a la escuela. They should go to school. Novice Mid (2) Function Persuading Others Practice: 1. You should rest your legs. 2. She should close her eyes. 3. They should take the pill.

4. We should ask for medicine. 5. I should go to the hospital. Novice Mid (2) Function Describe Daily Routine Structure: Reflexive Verbs (2-187) Reflexive verbs use reflexive pronouns to bounce or reflect the action back to the speaker. Reflexive pronouns include ME, TE, SE, NOS, SE, and are placed in front of the conjugated (changed) verb. Me afeito en la maana. Te cepillas los dientes en la noche. Ella se lava la cara en el bao. Novice Mid (2) Function Describe body parts and pain Structure: The verb DOLERSE and body part vocabulary The verb DOLERSE is very similar to GUSTARSE.

Me duele la pierna. My leg hurts. Te duelen los ojos. Your eyes hurt. Nos duelen las manos. Our hands hurt. Novice High (3) Function Talk about feelings

Structure: The verb ESTAR or SENTIRSE or TENER and vocabulary (1-195) ESTAR can be coupled with emotional vocabulary like triste, contento, deprimido, aburrido, etc. TENER is used with the following vocab (1229) Calor, fro, cuidado, miedo, prisa, razn, sueo, suerte, hambre, and sed. Yo tengo prisa = Im in a hurry. SENTIRSE means to feel and is reflexive. Me siento mal. Ella se siente bien. Te sientes enfermo. Novice Mid (3) Function

Describe time periods Structure: HACE QUE expressions Use HACE + period of time + que + present tense to describe how long it has been or how long it has been going on. Hace cuatro aos que quiero hablar con ella. (Ive wanted to talk to her for 4 years). Hace una hora que lo espero. (Ive been waiting for him for an hour). If asking a question, use Cunto tiempo + hace que + present tense. Cunto tiempo hace que miras la TV?

How long have you been watching TV? Intermediate Low (4) Function Describe time periods in the past Structure: HACE QUE expressions When discussing actions in the past or time periods in the past, use HACE + time + que + PRETERIT for describing how long AGO it has been Hace un ao que yo vi un monstruo = I saw a monster one year ago. HACA + time + que + IMPERFECT for describing how long HAD it been Haca dos aos que yo vea un monstruo = It had been two years since I saw a monster Intermediate Low (4) Function

Describe time periods in the past Practice: 1. They used the medicine a year ago. 2. She had problems with her ankle four months ago. 3. It had been 6 days since he had talked to her. 4. How long ago did you eat that? 5. How long had it been before you kissed your dog?

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