Forces and Newtons Laws of Motion What is a Force? In generic terms: a force is a push or a pull exerted on an object that could cause one of the following to occur: A linear acceleration of the object A change in the objects direction A deformation of the objects shape

Newtons Laws of motion focus on the first 2 possibilities Units for Force: newton (N) 1 N = 1 kgms-2 Contact vs. At-a-Distance Contact Forces: Those forces which require a physical contact between two objects At-a-Distance Forces: Those forces which are exerted on objects even when there is no contact between them:

A Gravitational force Electrostatic force Magnetic force Field is used to explain how at-a-distance forces act. Some common forces (more details to come) Weight (equivalent to the force of gravity acting on an object) Tension (forces in chains, string, rope, etc.

that have been pulled taut) Friction (a force acting between two surfaces in contact with each other in order to resist sliding) Normal force (the support force directed perpendicularly away from the surface on which an object is resting) Free-Body diagrams Step 1: draw a dot to represent the object upon which the forces are being exerted Step 2: draw vectors to indicate the strength and the direction of each force acting on the object (label these

vectors clearly!) F normal F friction F F g push Expectations: Tails of force vectors must connect at the

central dot**, which is assumed to be drawn at the center of mass of the object **Note: in IB questions, often you are asked to draw forces at the point of application rather than all connected through the center dot, especially when you are drawing on a diagram. Force vectors must be drawn proportional to each other (magnitudes) and in proper directions Be neat and careful Label each vector clearly and appropriately Why Free-body diagrams?

Main purpose is to give us a visual indication of the Net Force Net Force: The vector sum of all forces acting on an object Balanced Forces: when the net force is equal to zero, the forces acting on an object are said to be Balanced, and the object is in Equilibrium Equilibrium Occurs when the Net Force (Vector sum) is equal

to zero Two Categories of equilibrium: Translational equilibrium: Occurs when the object is already at rest, and remains at rest (not moving linearly) Dynamic equilibrium: Occurs when the object is moving, and remains moving at a constant velocity Common Forces: Weight

(Fg) Depends on the strength of the gravitational field Weight is the force that is required to make a mass accelerate at the local acceleration due to gravity Here on Earths surface: the weight of a mass is the force required to accelerate an object at 9.81 ms-2 towards the center of the Earth. Fg m g

What is the weight of a ball with a mass of 275 g? What is the Mass of an 87.5 N cat? m=8.92 kg Tension (FT) The force that arises in an inelastic object as a result of it being stretched Created when two forces are applied in opposite directions at the ends of a string (or rope, or chain, or wire)

Example: A lamp (m = 15.0 kg) is hung from the ceiling by a strong cord. What is the tension in the cord, assuming the lamp is in equilibrium? = Mini-lab: Forces in Equilibrium You will be working in pairs to complete this interactive equilibrium problem. You will measure what forces keep a system balanced, and then you will discuss how accurate your

measurements are. Normal Force (FN) A force directed perpendicularly away from a surface Generally considered a support force, as it often has at least some component acting opposite to the weight of an object. Example: the force you feel pushing up from the floor on your feet is the normal force exerted by the floor. When you step on a bathroom scale, the reading you get from the scale is equivalent to the normal force

30 second breakget a whiteboard (1 for each person in the group) Examples of Normal Force: What is the normal force when a box is just resting on the horizontal ground? A box, resting on a horizontal floor, is being pulled with a force directed up and to the right. What can be said about

the normal force? A box, resting on a horizontal floor, is being pushed with a force directed down and to the right. What can be said about the normal force? A box is at rest on an inclined plane. What can be said about the normal force? Practice Problem: A

large bird, m = 7.25 kg, is sitting on the center of a wire so that each side of the wire dips to an angle 11.2 below the horizontal. Draw a free-body diagram showing the forces acting on the bird to keep it in equilibrium Determine the tension that is acting in each side of the wire. Extension: Same bird, and it now landed so that the

angle the right-side of the cable was 10.0 relative to the horizontal, and the left side was 37.0 relative to the horizontal? What is the tension on each side of the cable (Im looking for 2 separate answers)? Practice #2do this in your warm-ups A 12.5 kg box is at rest on a ramp that has been inclined to 25.0 to the horizontal. Draw a free-body diagram for the box

Determine the magnitudes of each of the following: Weight of the box Normal force acting on the box Force of friction that is preventing it from sliding down the ramp Practice #3: (do this in your warm-ups, too) Micah, Jonah, and Allison are pulling on ropes attached to a ring. They have been challenged to pull in such a way that the ring stays centered around a post, and they each must pull with a

different force. Micah pulls with a force of 455 N, 25.0 NE Jonah pulls with a force of 332 N, due W With what force must Allison pull in order to keep the ring in equilibrium? Newtons 1st Law of Motion An object at rest will remain at rest, and an object in motion will continue its state of uniform motion until an outside net force acts on it. So

what does this mean??? Objects are in a state of equilibrium as long as they do not experience a net force If a body is at rest, it will remain so If a body is moving, it will continue to move in a straight line at a constant velocity Inertia An objects tendency to remain in its current state of motion (or state of rest) Inertia

is a qualitative property It is directly related to an objects mass, but Inertia itself does NOT have a value The more massive an object is, the more difficult it is to change its state of motion. Applications of 1st Law Seatbelts Feeling like youre thrown against the car door

Removing something from lower in a pile Other ideas? Newtons 2nd law of motion So what happens if the forces acting on an object are NOT balanced? Net force 0 N The net force on a body is proportional to that bodys acceleration and is in the same direction as the acceleration Mathematically speaking:

Fnet m a Practice Problem: (do this in your warm-ups, too) Sally, m = 45.0 kg, is sitting on a sled that has a mass of 3.5 kg. The force of friction acting between the sled and the snow is 30.0 N. Linus is pulling Sally and the sled with a force of 150. N at an angle of 35.0 to the horizontal.

Draw a free-body diagram showing the forces acting on the sled/Sally system. What is the weight of the system? What is the Normal Force acting on the system? What is the initial acceleration of the system? Solution for free body diagram: What is the weight of the system? What is the Normal Force acting on the system, assuming he is pulling with 125 N?

What force would allow him to pull at a constant velocity? What is the initial acceleration of the system if Linus pulls with 75 N more force than before? M = (45.0 + 3.5) kg M = 48.5 kg Ff = 30.0 N Turn and Talk: (put your ranking in your notes) Rank the following with regards to how much force would be necessary to start the object moving (sliding) across a surface. Be

prepared to explain your reasoning: A sled with a Golden Retriever on it, across dry pavement A sled with Golden Retriever on it, across an icy road A sled with a St. Bernard AND a Golden Retriever on it, across an icy road Friction (Ff) A force that acts between two surfaces

that are in contact with each other, and opposite to the direction an object is sliding or wants to slide. Static Friction The friction between two surfaces that are at rest relative to each other Dynamic Friction The friction between two surfaces that are sliding relative to each other Coefficient of Friction (m)

A ratio of the frictional force to the normal force acting on an object resting or sliding across a surface. Unitless value Surfaces that experience less friction generally have smaller coefficients Coefficient of static friction: ms Coefficient of dynamic (kinetic) friction: md or mk = Sample Problem: A 53.0 kg box is pushed along a surface with a horizontal force of 275 N. If the box accelerates at a rate of 3.25 ms-2,

what is the force of friction acting on the box? What is the coefficient of dynamic friction between the box and the floor? Sample Problem 2: A 3.75 kg book is resting on a slanted desktop. The desktop makes an angle of 18.5 with the horizontal. Since the book is at rest, what is the force

of friction holding it in place? What is the normal force acting on the book when the desk is angled at 18.5? What is the coefficient of static friction between the book and the desk?