French Revolution

French Revolution

FRENCH REVOLUTION SEVEN REASONS FOR THE REVOLUTION 1. FRANCE STILL LABORED UNDER THE ARCHAIC FEUDAL SYSTEM. IN FRANCE THE PEASANTS WERE AWARE OF THE INHERENT UNFAIRNESS OF THEIR SITUATION AND WANTED TO CHANGE IT DESPERATELY. 2. THE ESTATE SYSTEM WAS UNFAIR, AND PLACED AN UNREASONABLE AMOUNT OF ECONOMIC BURDEN ON THE THIRD ESTATE. 3. THE MIDDLE-CLASS, OR BOURGEOISIE WAS COMPLETELY EXCLUDED FROM POLITICAL POWER. 4. THE ENLIGHTENMENT AND THE ENLIGHTENMENT AUTHORS WERE READ MORE WIDELY IN FRANCE THAN ANYWHERE ELSE AND HAD A TREMENDOUS IDEOLOGICAL INFLUENCE ON THE PEOPLE.

5. THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 6. THE MONARCHY WAS SEEN AS WASTEFUL AND FRIVOLOUS. 7. FRANCE HAD ONE OF THE LARGEST POPULATIONS IN THE WORLD AND COULDNT FEED IT. REASON ONE SEIGNURIALISM WAS THE LAST HOLDOUT OF FEUDALISM IN FRANCE. UNDER THE SYSTEM, A FRENCH LORD COULD COLLECT A VARIETY OF MONETARY AND MATERIAL PAYMENTS FROM HIS PEASANTS; COULD INSIST THAT NEARBY VILLAGES GRIND THEIR GRAIN IN THE FEUDAL MILL, BAKE THEIR BREAD IN THE FEUDAL OVEN, PRESS THEIR GRAPES IN THE FEUDAL WINE

PRESS; COULD SET THE DATE OF THE GRAPE HARVEST; COULD HAVE LOCAL CASES TRIED IN HIS OWN COURT; COULD CLAIM PARTICULARLY FAVORED BENCHES IN CHURCH FOR HIS FAMILY AND POINT TO FAMILY TOMBS BELOW THE CHURCH FLOOR; COULD TAKE PLEASURES FORBIDDEN THE PEASANTS HUNTING, RAISING RABBITS OR PIGEONS. JOHN MARKOFF, HISTORIAN CHAMPART THE CHAMPART WAS A TAX IN MEDIEVAL FRANCE LEVIED BY LANDOWNERS ON

TENANTS. PAID AS A SHARE OF THE HARVEST, THE AMOUNT DUE VARIED BETWEEN 16 AND 112, AND TYPICALLY 18 OF THE CEREAL CROP. CENS A TAX IN GOODS OR CASH- A SMALL TRIBUTE TO YOUR SEIGNEUR

BANALIT THE SEIGNEUR USUALLY OWNED PUBLIC UTILITIES LIKE GRAIN MILLS, OVENS, WINE PRESSES, AND THE BANALIT DE TOR ET VER, WHICH MEANT YOU HAD TO PAY THE SEIGNEUR A STUD FEE TO MATE YOUR COWS AND PIGS.

COURVE THE COURVEE REQUIRED EACH MALE PEASANT TO PROVIDE SEVERAL DAYS OF UNPAID LABOR ON THE SEIGNEURS OWN PROJECTS, SUCH AS WORKING HIS LAND OR REPAIRING HIS HOUSE, FENCES, BRIDGES OR ROADS.

SO MANY TAXES EVERYONE IN THE THIRD ESTATE PAID THEIR FEUDAL OBLIGATIONS (CHAMPARI AND COURVEE) AND IN ADDITION TO THIS THEY PAID NUMEROUS OTHER TAXES THEY PAID THE GABELLE, OR SALT TAX (VARIED GREATLY FROM LOCATION TO LOCATION) THEY PAID THE CAPITATION OR HEAD TAX THEY PAID THE CENS OR CASH RENT TO THEIR LORD OR SEIGNEUR THEY PAID THE BANALITIES OR USAGE FEES FOR PUBLIC UTILITIES AND FACILITIES THEY PAID THE LOCAL AND NATIONAL TARRIFFS ON GOODS AND SERVICES THEY PAID THE TAILLE, TAILLON, AND THE VINGTIEME.

ESTATE SYSTEM F ir st high clergy and low E clergy st Nobility Second

a Estate t e Third Estate peasants, artisans, laborers, professionals, bourgeoisie (merchants, BOURGEOISIE THE MIDDLE-CLASS, OR BOURGEOISIE WAS

COMPLETELY EXCLUDED FROM POLITICAL POWER. THEY WERE THE RICH, EDUCATED AND MORE THOROUGHLY EXCLUDED FROM POWER THAN THE MIDDLE CLASS IN ANY OTHER COUNTRY. THINK ABOUT WHO IS IN THIS CLASS, AND WHERE YOU MIGHT BE STATIONED.

ENLIGHTENED FRENCHMEN THE ENLIGHTENMENT AND THE ENLIGHTENMENT AUTHORS WERE READ MORE WIDELY IN FRANCE THAN ANYWHERE ELSE AND HAD A TREMENDOUS IDEOLOGICAL INFLUENCE ON THE PEOPLE. LOWER CLASSES WERE MORE LIKELY TO BE LITERATE IN FRANCE THAN IN MANY OTHER COUNTRIES, AND PHILOSOPHY AND POLITICS WERE DISCUSSED

IN BISTROS AND CAFS. AMERICAN REVOLUTION THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION HAD GIVEN THE FRENCH A PRACTICAL MODEL WHICH SHOWED THAT REVOLUTION FROM A MONARCHICAL SYSTEM WAS POSSIBLE. THE FRENCH PARTICIPATION IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION BANKRUPTED

THEIR ECONOMY. IN ALL THE FRENCH SPENT 1.3 BILLION LIVRES TO SUPPORT THE AMERICANS DIRECTLY, IN ADDITION TO THE MONEY IT SPENT FIGHTING BRITAIN ON LAND AND SEA OUTSIDE THE U.S. MONARCHY THE MONARCHY WAS SEEN AS WASTEFUL AND OUT OF TOUCH. THERE IS A CERTAIN TRUTH TO

THAT, BUT THERE IS ALSO A LOT OF MISUNDERSTANDING ABOUT THE KING AND QUEEN, WHO VICTIMS OF BAD PRESS AND BEING IN THE THRONE AT THE WRONG TIME. Let them eat cake!cake! LOUIS XVI & MARIE ANTOINETTE

LOUIS AND MARIE LOUIS AND MARIE WERE THE CHILDREN OF THE TWO MOST POWERFUL ROYAL FAMILIES IN EUROPE. THEY WERE USED TO A LIFE OF LUXURY AND EXPECTED TO MAINTAIN A CERTAIN STANDARD OF LIVING FRANCE WAS THE FASHION CAPITAL OF EUROPE, WHERE LOUIS XIV HAD ALREADY STARTED THE TREND OF WEARING FANCY SLIPPERS WITH HEELS AND HIS MISTRESSES HAD TAKEN TO WEARING ORNATE WIGS. FAMINE AND SHORTAGES FRANCE HAD ONE OF THE

LARGEST POPULATIONS IN EUROPE, AND COULDNT ADEQUATELY FEED IT! THROUGHOUT THE 18TH CENTURY, FRANCE FACED A MOUNTING ECONOMIC CRISIS. A RAPIDLY GROWING POPULATION HAD OUTPACED THE FOOD SUPPLY. A SEVERE WINTER IN 1788 RESULTED IN FAMINE AND WIDESPREAD STARVATION IN THE COUNTRYSIDE. RISING

PRICES IN PARIS BROUGHT BREAD RIOTS. MONEY MARIE TOOK THE FASHIONABLE FRENCH COURT STYLE AND MADE IT EVEN MORE EXAGGERATED AND EXCESSIVE. SHE SPENT OVER $3.6 MILLION A YEAR ON CLOTHING (ABOUT 2 BILLION TOTAL DURING HER TIME AS QUEEN) Virtual Tour of Versailles

http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/searchfr.php?function=find&start=91# LOOMING CRISIS THE MONARCHY WAS IN FINANCIAL TROUBLE. THE MONARCHY ALMOST ALWAYS SPENT MORE EACH YEAR THAN IT COLLECTED IN TAXES CONSEQUENTLY, IT WAS FORCED TO BORROW, WHICH IT DID INCREASINGLY DURING THE 18TH CENTURY. DEBT GREW BECAUSE FRANCE WAS IN A SERIES OF COSTLY WARS THE WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION (1740-1748), THE SEVEN YEARS WAR (1756-1763) THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION (1775-1783).

LARGE EXISTING DEBTS AND A HISTORY OF RENOUNCING EARLIER ONES MEANT THAT THE COUNTRY WAS FORCED TO BORROW AT HIGHER INTEREST RATES THAN SOME OTHER COUNTRIES ADDING TO THE ALREADY MASSIVE DEBT. BY 1789 THE STATE WAS FORCED TO SPEND NEARLY HALF ITS YEARLY REVENUES PAYING THE INTEREST IT OWED. POOR MANAGEMENT LOUIS HAD PROBLEMS. THE TREASURY WAS ALMOST OUT OF MONEY AND WAS FORCED TO STOP MAKING PAYMENTS ON THEIR DEBTS. HIS ECONOMIC ADVISORS HAD ATTEMPTED TO

DEAL WITH THE ISSUES BUT IN MEETINGS WITH NOBLES AND HIS COUNSELORS, LOUIS XVI HAD GOTTEN ANGRY AND REFUSED TO ALLOW THE MEETINGS TO CONTINUE, DISMISSING THEM. THIS ANGERED THE SECOND AND THIRD ESTATES. PEOPLE BEGAN DEMANDING A SESSION OF THE ESTATES GENERAL, WHICH HAD NOT HAD A FULL SESSION SINCE 1614! POLITICAL PROBLEMS LOUIS WAS FACING POLITICAL OPPOSITION OF HIS TAX REFORMS. HE BEGAN ARRESTING AND EXILING POLITICAL ENEMIES.

HE STOPPED MEETINGS OF ALL POLITICAL CLUBS IN PARIS IN APRIL THERE WERE FOOD RIOTS IN PARIS http://pennypalate.files.wordpress.com/2008/12/ bread-riots.jpg THE ESTATES GENERAL WITH THE GOVERNMENT BANKRUPT IN AUGUST 1788, LOUIS FINALLY HAD TO GIVE IN AND CALL A MEETING OF THE ESTATES. (TO HIM, THIS ACTION SHOWED WEAKNESS.)

MAY 1, 1789 THE MEETING BEGINS ON A BAD FOOT, WHEN CONFLICTS ARISE OVER THE ONE ESTATE, ONE VOTE POLICY. THE THIRD ESTATE DEMANDS THAT EACH DEPUTY OF EACH ESTATE HAVE ONE VOTE. SINCE DEPUTIES ARE CHOSEN BY POPULATION, OBVIOUSLY THE THIRD ESTATE WILL HAVE MORE VOTES.

THE ESTATES GENERAL FOR OBVIOUS REASONS, THE FIRST AND SECOND ESTATES BALK AT THIS DEMAND. FOR WEEKS, ALL THEY DISCUSSED WAS THE VOTING ISSUE. FINALLY, THE THIRD ESTATE, WITH A FEW MEMBERS OF THE OTHER ESTATES, MET AND CALLED THEMSELVES THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY. THEY WERE ON THE VERGE OF A SOLUTION, WHEN THEY WERE LOCKED OUT OF THEIR HALL TO PREPARE IT FOR A ROYAL EVENT. THEY BELIEVED THEY WERE BEING LEFT OUT AND IGNORED AND ANGRILY LOOKED FOR A PLACE TO MEET. THE TENNIS COURT

THE NEAREST PLACE THEY COULD ALL MEET WAS AN INDOOR TENNIS COURT. THEY ORGANIZED, AND THERE AGREED TO HOLD COURT (HA HA) UNTIL THEY HAD CREATED A NEW CONSTITUTION. THE KING FINALLY AGREED TO A VOTE BY HEAD AND PEOPLE GOT EXCITED. THE KING GOT NERVOUS, HIS ROYAL TROOPS CAME OUT TO BE ON HAND IN THE EVENT OF TROUBLE, AND THE PEOPLE GOT SCARED. THEY THOUGHT HE WAS ABOUT TO ATTACK THE TENNIS COURT! THE STORMING OF THE BASTILLE

AFRAID THAT LOUIS XVI WOULD HAVE HIS SOLDIERS ARREST THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY, THE PEOPLE OF PARIS STORM THE BASTILLE (JULY 15TH, 1789)WHERE ENEMIES OF THE STATE AND MUNITIONS WERE KEPT. THE GREAT FEAR PEASANTS AND OTHER MEMBERS OF

THE THIRD ESTATE BEGIN ATTACKING FEUDAL LORDS IN THE COUNTRYSIDE AND NOBLES IN CITIES. ARISTOCRATS BEGIN LEAVING FRANCE AND LIVING IN EXILE, FEARING FOR THEIR LIVES. IN AUGUST, FEUDAL RIGHTS ARE SUSPENDED AND THE DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN IS WRITTEN GETSWOMEN WORSE

IN IT OCTOBER MARCH ON VERSAILLES IN THE BREAD RIOTS DEMANDING BREAD OR GRAIN. THEY ATTACKED THE PALACE AND DEMANDED THAT THE ROYAL FAMILY MOVE TO PARIS, TO

THE TUILERIES, THE PALACE THERE. NATIONAL ASSEMBLY THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY TAKES CHARGE OF THE GOVERNMENT. AT FIRST IT SEEMS THAT THEY ARE GOING TO CREATE A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY FLIGHT WHEN IT BECOMES OBVIOUS THAT THE RADICALS ARE TAKING

CHARGE, LOUIS XVI AND MARIE ANTOINETTE DECIDE TO TRY TO ESCAPE TO AUSTRIA. THEY DISGUISE THEMSELVES AS THE SERVANTS OF A RUSSIAN BARONESS, PLAYED BY THEIR GOVERNESS. THEY ARE CAUGHT IN VARENNES AND SENT BACK TO THE TUILERIES. "ARREST OF LOUIS CAPET AT VARENNES" THIS PRINT SHOWS AN ANGRY CROWD OF FERVENT

REVOLUTIONARIES BREAKING DOWN DOORS TO ARREST THE KING. SOURCE: MUSEUM OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION L84.264 "AN EXUBERANT EXECUTIONER" AS 80,000 CROWDED INTO THE SQUARE TO WATCH THE EXECUTION OF LOUIS XVI, THEY CANNOT HAVE BEEN UNAWARE THAT THE GUILLOTINE SAT WHERE A STATUE OF LOUIS XV HAD BEEN. HERE SANSON, THE EXECUTIONER, SNATCHES THE DETACHED HEAD OF LOUIS XVI TO

SHOW TO THE CROWD. HE LEANS FORWARD WITH APPROVING EAGERNESS. IF THE HEAD OF THE KING WAS THE MOST RECOGNIZABLE OLD REGIME SYMBOL, THEN THE DEMISE OF THAT SYMBOLIC SYSTEM BECOMES NOW COMPLETE. http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/browse/images/# MARIE & THE CHILDREN MARIE WAS TRIED SOON

AFTERWARDS AND EXECUTED IN 1793. HER TWO CHILDREN HAD BEEN HELD WITH HER, JUST BEFORE HER EXECUTION, LOUISCHARLES WAS TAKEN FROM HER AND IMPRISONED FOR THE REST OF HIS LIFE. HE DIED AT 10 OF TUBERCULOSIS.

REVOLUTIONARIES AFTER THE FLIGHT TO VARENNES AND THE ESCALATION OF THE FIGHT OVER THE ROLE OF THE KING IN THE GOVERNMENT THINGS GOT MORE RADICAL. THE CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY DISSOLVED AND A MAN NAMED MAXIMILIEN ROBESPIERRE ROSE TO

POWER. MAXIMILLIAN ROBESPIERRE THE INCORRUPTIBLE HE WAS A LAWYER FROM THE COUNTRY AND HAD A REPUTATION OF BEING OF UPSTANDING MORAL CHARACTER. HE IS APPOINTED TO HEAD THE COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY. HE QUICKLY LOSES HIS CALM. HE DEMANDED THE EXECUTION OF THE KING AND BECAME VERY RADICAL. HIS FRIENDS BEGAN TO DOUBT HIM AND HE TURNED

ON THEM AND HAD THEM EXECUTED ONE BY ONE. HE BEGAN THE REIGN OF TERROR, WHERE 30-40,000 PEOPLE LOST THEIR LIVES. CHANGES MADE BY ROBESPIERRE 1. HE ENDED SLAVERY 2. HE FORCED DEISM ON FRANCE, PUSHING A DECHRISTIANIZATION AGENDA. 3. HE CREATED THE CULT OF THE SUPREME BEING 4. CREATED THE FRENCH REPUBLICAN CALENDAR 5. DECIMALIZATION OF TIME, MONEY AND IMPLEMENTATION OF METRIC SYSTEM

6. COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY MADE PEOPLE INFORM ON EACH OTHER. "The Death of Robespierre" This engraving, based on a color portrait by Beys, depicts the death of Robespierre on the guillotine. The executioners wear not the traditional

hangmans hood but red bonnets representing liberty. This judgment notes Robespierres failure to the Revolution itself. Contemporaries emphasized that Robespierres punishment was just

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