Foreign Aid, Foreign Policy and Development Management

Foreign Aid, Foreign Policy and Development Management

FOREIGN AID, FOREIGN POLICY AND DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT Louis A. Picard PIA 2096/PIA 2490 Week Six Foreign Aid Course VIETNAM Vietnam: Why? Fall

of China French Part Civilizing Mission of Marshall Plan March of Folly? (Barbara Tuchman) Vietnam: The Early Years

Beginnings-1951. Economic and Military Assistance Program in Indo-China Then Part of the French Empire 1954. U.S. subsidizing French Rule and fight against Communism in Vietnam Domino

Theory The Model Six Asian countries: - Formosa, the three Associated States of Indochina, Thailand and the Philippines, ECA programs[i] wereaccompanied by military assistance programs, the latter being administered by United States Military Assistance Advisory Groups.[ii] [i] [ii]

Economic Cooperation Administration. Walter R. Sharp, International Technical Assistance (Chicago: Public Administration Service, 1952), p. 48. Why we were in Vietnam? We aid other countries with whom our relationships may be more nearly correct than cordial, because we believe that it is in our interests to maintain friendly contacts with their governments and their people and to keep them

from going behind the Iron Curtain.[i] [i] Speech by Arthur Z. Gardiner, Director United States Operations Mission in Viet-nam, address given to the Saigon Rotary Club on September 22, 1960 (Washington, D.C.: Department of State and U.S. Government Printer, 1961). Context Controversy developed over the use and

abuse of foreign aid at the end of the 1950s. Malayan William Model J. Lederer and Eugene Burdick published a highly influential (and controversial) book, The Ugly American (New York: Fawcett, 1960) Counter-narrative Graham

Greenes much better book: The Quiet American ( Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1957). Critique of U.S. assumptions about Asia Creation of U.S. Agency for International Development

to strengthen friendly foreign countries by encouraging the development of their free economic institutions and productive capabilities, and by minimizing or eliminating barriers to the flow of private investment capital.[i] A Permanent Organizational Structure. [i] Public Law 87-195 as published by the United

States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., September 4, 1961. The Models Winning Hearts and Minds Villagization Fortified program Phoenix Rural Community Development

Villages- The Strategic Hamlet Program (The Use of force against civilians including assassination and Torture) The Assumption Americans assumed a particular kind of relationship with the Vietnamese; they had expected the Vietnamese to trust them, to take their advice with gratitude, and to cooperate in their mutual enterprise of defeating the Communists.[i]

[i] Frances FitzGerald, Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in Vietnam (New York: Vintage, 1972), P. 368. Rural Development John Paul Vann in the late 1960s symbolized U.S. special operations in Vietnam. Overtly he was an USAID official in the office of Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support (CORDS).[i]

[i] David Maraniss, They Marched into Sunlight: War and Peace, Vietnam and America, October 1967 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003), p. 339. The Book NEIL SHEEHAN A Bright Shining Lie : John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam (New York: Vintage Books, 1988). Picards View

Represents the Best and Worst of Foreign Aid Policy We had to burn the village in order to save it Strategies of Community Develop and capacity building have their origins in 1950s Vietnam

The Best Focus Rural credit on Community Development Industrialization and (later) micro- Foreign Basic Aid Field Officers- on the ground

Needs The End: 1965 Shift Ten from Assistance to War Year Conflict Parallel with Iraq (Imagining Ten years of an Iraq involvement)

Donor Fatigue: 1975 The Legacy The Legacy of Vietnam for the Third World was to solidify in the minds of LDC intellectuals and elites an image of the West which made no distinction between the United States and the Western European former colonial powers.[i] [i]

Edmund Stillman and William Pfaff, Power and Impotence: The Failure of Americas Foreign Policy (New York: Random House, 1966), p. 163.. The Counter Narrative GOAL: To conceive of a rival hypothesis that could reverse perceived reality and provides a possible policy option for future attention because of its very plausibility. Three Views of Foreign Aid- A

Reminder 1. Part of Balance of Power- Carrot and Stick Approach (based on exchange Theory 2. Commercial Promotion: Focus on International Trade 3. Humanitarian Theory: Moral Imperative Why Foreign Aid? U.N. Ambassador Jeanne Kirkpatricks alleged comment about why we provided foreign aid to Zaires Mobutu

He may be a Son-of-a-Bitch but hes Our Son-of-a-Bitch. Three Views of Foreign Aid- A Reminder 1. Part of Balance of Power- Carrot and Stick Approach (based on exchange Theory 2. Commercial Promotion: Focus on International Trade 3. Humanitarian Theory: Moral Imperative

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