Dr. Ingetraut Dahlberg Her life and her work H. Peter Ohly, International ISKO president 2010-2014, ISKO 2018 Porto DahlbergPanel Chair Panelist: Peter Ohly Dr. Ingetraut Dahlberg 24. Oct. 2017 1927, 20th February born as Ingetraut Gessler) in Cologne, Germany studied Philosophy, Catholic Theology, English Studies and Physics 1962/63 Scientific Documentalist 1964/65 head of the DGD Library and Documentation Center, Frankfurt 1967-1969 at FID chair of Revision Committee UDC-03/04 (Common auxiliaries of materials and Common auxiliaries of relations, processes and operations) 1973 Doctor of Philosophy PhD (dissertation => Grundlagen universaler Wissensordnung, 1974)
1974 Founding Editor of journal International Classification IC (1993 => Knowledge Organization KO ) 1977 Gesellschaft fr Klassifikation (German Society for Classification) 1979 INDEKS publishing house (1997 => part of ERGON, 2017 => part of NOMOS) 1989 International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO) 2014 Book Wissensorganisation: Entwicklung, Aufgabe, Anwendung, Zukunft (Knowledge Organization: Development, Task, Application, Future) ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel Panelist: Peter PeterOhly Ohly 2 10 Desiderata for KO 1. Recognize concepts/knowledge units and analyze their essential. characteristics, in order to create KOS. 2. Identify the main scope of ordering systems. 3. a) Elaborate a teaching curriculum for the various KO activities, together with titles of qualification of different professionals. b) Establish an own Academy. 4. Nationally and internationally, a paid secretariat should be employed, to
raise professionalism. 5. Elaborate an ordering system of all KO-relevant concepts to serve as a model for other knowledge fields. 6. Establish national KO institutes for the elaboration of KOSs, attached to research institutions. 7. KO experts should act on the public plane, e.g. as consultants, editors. 8. The General Secretariat should collaborate with all the experts in the national chapters. 9. Intensify the promotion of knowledge about KO through publications. 10. a) KO should become an independent autonomous discipline under the Science of Science. b) Classification systems should not be implemented as discipline-oriented. See: Information Coding Classification (ICC), based on general object areas. ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel Panelist: Peter Ohly Peter
Ohly 3 ISKO-Panel in Porto 2018 1. Cf. Desideratum I. Knowledge units 1 II. KOSs types III. The logic of ICC IV. KO as Science of Science V. KO formation and environment Panelists: Axel Ermert, Michael Kleineberg Marcia Zeng, Rosa San Segundo 2 Claudio Gnoli, Rick Szostak 10 Birger Hjrland, Joe Tennis
5, 10 Richard Smiraglia, M. Ins Cordeiro 3-4, 6-9 Ji Pika ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel Peter Ohly Panelist: Peter Ohly 4 I. Knowledge units /methods / linguistics Panelist: Axel Ermert A Item of reference (Referent) Theory of the concept (the Concept Triangle) C Verbal form (designation) B Characteristics (necessary verifiable statements) Many of I.D.s ideas are also reflected in the international standards process, like ISO 704 or ISO 1087. Both, I.D. and ISO, refer to Eugen Wster (first work published 1932). ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel Panelist:
Ermert Panelist:Axel Peter Ohly 5 Concepts Concept: unit of knowledge (= objective) A concept is a knowledge unit, comprising verifiable statements about a selected item of reference, represented in a verbal form. can be formed, and exist, independent of the relative term(s) express noematic knowledge (rational, conscious) express, and are based on, concept relationships preferably expressed by definitions (always depending on the purpose)
e.g. real (conceptual) definitions (explaining/defining the thing/concept): (generic; partitive; opposition; functional), ie. referring to the conceptual substance of the item of reference Aim: Creating a corpus of definitions [a concept system]. Create also such a corpus as a basis of Knowledge Organization (incl. the Classification terminology) ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel Panelist: Ermert Panelist:Axel Peter Ohly 6 I. Knowledge units /methods / linguistics (co-statement) Co-Panelist: Michael Kleineberg I.D: the referent is largely observer- and languageindependent but: linguistic turn plays a key role in the field of knowledge
organization ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel Co-Panelist: Michael Panelist: Peter Ohly Kleineberg 7 II. KOSs types Panelist: Marcia Zeng 1. Recognize concepts/knowledge units and analyze their essential characteristics, in order to create KOS -> Classification System for Knowledge Organization Literature originally compiled by Ingetraut Dahlberg, 1974 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 Form Divisions Theoretical foundations and general problems Classification Systems and Thesauri, Structure and Construction Methodology of Classing and Indexing On Universal Classification Systems and Thesauri On Special Objects Classifications (taxonomies) On Special Subjects Classifications and Thesauri Knowledge Representation by Language and Terminology Applied Classing and Indexing Knowledge Organization Environment ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel Panelist: Zeng Ohly Panelist:Marcia Peter Ohly 8 DDC BC UDC ICC
LCC CC -> Dahlberg, Ingetraut. 2017. Brief Communication: Why a New Universal Classification System is Needed. Knowledge Organization. 44(1): 65-71 a review of KOS development in modern history -> need for unification Aims to establish compatibility between the major universal classification systems in use Believing that classification systems should not be implemented as discipline-oriented. Developing Information Coding Classification (ICC) [cited by Dahlberg 1982-2017] Realizing a new approach, based on general object areas, arranged according to the principle of evolution. Towards a uniform, yet universal, ordered representation of human knowledge ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel Panelist: Zeng Panelist:Marcia Peter Ohly 9 III. The logic of ICC Panelist: Claudio Gnoli
Information Coding Classification inspired by Alwin Diemer (1970) for ID's PhD presented in Bangalore (1977) Dahlberg, Ingetraut: Ontical structures and universal classification. Bangalore : Sarada Ranganathan Endowment for Library Science, 1978. Sarada Ranganathan lectures 11 promoted by Dahlberg for all her life applied by Ernesto W. DeLuca (2014) and by Gerard Coen in Utrecht ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel Panelist: Claudio Panelist: PeterGnoli Ohly
10 The structure of ICC is a mix of ontological and epistemological principles nine ontological "areas" that form the main classes: 1- forms and structure, 2- matter and energy, 3- cosmos and Earth, 4- biosphere, 5- human, 6- societal, 7- economy and technology, 8- science and information, 9- culture. Based on this, Dahlberg claimed that ICC was able to go beyond the traditional disciplinary approach, as its main classes are not disciplines. further divided according to nine epistemological categories: -1 theories, -2 objects, -3 activities, -4 properties, -5 persons, -6 institutions, 7 -technology, -8 application, -9 distribution, and the resulting subclasses are labelled by names of research fields, like 25 "physical chemistry" or 82 "information science". Thus ICC is still based on the perspective dimension rather than on the phenomenon dimension To denote phenomena (I.D.: objects_ of knowledge) themselves I have proposed to introduce a category -0 ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel Panelist: Claudio Panelist: PeterGnoli
Ohly 11 nine ontical levels of being [Hartmann] non-disciplinary ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel Panelist: Claudio Panelist: PeterGnoli Ohly 12 x nine epistemic categories ...implicitly disciplinary! Recursive notation! isko.org/cyclo/notation#4.4 ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel
Panelist: Claudio Panelist: PeterGnoli Ohly 13 it better fits research in ontology In the philosophical sense by such authors as Roberto Poli or Heinrich Herre in the computer science sense with its need for formal definitions of concepts. "turns" may follow a cyclical path in the long way, so that we may expect Dahlberg's idea to become relevant again in the future ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel Panelist: Claudio Panelist: PeterGnoli Ohly 14 The logic of ICC (co-statement)
Panelist: Rick Szostak I.D.: knowledge organization is of central importance in the world it is important that people be able to connect their understandings of different concepts. Dahlberg certainly wanted a classification that was interdisciplinary in coverage and that allowed users to draw interdisciplinary connections. It is thus no coincidence that this organization is named "Knowledge Organization" she grounded her practical program in a theoretical discussion of the logic of such a classification and the challenges in pursuing such a classification I very much hope that ISKO will continue to ascertain the degree to which universal classification is possible, and pursue such a classification ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel Panelist: Peter Ohly Co-Panelist: Rick Szostak 15 IV. KO as Science of Science / KO encyclopedia Panelist: Birger Hjrland I.D.: Knowledge Organization: a science of science, independent
science but: background in LIS. and: separate from information science: terminology studies ( > Eugen Wster) - now: received view (logical positivism, logical empiricism etc.) has been challenged by the social epistemological view - domain-specific knowledge claims: often controversial - hence: KO must be the study of scientific claims, done to produce the optimal classification system for a given purpose ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel Panelist: Birger Hjrland Panelist: Peter Ohly 16 Further key aspects Book series: Knowledge Organization in Subject Areas. (only one volume!) - KO as a field has been too isolated in relation to classification in different domains (philosophers has succeeded far better) -> important, to establish an interdisciplinary network and platform ISKO Encyclopedia of Knowledge Organization (IEKO) a platform for theoretical issues in classifications, indexing, big data etc.
for specific problems in each domain researchers will see the advantage having all different domains and voices in one place, open motivating to contribute Takes up the visions of I.D. ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel Panelist: Birger Hjrland Panelist: Peter Ohly 17 IV. KO encyclopedia / KO as Science of Science (co-statement) Co-Panelist: Joe Tennis SciSci:
uses large data sets to study the mechanisms underlying the doing of science quantitative understanding of the interactions among scientific agents across diverse geographic and temporal scales insights into the conditions underlying creativity and the genesis of scientific discovery, with the ultimate goal of developing tools and policies that have the potential to accelerate science. fundamental challenge going forward is accounting for undeniable differences in culture, habits, and preferences between different fields and countries -> further insights can be gained from domain-specific SciSci studies The rise and fall of citations serves to measure the lifespan of a papers underlying ideas. ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel Co-Panelist: Joe Tennis Panelist: Peter Ohly 18 V. KO formation and environment Panelist: Richard Smiraglia I.D.: sought to turn the mostly rationalist/pragmatist act of classification Base new classifications on the science of the order of knowledge
1. Concept theory is the basic theory of knowledge organization; 2. Concepts are expressions of perceptions of subjective realities; and, 3. Our science must be the science of identifying all concepts, no matter the circumstances. ICC, Information Coding Classification ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel Panelist: RichardPeter Smiraglia Panelist: Ohly 19 And, she left us the basics of theory, real theory: What is Knowledge Organization (2014, 86) True understanding of concepts has been jeopardized hitherto by the ignorance of their very nature, viz. that they form the constituents of any knowledge organization that also leads to the formation of classes. The linguistic aspect hinders most colleagues from perceiving the indispensable analytical aspect of concept formation and concept apprehension . Take any object, concrete or abstract, and figure out its essential characteristics by formulating isstatements. The synthesis of all thus determined characteristics under a name or a code depicts the objects content in an abbreviated form and leads to designate the respective object. The definition of a concept is therefore the resum of content-determinant characteristics. ICC, Information Coding Classification (1982, 87) We distinguish in an ontical sense between general entities. and general aspects, determinations of
being. The general entities can be displayed in the following three ontical area groups of I) structure and matter; II) living beings; and, III) products of man (artefacts). These can be subdivided each into three general entity areas ( or "categories of being") It is easy to see that there is an evolutionary series and also that there is a division according to man's faculties that the entities of the levels presuppose each other or contain each other in a natural sequence. The last three levels show the same evolutionary series with respect to the products of man and society applied on a matter-oriented, intellect-oriented and mental-spiritual oriented level. Thus one can also say that the levels presuppose each other, they are integrative. ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel Panelist: RichardPeter Smiraglia Panelist: Ohly 20 She did pretty well, brave lady that she was. She began a journal that now competes with JDoc, JASIST, IP&M and CCQ. She began a society of scholars who now meet regularly. She began a society of scholars whose regional conferences constantly challenge the intension of the domain. ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel
Panelist: RichardPeter Smiraglia Panelist: Ohly 21 V. KO formation and environment (co-statement) Panelist: Ines Cordeiro By the end of her life Dahlberg left us with an ACTION PLAN WHAT DOES IT MEAN ABOUT THE FIELD? A call for more structured action to meet field needs: 2 Overviews of CS Better knowledge of the field itself 3.1 KO curriculum - Improved education & training 3.2 ISKO academy - Expanded research 4. Establish and finance a specialist Sustained development
5. Systematic order of all KO-relevant terms Common structured language 6. National institutes of KO Institutional channels 7. ISKO experts as "points of contact Reinforced communication 8. Become members of the ISKO - Strengthen community 9. Publish the knowledge of its own area Knowledge visibility and exchange ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel Co-Panelist: Ines Cordeiro Panelist: Peter Ohly 22 Final Synopsis Panelist: Jiri Pika
Pika takes a look at her personality Ingetraut Dahlberg: extraordinarily enthusiastic, determined and successful able to kindly share her ideas and exchange opinions good-hearted, modest, hard-working, highly-estimated her activities share common pattern: engagement and organization being active in many societies introducing and coining the term "knowledge organization founding journals founding societies publishing and teaching receiving honorary awards organizing conferences, with outstanding key speakers establishing international and interdisciplinary contacts (former east-European countries) worldwide scope of ISKO ready to argue and to defend her views strongly a unique and charismatic character ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel Panelist: JiriOhly
Pika Panelist: Peter 23 Ingetraut Dahlberg remains the first lady of classification and her work continues to stimulate the broad activities in this realm. Her calm, kind and ensuring approach of respecting and encouraging ideas of her colleagues made her irreplaceable. This human touch certainly contributed to her greatest achievements. ISKO 2018 Porto Dahlberg-Panel Panelist: JiriOhly Pika Panelist: Peter 24
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