Forensics - DNA analysis

Forensics - DNA analysis

DNA analysis DNA typing (genotyping) History A marker is any polymorphic Mendelian character that can be used to follow a chromosomal segment through a pedigree. Phenotypical markers: E.g. blood groups Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

(RFLP) markers The discovery of restriction enzymes not only provided a way to engineer the DNA, but for the first time, provided a marker that encompassed entire chromosome. Forensics DNA analysis RFLP

History Southern analysis Fragment length analysis Frequency Pattern used to identify individuals Minisatellite Variable Repeat Polymorphism (Analysis)

First locus identified: D1S8 1990, Alec Jeffrey 19 bp for each repeat containing highly variable 1 bp in the HaeIII site Hundreds markers give sifficient polymorphism

Forensics DNA analysis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Discovery Principles Application examples The case of the Russian Czar The case of English Royals Crime scene identification

1 2 2 4

3 8 4 16

5 32 6 64

7 128 8 256

9 512 10 1024

11 2048 12 4096

13 8192 14 16384

15 32768 16 65536

17 131072 18 262144

19 524288 20 1048576

21 2097152 22 4194304

23 8388608 24 16777216

25 33554432 26 67108864

27 1.34E+08 28 2.68E+08

29 5.37E+08 30 1.07E+09

Short Tandem Repeats Forensics DNA analysis Single Nucleotide Polymorphism - SNP Sequence Polymorphism DQ1

Sequence Polymorphism Consideration of Markers

RFLP DQ1 STR (VNTR) SNP

Restriction enzymes Blot PCR DNA micro array Better Polymorphism

Increased Density Less Sample Amounts Easier Test More Expensive Length Hybridization Length

Hybridization Finding Common Characteristics of elements ---Can you find common characters in the following figures? 1. These are jollos. 2. These are plotz.

3. Which are jollos and which are plotz? A B C

D E The bungled burglary or The burglar

that couldnt The missing person case: Using PCR based polymarker loci GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, GC DQA1, STR TRIPLET. Gender identification locus: amelogenin

Suspect & roommate excluded from blood on carpet and shoes. Roommate excluded. Suspect pled to first degree murder. The gender ID marker

The case of disappearing sperm: DQ was the only locus validated for PCR testing in forensics at the time. No conclusion can be drawn from the test results The OJ Simpson case

This was a few years ago. Now SNP typing marker concentration = one million / genome RFLP results 5 and 6; 7 and 9 are

indistinguishable 3 5 13

Lane 3: Victim control Lane 5: Vaginal swab Lane 13: Andrew The first RFLP case (State v. Tommy Lee Andrews)

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