Figure 1.01a: (a.)The surface of a single grain of table salt.

Figure 1.01a: (a.)The surface of a single grain of table salt.

Chapter 2(a) Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Figure 2.4: A representation of some of

Gay-Lussac's experimental results on combining gas volumes. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2b2

Figure 2.5: A representation of combining gases at the molecular level. The spheres represent atoms in the molecules. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2b3

Figure 2.7: A cathode-ray tube. The fastmoving electrons excite the gas in the tube, causing a glow between the electrodes. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2b4

Figure 2.8: Deflection of cathode rays by an applied electric field. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2b5

Figure 2.9: The plum pudding model of the atom. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2b6

Figure 2.10: A schematic representation of the apparatus Millikan used to determine the charge on the electron. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

2b7 Figure 2.12: Rutherford's experiment on -particle bombardment of metal foil. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

2b8 Figure 2.13: (a) The expected results of the metal foil experiment if Thomson's model were correct. (b)Actual results. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

2b9 Figure 2.14: A nuclear atom viewed in cross

section. Note that this drawing is not to scale. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

2b11 Figure 2.15: Two isotopes of sodium. Both have eleven protons and eleven electrons, but they differ in the number of neutrons in their nuclei.

Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2b12 Figure 2.16: The structural

formula for methane. Figure 2.17: Space-filling model of methane. This type of model shows both the relative sizes of the atoms in the molecule and their spatial relationships.

Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2b14 Figure 2.18: Ball-and-stick model of methane.

Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2b15 Figure 2.19: Sodium metal reacts with chlorine gas to form solid sodium chloride.

Chapter 2(b) Atoms, Molecules, and Ions (contd)

Figure 2.20: Ball-and-stick models of the ammonium ion and the nitrate ion. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2b18

Figure 2.21: The Periodic Table. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2b19 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

2b20 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2b21

Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2b22 Crystals of copper(II) sulfate. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

2b23 Various chromium compounds dissolved in water. From left to right; CrCl , K Cr O , Cr(NO ) , CrCl , K CrO . 2

2 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2

2 7 3 3 3

4 2b24 Figure 2.22: The common cations and anions

Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2b25 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

2b26 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2b27 Figure 2.23: A flowchart for naming binary

compounds. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2b28 Figure 2.24: Overall strategy for naming

chemical compounds. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2b29 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

2b30 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2b31

Figure 2.25: A flowchart for naming acids. An acid is best considered as one or more H+ ions attached to an anion. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2b32

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