Energy in Ecosystem s Food Chains, Food Webs and Energy Pyramids Courtesy: www.lab-initio.com Producers (Autotrophs) Photosynthetic organisms
Capture energy from sunlight, CO2 and H2O Most producers are photosynthetic Chemosynthetic organisms Capture energy from chemical compounds in the surroundings Consumers (Heterotrophs) Herbivores
Eat only plants and fungi Omnivores Eat both plants/fungi and animals Carnivores Eat only animals Detrivores Eat dead organic matter Decomposers Break down organic matter into simpler
compounds Movement of Energy Trophic Structures Manner in which energy moves through an ecosystem Each ecosystem has its own unique trophic structure Biotic Energy Movement Producers Autotrophs (Photosynthesizers, Chemosynthetic organisms)
Primary consumers Herbivores and omnivores that eat producers Secondary consumers Carnivores and omnivores that eat herbivores Tertiary consumers Carnivore eats another carnivore Decomposers and Detrivores Consume decaying producers and consumers
Food Chain Energy is lost in each step up a food chain Only 10 percent of the energy from one level on the food chain is available to the next level Food Webs Many consumers and
decomposers have more than one food source Movement of energy occurs in complex webs rather than in simple chains Arctic Marine Food Web A Simplified Food Web? Energy Pyramids
Energy pyramids show the reduction of available energy at each higher trophic level Biomass Distribution Why a Pyramid? Producers Producers must must comprise comprise most
most of of the the mass mass of of the the biotic biotic part part of of an an ecosystem ecosystem
This This is is the the ONLY ONLY place place where where energy energy (solar) (solar) enters enters the the ecosystem ecosystem
Energy Energy is is always always lost lost in in the the form form of of heat, heat, so so energy
energy transfers transfers are are no no more more than than 10% 10% efficient efficient Each Each trophic trophic level level must
must be be supported supported by by aa 10/1 10/1 energy energy ratio ratio below below it it The 10% Rule
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