Following a Code of Conduct and Addressing Ethical Dilemmas
AAISA - Summit Friday, 21 September 2018 1:00 PM Somnoma Valerie Ouedraogo, PhD, MSW, RSW MacEwan University Faculty of Health and Community Studies School of Social Work 10700 104 Avenue NW Edmonton, AB, Canada T5J 4S2 [email protected] Following a Code of Conduct and Addressing Ethical Dilemmas
Professional Values, Ethics, and Relationships: A Social Work Perspective Agenda Code of ethic Ethical responsibilities, principles, and dilemmas Situations and context of ethical dilemmas Self-determination: a model for addressing safe workplace environment as an ethical issue Empowerment: a model for addressing ethical dilemma with clients as research participants Restitution an example of a research using interactive tools to report research results back to population (participants to a research) Code of Ethic
Defines basic principles to guide professional activities, responsibilities, and roles with a purpose to: Give professionals themselves grounds for safeguarding their professional freedom and integrity Support professionals by providing standards of practice when in areas of conflict Clarify professionals responsibility to clients and society Give society some guarantee that professionals will demonstrate a sensible regard for societal expectations Ethical Responsibilities Ethical Responsibilities: Social Work Perspective Employing Organizations
Commitment to the employing organization (vision, mission, code of conduct, practice principles) Clients Commitment to the client (duty to client, self-determination,
confidentiality and Privacy, setting boundaries) Profession Respecting and maintaining the Integrity of the Profession Colleagues
Treat them with respect Respect confidential information shared Sexual relationships are discouraged Report colleagues who do not take own action to protect clients Society
Promote general welfare Core Values - Ethical Principles Service Competence Integrity Soci ety
Social Justice Client Dignity and worth of the person Importance of human relationships Situations of Ethical Dilemmas
Society Client Violated responsibility to larger society or legal sanctions Danger to self (client) or others (workers, third person) Disclose (Reporting) Dual (Multiple) Relationships (conflict of interest) Context of Ethical Dilemmas Promoting safe workplace environment
Collaborating with academics on research projects while focusing on protecting clients Engaging in direct and indirect practice with Undocumented newcomers Promoting safe workplace environment Social workers have Guidelines for social workers safety in the workplace (NASW) composed of 11 standards For all human service professionals I observed that there are three dimensions that need to be considered: In office Home visits Rapport or Relationship building with the clients
Promoting safe workplace environment cont Rapport or Relationship building with the clients To feel valued, respected, and included required a daily based work on feelings which in settlement work context can be the following: Shock Acculturation (change in Assimilation behaviours and ways of Anxiety (incorporation of perceiving themselves and
culture, values, and Fear the new world around patterns of another them) culture Anger Integration (full participation in Acceptance social, economic, political, educational, and cultural life while retaining ones own unique identity)
Self-determination Practice Model Self-determination in social work is an ethical principle referring to the right and needs of clients to make choices and decisions based on their aspirations: Strengthen clients self-worth Support in making change (accommodation, integration, assimilation) Ground strength-based and change model work on the desires (aspirations) of the client Guide to create and maintain a welcoming work relationship 1. Develop characteristics of welcoming 2. Address awareness Race and Ethnic Ingredients
3. Consider Transference and Countertransference in a shared immigration background 4. Root the work relationship on Self-determination Characteristics of welcoming To be developed with participants to the workshop Steps to work on self-determination 1. 2. 3. 4. Set goals
Problem solve barriers (that will stop these goals) Develop choices based on their aspirations to work on these goals Support in decision making that will enhance the implementation of these goals 5. Advocate 6. Acknowledge and Celebrate changes Awareness of Race and Ethnic Ingredients Race: the concept is socially constructed - in our contemporary world the term is used to describe: color of the skin of a person Ethnicity: the concept refers to ethnic or cultural identity - in our contemporary world it used to describe how a person:
is raised understand and act based on his/her system of beliefs build and share expectations Awareness of Race and Ethnic Ingredients cont Diversities and Differences Appropriateness Culturally Sensitive Consider social work core values Awareness of race and ethnic realities Understand layers and current social work practice
Cultural Competence Be aware of your own cultural limitations Be open to cultural differences Acknowledge the clients cultural integrity Make use of the clients resources Transference and Countertransference Transference: the feelings lead to emotions that go from the client to the settlement worker Countertransference: feelings lead to emotions that settlement
worker attributes to the client How to address both in the practice: 1. Recognize (acknowledge) 2. Process (identify, and clarify) 3. Confront (action, supervision) Ethics in Collaborating with academics on research projects DO NOT HARM is what Ethic in academia is about. Universities are going to emphasis their ethical requirement in respect to following principles: Nonmaleficence Truth and confidentiality Autonomy and informed consent
Beneficence and justice Why is a research collaboration an ethical issue Migration studies are concerned with: Over-studied populations Sensitive and heavy subjects (migration is an emotional charged life transition ) Im-mobility and Victimization of the immigrants (make clients feel passive and helpless) How to protect clients in research context Collect strategies that participants to
the workshop are using/used Advocate with clients to be involved in all the research process Empowerment Restitution of Research Results to clients in avoiding classical communication tools like scientific articles and managerial report Empowerment Practical Model Belief that clients can change their own environment
Increase clients sense of personal strengths Make clients realize that they can improve their own circumstances Empowerment perspective in Practice Focus on strengths and work with clients on reclaiming their power to: have control over their well-being (feel no more helpless) experience possibilities of changes (become active subjects) Be involved in all intervention (e.g. research project) process (stop feeling recipients of help) Activate resources, create alliances, expand opportunities Restitution of research results to the participants An example from
the academia In regard to research ethic principles, the purpose of such an activity (restitution) is to: 1. Make the results accessible to participants by using visual and interactive content 2. Involve the participants in the reporting back process 3. Evaluate the benefits and limits of the tools used as well as all the process itself Ethic principles: informed consent justice - beneficence Three tools that can be used to report research results back to participants
Theater scenarios of research results are played in daily life context familiar to the participants Commented slides research process and results are commented in languages that participants are using in daily life context Questions-Responses session researchers and participants exchange and engage in conversation about the results through questions and feedback How to proceed using interactive tools to report research results back Meetings: individuals, families, groups, communities to make choices and take decisions on: 1. What to report back? And who decides?
2. To whom should the results be reported back? What for? 3. How should the results be reported back? 4. When and where? 5. Plan an evaluation of the restitution itself A process that needs in-depth immersion in the local setting AND to take distance from the classical tools to report research results Outcomes of the Restitution Establish a dialogue to take distance from the classical tools to report research results. Exchanges bring participants to go through following: Feelings of exposing research participants Emotions around power relationships Justice and Informed Financial dependency
Consent around usefulness of the Fear of exposing research limits or gaps research Feelings around lack of familiarity with qualitative/participatory methods Strategies and Techniques in working ethically with clients Engagement Planning Assessing
Intervention Evaluation Termination Empowerment and Self-determination are key through the Problem-Solving process Safe Workplace environment (Workers-Clients-Researchers) Ethical Clients are ethically valued, Principles respected, and included with
Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance Relapse Transitioning this event goes through a work on Change Model Denial
Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance Immigration is a life transition going through Grief and Loss Model Thanks Social Work Professional Documents
Code of Ethics (NASW) Guidelines for Social Work Safety in the Workplace (NASW) Guidelines for Ethical Practice (CASW) Standards of Practice (ACSW) Bibliographie Al-Krenawi, A., Graham, J.R., and Habibov, N. (2016). Diversity and Social Work in Canada. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press Chung Yan, M., and Anucha, U. (2017). Working with Immigrants and Refugees: Issues, Theories, and Approaches for Social Work and Human Service Practice. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press Gazso, A., and Kobayashi, K. (2018). Continuity and Innovation: Canadian Families in the New Millennium. Toronto: Nelson Mondain N., Delaunay, V., and Oudraogo, V. (2016). Reporting results back in health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSS) : an ethical requirement and a strategy for improving health behaviours , African Population Studies, 30(2) (Supp.)
Oudraogo, S. V. (2014). Chercheurs de lentre-deux - Travailleurs sociaux dans le rle de chercheurs : proximit et distance dune ethnographie interpretative [Researchers of the in- between social workers in the role of researchers: proximity and distance of an interpretative ethnography], Fractal, Rev. Psicol., v. 26, n. 3, p. 765-784, http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1984-0292/1334 Shebib, B. (2017). Choices, interviewing and counselling skills for Canadians (6th ed.) Toronto: Pearson Wilson-Forsberg, S., and Robison, A.M. (2018). Immigrant Youth in Canada: Theoretical Approaches, Practical Issues, and Professional Perspectives. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press
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