Forensic Serology YouTube - The Sam Sheppard case Introduction 1901- Karl Landsteiner recognized that human blood was distinguishable by its group or type Bloodstains are often found at crime scenes (homicides, assaults, rapes, etc.)
Blood Factors (like A-B-O, Rh factor, and others) have been used to link a crime to a suspect or a victim. Since the early 1990s, DNA technology has completely changed the way in which bloodstains and other biological evidence is individualized. The Nature of Blood Blood is composed of : Plasma- the fluid portion of unclotted blood Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes) White blood cells (leukocytes) Platelets Serum-yellowish liquid that separates from blood when a clot has formed.
Antigens and Antibodies Antigens-substances, usually proteins, found on the surface of red blood cells that give the cells specific characteristics Antibodies-proteins found in blood serum that destroy or inactivate a specific antigen by binding to it. Agglutination-clumping together of red blood
cells cause by an antigen/antibody interaction Serology-the study of antigen-antibody reactions Blood Typing Serology the study of antigenantibody reactions. Distribution of blood types in the U.S.: O 43% A 42 % B
12 % AB 3% Blood Types Blood Type Antigens on Red Blood Cells A A B B AB
AB O Antibodies in Serum Anti-B Anti-A Neither anti-A nor Anti-B Neither A nor B Both anti-A and Anti-B Forensic Characterization of Bloodstains Bloodstains must be analyzed to
determine: 1. Is it blood? 2. From what species did the blood originate? 3. How closely can it be associated with a particular individual? Forensic Characterization of Bloodstains Color Tests-Kastle-Meyer testoxidation of hemoglobin in blood produces a deep pink color.
Luminol-reaction with blood produces light; faint blue glow known as luminescence; very sensitive technique Immunoassays-Antigen-antibody reactions are used to identify blood and also detect drugs in blood Forensic Characterization of Bloodstains Microcyrstalline tests-Takayama and
Teichmann tests; substances form crystals when they come in contact with hemoglobin; less sensitive than color tests Precipitin test-used to detect human blood Gel diffusion-another method for detecting human blood.
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