Exam Skills Recap 1st November - fhsenglishrevise

Exam Skills Recap 1st November - fhsenglishrevise

Lesson 1: Exam Skills Overview (Reading) LO: To understand the range of skills needed on the Reading section of the exam The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 STARTER Which of these are LANGUAGE and which are PRESENTATIONAL features? Organise them into groups. Font Rhetorical questions Images Colours

Sentence structure Emotive language Subheadings Punctuation The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 TASK: Practising Exam Skills Information retrieval: Which event is this poster promoting? Identifying and interpreting presentational features: How do the presentational features of the poster

persuade the reader to support Christian Aid? Identifying and interpreting language features: How does the use of language in the poster persuade the reader to support Christian Aid? The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Exemplar Paragraph: How do the presentational features of the poster persuade the reader to support Christian Aid? In the centre of the poster is a large black-and-white picture of a woman carrying a sack. Many aspects of the way the image is presented make the reader feel sympathy for the woman.

For example, the fact that the picture is in black and white creates a dark and dreary atmosphere that makes the womans life seem hard. Black and white is also an oldfashioned picture style, which makes the reader feel as though the woman does not have modern comforts or an up-to-date lifestyle. This makes the reader feel that they should support Christian Aid in order to give poor people like this woman a better lifestyle. Remember, this is only one aspect- you should talk about as many of the presentational features as you can, using this level of detail. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Exemplar Paragraph: How does the use of language in the poster persuade the reader to support Christian Aid?

The main headline of the poster says The poor havent a share in the world. This uses a pun on the well-known phrase he/she hasnt a care in the world. This is effective because not having a care in the world means that you are free from responsibility and worry: the point the posters creators are making is that the poor people supported by Christian Aid are in the opposite position in that they have too much to worry about. Also, the use of the words share in the world suggests that the plight of these people is grossly unfair, because the world is something that everyone should be able to share as a basic right. This makes the reader want to support Christian Aid in order to share their own good fortune with others. Remember, this is only one aspect- you should talk about as many of the language features as you can, using this level of detail. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th

Dec 2011 Exam-Style Question: You try! How does the leaflet put across its message? You should look at Use of language Use of layout and presentational features The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Lesson 2: Information Retrieval and Interpreting Meanings LO: To understand how to retrieve key information and write about it

The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Starter: Practice Question 1 What do we learn about Warwick Castle from the text (4 marks)? Attacked in 1264, besieged in 1642 and damaged by fire in 1871, the castle has nevertheless gloriously survived the ever-changing fortunes of history. The origins of Warwick Castle can be traced back to the Saxon fortification which Ethelfleda, daughter of Alfred the Great, used to defend against the invading Danes. The first castle to appear on the site was a wooden motte and bailey constructed in 1068 at the command of William the Conqueror. By 1220, the Castle had undergone a major transformation, as stone replaced wood as the principal building material. A shell keep, a circular tower with thick, crenellated walls and fighting platforms

for its soldiers, topped the mound which was defended by a 7.6m stone curtain wall which surrounded it. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Mark Band 3: 4 marks clear evidence that the text is understood clear engagement with the text and makes inferences offers relevant quotations to support what has been understood makes developed references to information about the casrle Mark Band 2: 2-3 marks some evidence that the text is understood attempts to engage with the text and makes an inference offers some relevant quotation to support what has been understood makes some reference to information about the castle

Mark Band 1: 1 mark limited evidence that the text is understood limited engagement with the text may offer limited quotation, textual detail or copying out limited reference to information about the castle The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Look at the mark scheme. How many marks do you think this answer would get? Warwick Castle was attacked in 1264, besieged in 1642 and damaged by fire in 1871. The origins of Warwick Castle can be traced

back to the Saxon fortification. The first castle to appear on the site was a wooden motte and bailey constructed in 1068. By 1220, the Castle had undergone a major transformation, as stone replaced wood as the principal building material. Answer: 1 mark The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 What about this one? Warwick Castle was attacked in 1264 and besieged in 1642. Warwick Castle is originally a Saxon castle: can be traced back to the Saxon fortification.

The first castle to appear on the site was a wooden motte and bailey constructed in 1068. By 1220, the Castle had undergone a major transformation, as stone replaced wood as the principal building material. Answer: 2 marks The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 This one? Warwick Castle has had a lot of attacks and damage in the past: it was attacked in 1264, besieged in 1642 and damaged by fire in 1871. Warwick Castle is originally a Saxon castle: can be traced back to the Saxon fortification.

Originally, the castle was made of wood: a wooden motte and bailey constructed in 1068 Answer: 3 marks The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 This one? Warwick Castle has had a lot of attacks and damage in the past: it was attacked in 1264, besieged in 1642 and damaged by fire in 1871. Warwick Castle is originally a Saxon castle: can be traced back to the Saxon fortification. Originally, the castle was made of wood: a wooden motte and bailey constructed in 1068

In 1220, the castle was reconstructed using stone: By 1220, () stone replaced wood as the principal building material. Answer: 4 marks What does this tell you about how to answer the question for maximum marks? The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Your turn! What do we learn about Tyrannosaurus Rex from this paragraph (4 marks)? Tyrannosaurus rex was one of the largest meateating dinosaurs that ever lived. Everything about this ferocious predator, from its thick, heavy skull to its 4-foot-long (1.2-meter-long) jaw, was designed for maximum bone-crushing action.

Fossil evidence shows that Tyrannosaurus was about 40 feet (12 meters) long and about 15 to 20 feet (4.6 to 6 meters) tall. Its strong thighs and long, powerful tail helped it move quickly, and its massive 5-foot-long (1.5-meter-long) skull could bore into prey. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Peer Marking Tasks 1. Mark each others answers about Tyrannosaurus Rex, using the mark scheme. 2. Write a paragraph of your own about a topic that you know well. Try to match the length and style of your paragraph to the length

and style of the paragraphs about Warwick Castle and Tyrannosaurus Rex. 3. Swap paragraphs with a partner and practise retrieving 4 pieces of information. 4. Mark each others answers using the mark scheme. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Lesson 3: Identifying and Interpreting Presentational Features LO: To understand how to analyse presentational features and their effects The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011

Starter: Denotation and Connotation Draw a rose in the centre of your page. Around the edges, write down everything you think of when you see an image of a rose. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 What did you come up with? The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Denotation and Connotation Denotation is what you can see in the image

with no interpretation. For example: a red rose. Connotation is the underlying meanings of an image; the ideas the image conjures up in the readers mind. For example: love, Valentines Day, the England rugby team, the Labour Party. For a C or above in the exam, you MUST write about the of an The PiXL Clubconnotations English Conference 12th Dec 2011

Denotation and Connotation: Practice Image Denotation Connotation The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Exam Practice: How does the leaflet use images to persuade the reader to visit the attraction? Pick a leaflet from the website below and answer the question above. Remember to refer

to the connotations of the images. http://www.tourismleafletsonline.com/ The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Dont Forget- other presentational features include: Layout: is it cluttered? Busy? Sparse? Colours: bright? Muted? Pastel? Garish? Themed? Fonts: varied? Consistent? Formal? Jazzy? Childish? Text boxes, headings and subheadings: used to give key facts? To highlight important

information? Remember to IDENTIFY PURPOSE, PICK The PiXL Club English Conference 12th OUT A FEATURE and EXPLAIN ITS Dec 2011 Exam Practice 2: How does the leaflet use presentational devices for effect? The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Lesson 4: Identifying and Interpreting Language Features LO: To understand how to analyse language

and its effects The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 STARTER: Identifying Purpose Copy the list of text types and identify the purpose of each one. You should use the list of purposes in the box to help you. DONT FORGET A TEXT CAN HAVE MORE THAN ONE PURPOSE! Text Types A Tourist Information guide to Kent A football match report A history text book on World War II

An NHS leaflet about the flu jab The listings for the local cinema An advertisement for washing powder A website containing funny news stories from around the The PiXL Club English Conference 12th world Dec 2011 Purposes To inform To explain To describe To persuade

To advise To entertain Your task in the language questions is: The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Example: from the website for Chislehurst Caves Grab a lantern and get ready for an amazing adventure! Just a short way from central London, close to Bromley in Kent, lie the Chislehurst Caves- miles of dark mysterious passageways hewn by hand from the chalk, deep beneath Chislehurst.

What is the purpose of this text? Which language features help achieve this purpose? The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 D grade Example The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 C grade Example The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011

B grade Example The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 A grade example The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 A* grade example- for an A*, look at sentence structure! The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011

Persuasive Techniques: AFOREST Alliteration Facts Opinions Rhetorical Questions/Repetition Emotive Language Statistics Three (Rule of) The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Your turn! How does the writer use language to persuade the reader to visit Chislehurst Caves?

Grab a lantern and get ready for an amazing adventure! Just a short way from central London, close to Bromley in Kent, lie the Chislehurst Caves- miles of dark mysterious passageways hewn by hand from the chalk, deep beneath Chislehurst. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 TASK: How does the language used in the leaflet persuade the reader to visit Amberley Museum and Heritage Centre? Tip: Dont forget AFOREST- but you could refer to other language features as well. Alliteration

Facts Opinions Rhetorical Questions/Repetition Emotive Language Statistics Three (Rule of) The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Lesson 5: Comparing Texts LO: To understand how to compare two texts in terms of presentational and language features The PiXL Club English Conference 12th

Dec 2011 Starter: Comparative Connectives Make a list of as many connectives as you can think of which compare two things. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Comparative Connectives To show a similarity or add a point also moreover in addition

additionally as well furthermore even indeed To show difference or opposition to a point however in contrast by contrast yet whereas instead but

nevertheless though alternatively anyway on the contrary rather on the other hand in fact

even so differs from in other respects elsewhere To reinforce a point besides moreover anyway after all The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011

Exam-Style Question Compare the different ways in which presentational devices and language are used for effect in the two texts. Give some examples and analyse the effects. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Compare the different ways in which presentational devices and language are used for effect in the two texts. Give some examples and analyse the effects. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011

Mark Band 4: 13 16 marks offers a full and detailed understanding of the texts in relation to language analyses how the writers have used language differently to achieve their effects offers appropriate quotations or references in support of ideas with perceptive comments focuses on comparison and cross-referencing between the texts Mark Band 3: 9-12 marks shows clear evidence that the texts are understood in relation to language offers clear explanations of the effect of words and phrases in the different contexts, offers relevant quotations or references to support ideas offers clear comparisons and cross references between the two texts Mark Band 2 : 5-8 marks shows some evidence that the texts are understood in relation to language shows some appreciation of the effect of words and phrases in the different contexts attempts to support responses with usually appropriate quotations or references

attempts to compare language use and make cross references Mark Band 1 : 1-4 marks offers limited evidence that either text is understood in relation to language offers no real appreciation of the effect of words and phrases in the different contexts offers few examples with limited comment or analysis PiXL Club English Conference 12th shows limited ability toThe compare or make cross references Dec 2011 Structuring Each Paragraph 1. Compare the purposes of each text 2. Identify a technique in both texts 3. Analyse the use of the technique in Text 4.

5. 6. 7. 1 Explain the effect on the reader in Text 1 Use a comparative connective Analyse the use of the technique in Text 2 Explain the effect on the reader in Text The PiXL Club English Conference 12th 2 Dec 2011 Example Answer: 1 paragraph

What mark do you think this is worth? These adverts have opposite purposes: Advert 1 is designed to prevent people from smoking, while Advert 2 is designed to persuade the reader to buy a particular brand of cigarettes. One way in which they achieve their purposes is through the use of eyeline in the images. In Advert 2, the image is of a man who is placed in the centre of the image, looking directly at the reader. This direct and challenging look makes the man seem confident and in control when he has the cigarettes, which is designed to persuade the reader that if they buy those cigarettes, they will become more confident too. In contrast, the little girls eyeline in Advert 2 is looking up and past the camera. This makes her seem innocent and nave, but also links to the tagline Some children go to heaven earlier, implying that because the girl is a victim of passive smoking, she will soon go to

heaven and that is what she is looking towards. This persuades the reader not to smoke because the idea of such a young, innocent child going to heaven as a result of Club English Conference 12th passive smokingThe isPiXL shocking and distressing. Dec 2011 Your turn! Write another paragraph comparing another aspect of the language or presentation in the adverts. Try to use the structure below. Compare the purposes of each text

Identify a technique in both texts Analyse the use of the technique in Text 1 Explain the effect on the reader in Text 1 Use a comparative connective Analyse the use of the technique in Text 2 Explain the effect on the reader in Text 2 Use the mark scheme to mark your partners work. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Dec 2011 Lesson 6: Exam Skills Overview (Writing) LO: To understand what will be required of us in the Writing section of the exam The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Starter: Evaluate your current skills. How confident are you about the following? Write appropriately for purpose and audience Engage the reader Shape paragraphs/structure

Use 5+ types of punctuation accurately Use emotive language and crafted vocabulary Use a range of sentence types on purpose (inc. short sentences) Use connectives/discourse markers Use a range of linguistic devices Sophisticated and original ideas and crafting The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 The Structure of the Writing Section Total marks for this section: 40 Section 1: Writing to inform, explain, describe (Shorter Task): 16 marks You should spend about 25 minutes on this

section Section 2: Writing to argue, persuade (Longer Task): 24 marks You should spend about 35 minutes on this The PiXL Club English Conference 12th section Dec 2011 Example Tasks: Pick one and write the opening paragraph. Write the text of a leaflet informing teenagers about what there is to do in your local area. Write a letter to a friend explaining the benefits of taking up a new type of sporting activity. Describe an experience in your life which had an

unexpected or surprising outcome. Write a letter to the local council, persuading them to provide facilities for teenagers in the local area. Write a speech to be given to your class, arguing the benefits and/or disadvantages of wearing school uniform. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Use the list below to evaluate your work. How well have you demonstrated each of these skills? Write appropriately for purpose and audience Engage the reader Shape paragraphs/structure Use 5+ types of punctuation accurately Use emotive language and crafted vocabulary

Use a range of sentence types on purpose (inc. short sentences) Use connectives/discourse markers Use a range of linguistic devices Sophisticated and original ideas and crafting The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Lesson 7: Writing to Inform, Explain, Describe LO: To understand how to write effectively in response to the first Writing question The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011

STARTER Try to categorise these texts into Inform, Explain or Describe: A piece of travel writing about a journey to Antarctica A leaflet about changes to the bus timetable A letter to a foreign exchange student about what your school is like Inform Explain Describe The PiXL Club English Conference 12th

Dec 2011 Which techniques might be used in each category? Metaphors and similes Facts and statistics Giving both sides of a story Personal experience Conditionals (if... then...) Imperatives (Do this, do that) Sensory writing Extension: Add any others you can think of to your diagram! The PiXL Club English Conference 12th

Dec 2011 Example Tasks INFORM: Your school is holding a summer fete. Write a letter to parents informing them of the event. EXPLAIN: You have been asked to write an entry for a computer guide for old people who have never used a computer before. DESCRIBE: Write about the atmosphere of a football stadium for someone who has never been to a match. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 PAL

Identify PURPOSE, AUDIENCE and LANGUAGE INFORM: Your school is holding a summer fete. Write a letter to parents informing them of the event. EXPLAIN: You have been asked to write an entry for a computer guide for old people who have never used a computer before. DESCRIBE: Write about the atmosphere of a football stadium for someone who has never The PiXL Club English Conference 12th been to a match. Dec 2011 The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011

TASK Using the sheet to help you, write the continuation of ONE of the tasks. Try to use all the techniques from the top of the sheet. REMEMBER YOUR PUNCTUATION, SPELLING AND SENTENCE VARIETY! The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Example D grade paragraph (Explain) Computers are useful because they help you to do your work quicker and easier, they do this by letting you save your work electronicly and get it back more quickly than if you had to

look in a big filling cabinet. Why is this a D grade? The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Example C grade paragraph (Explain) Computers are useful because they help you to do your work more quickly and easily. They do this by letting you save your work electronicly, work on it again and again, make changes and get it back more quickly than if you had to look in a big filing cabinet. Its easy to see why computers are the future! Why is this a C grade? The PiXL Club English Conference 12th

Dec 2011 Example B grade paragraph (Explain) Computers are useful for many reasons. Firstly, because they help the user to make changes to your work more quickly and easily. They do this by allowing you to save your work electronically, work on it again and again, alter it repeatedly and get it back more quickly than if you had to look in a big filing cabinet. Why stay stuck in the dark ages? ts easy to see why computers are the future! Why is this The a PiXL B Club grade?

English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Example A grade paragraph (Explain) Computers: soulless machines, or the future of the modern world? In my view, computers are essential for many reasons. Firstly, because they help the user to make changes to their work with speed and ease. They do this by allowing you to save your work electronically; work on it again and again; alter it repeatedly and get it back more quickly than if you had to look in a big filing cabinet. Why stay stuck in the dark ages? Its easy to see why computers are the future! Why is this an A grade? The PiXL Club English Conference 12th

Dec 2011 Example A* grade paragraph (Explain) Computers: soulless machines, or the future of the modern world? It is unquestionably the case that computers have their drawbacks. Who wants to sit alone in their bedroom, interacting only with a screen? However, it is also true that computers are- in my view at least- an essential part of our future. Who would want to be stuck with pen and ink when a computer (however soulless it may appear) lets you do so much more. With a computer, you can save your work electronically; work on it again and again; alter it repeatedly and get it back more quickly than if you had to look in a massive filing cabinet stuffed to the brim with dusty paper. Why stay stuck in the dark ages? Its easy to see why computers are the future!

Why is this an A* The grade? PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Task Look at your paragraph. How does it compare to the example for your target grade? Rewrite your paragraph, trying to improve your paragraph by using Advanced vocabulary A variety of sentence structures A range of punctuation The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011

Lesson 8: Writing to Persuade and Argue LO: To understand how to write effectively in response to the second Writing question The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Involve your audience by speaking to them directly using personal pronouns and shared experiences. ower of three

hetorical questions Including little stories to illustrate a point. ay again ndermine opposing views necdote irect address xaggeration Being over-thetop to get a point across. Destroy/criticise the opposing argument.

Words, phrases and imagery that arouse an emotional response. Including lists of three items/reasons in your writing. Repeating the same word, phrase or idea more than once for emphasis. writing PERSUADE motive language Questions to get your

audience thinking they dont require an answer. Starter: Match up the technique The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Listen to this famous speech. Whic writing Link to Martin Luther King speech The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011

Which teachniques did you find? I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation. Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity. But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. And so we've come here today to dramatize a shameful

condition. Direct address, exaggeration, anecdote, emotive language, say again The PiXL Club English Conference 12th (repetition) Dec 2011 Your turn! Find the techniques: We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of Now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God's children.

It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. And those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. And there will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 emerges. Example Question: Write an answer to this question, using the techniques we have

learnt. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Evaluate your work. How well have you demonstrated the following skills? Write appropriately for purpose and audience Engage the reader Shape paragraphs/structure Use 5+ types of punctuation accurately Use emotive language and crafted vocabulary Use a range of sentence types on purpose (inc. short sentences) Use connectives/discourse markers

Use a range of linguistic devices Sophisticated and original ideas and crafting The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Note to Teachers The subsequent lessons are more content- heavy and will probably require some tweaking prior to delivery: you may need to add starters, break up the teacher talk with more tasks etc. However, they are included because the content is useful and saves you re-inventing the wheel! The PiXL Club English Conference 12th

Dec 2011 Lesson 9: Sentence Structure LO: To understand how to vary your sentences for effect The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 What is meant by a range of sentence structures? There are four REALLY EASY ways that you can vary your sentences: 1. Dont always start with the subject. Instead of I walked slowly over to her,

change it to Slowly, I walked over to her. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 2 If you find you have a lot of short sentences. Combine some of them to make compound sentences. The rain was falling heavily from the clouds above. It was very dark. Would become: It was very dark and the rain was falling heavily from the clouds above. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011

3 Add additional detail to your sentences. For example: I couldnt see through the windscreen that day. Could become: I couldnt see through the windscreen that day because of all the dust. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 4 Experiment with the order of words, for example, instead of :

I couldnt see through the windscreen that day because of all the dust. You could have: Because of all the dust, I couldnt see through the windscreen that day. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 6 top tips for improving your sentence openings: Tip 1 Begin your sentence with a preposition! A preposition is a word that tells you about where or when something happened

Examples: Before he could catch him, the dog had run off to the far side of the field. Underneath the table, John began to wonder if he would ever escape. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Tip 2 Begin your sentence with a participle! A participle is a verb with either an -ing or an -ed ending Examples: Wearing his favourite Manchester Utd t-shirt, Max strode onto the pitch.

Petrified by the noises he could hear, the baby began to cry. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Tip 3 Begin your sentence with an infinitive! An infinitive is the form of a verb which has to in front of it Examples: To escape, the children had no choice but to steal the ice cream van. To make himself heard, Jamie took the loud hailer from its stand.

The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Tip 4 Begin your sentence with an adverb! An adverb is a descriptive word which describes the action of the verb Examples: Calmly, the soldier began to unhook the booby-trap. Foolishly, the students had forgotten to leave their mobile phones at home. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011

Tip 5 Begin your sentence with a subordinate clause! A subordinate clause is a clause which gives more information but doesnt make sense alone Examples: Although it was still only morning, Jamie knew he had to go home. Despite his best efforts, it was clear that the gymnast would never win gold. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Tip 6 Begin your sentence with some repeated

structures! Repeated structures allow you to use the same type of phrase a few times in a row Examples: Bored of lessons, tired of teachers, and weary of writing, he ran for freedom. From the sea in the east, to the river in the west, Amy could see for miles. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Task Write 2 sentences on your chosen topic for each of the 6 tips .

The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Lesson 10: Punctuation LO: To revise the different punctuation marks and how to use them The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 The punctuation marks we will learn about today are The The The

The The full stop (.) comma (,) colon (:) semi-colon (;) apostrophe () The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 The full stop The full stop (.) is used at the end of a

sentence. A sentence is a group of words which makes complete sense. After a full stop, we need a capital letter. For example: John kicked the ball. The ball smashed a window. These are sentences. They make complete sense. John kicked

The ball These are not sentences. They do not The PiXL Club English Conference 12th make complete sense. Dec 2011 The comma (Part 1) The comma (,) is used For example, look at the sentence to separate the main While the children were clause of a sentence

working quietly, Miss Jeffery was surfing the Internet. from the subordinate Miss Jeffery was surfing the clauses. The main Internet is the main clause. clause is the section It makes complete sense by of the sentence which itself. makes complete sense While the children were working quietly is the by itself. The subordinate clause. It does subordinate clauses not make sense by itself.

The main clause and the do not make sense by subordinate clause are themselves. They need separated by a comma. a main clause to add While the children were to their meaning. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th working quietly, Miss Jeffery Dec 2011 was surfing the Internet.

The comma (Part 2) The comma (,) is For example: For lunch today I had: a cheese sandwich, a packet of crisps, a Fruit Shoot and an apple. There is no need to do this: For lunch today I had: a cheese sandwich, a packet of crisps, a Fruit Shoot, and an apple. The

comma before and is The PiXL Club English Conference 12th unnecessary. Dec 2011 also used to separate items in a list. The rules are as follows: In a list of objects, there is no need for a comma before the final object, because and takes its place. The comma (Part 3)

Rule Number 2: In a list of adjectives or adverbs, there is no need for a comma between the final adjective or adverb and the word it describes. NB: an adjective describes a noun (person, place or thing). For example: The beautiful girl. An adverb describes a verb (a doing word). For example: The car moved quickly. Using the comma in a

list of adjectives: The old tramp was a smelly, dirty, unpleasant-looking man. Using the comma in a list of adverbs: The motorbike sped powerfully, dangerously, exhilaratingly along the road. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011

The colon (Part 1) The colon (:) is used to introduce a list. Remember the list of things I had for lunch? For lunch today I had: a cheese sandwich, a packet of crisps, a Fruit Shoot and an apple. Another example: There were a lot of things on Annas floor: clothes, books, plastic bags, shoes, papers and a dirty coffee mug she had forgotten to take downstairs. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011

The colon (Part 2) The colon is also used to add further explanation to a point previously made. For example: Schools nowadays are much improved from previously: corporal punishment no longer exists, and teachers generally make an effort to involve and engage students in lessons. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 The semi-colon Many people get confused about the use of

the semi-colon But its not hard! It is used in two main ways. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Using the semi-colon (Part 1) One way to use the semi-colon is to separate items in a list in which each item is fairly long and complicated. Let me explain The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011

The semi-colon explained (Part 1) In the sentence For However, in the sentence I did lots of lunch today I had: a things at the weekend: cheese sandwich, a I went to the theatre packet of crisps, a with my friends; I Fruit Shoot and an visited my gran for apple. semi-colons are

Sunday lunch; I did a not needed between huge pile of marking; I the items. They are created a PowerPoint presentation. semishort and colons are used to uncomplicated, and separate the items only require because they are each separating with quite The PiXL Club English Conference 12th lengthy. This commas.

Dec 2011 makes the sentence Using the semi-colon (Part 2) Another way to use the semi-colon is to separate clauses in a sentence which have equal weight. Let me explain: The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 The semi-colon explained (Part 2) Remember the

Sometimes, a sentence does not have a main explanation of main clause and a subordinate clauses and clause. subordinate clauses? Instead, it has two or The main clause in a more clauses which each sentence makes have equal weight (as complete sense by though the sentence had two or more main

itself. clauses). The subordinate For example: Mavis was a clauses do not make student at the local complete sense. They school; she was a hardneed the main clause working and pleasant girl. to add to their PiXL Club English Conference 12th meaning. The Dec 2011 The semi-colon explained (Part 3) Heres that sentence again:

Mavis was a Sixth Form student at the local school; she was a hard-working and pleasant girl. Notice that each of the clauses makes complete sense by itself. Each one could be expressed as a sentence: Mavis was a Sixth Form student at the local school. She was a hard-working and pleasant girl. To put it simply The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011

The semi-colon explained (Part 4) A semi-colon is an alternative to a full stop when you want to make two or more short sentences into one long one. Another example: There had been no possibility of taking a walk that day. It had been raining steadily since dawn. becomes There had been no possibility of taking a walk that day; it had been raining steadily since dawn. You should always use a semi-colon and not a comma in this situation. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011

The apostrophe The apostrophe is another one that causes a lot of unnecessary problems It has two main functions: To show possession and To show omission. Let me explain The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 The apostrophe of possession: singular owner.

The first use of the The book of the boy becomes The boys book The nappy of the baby becomes The babys nappy The toys of the child becomes The childs toys apostrophe is to show possession (when something belongs to someone). The

apostrophe always goes after the last letter of the word describing the person to whom something belongs (the owner). If the owner is singular, the apostrophe is followed The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 by an s. The apostrophe of possession: plural

owner When the owner in a sentence (the person or thing to whom something belongs) is plural AND ends in an s (boys, babies) there is NO s after the apostrophe. For example: The books of the boys becomes The boys books The nappies of the babies becomes The babies nappies

However, when the owner in the sentence is plural but does not end in an s (children, sheep) there is an s after the apostrophe. For example: The toys of the children becomes The childrens toys The fleeces of the sheep becomes The sheeps fleeces The PiXL Club English Conference 12th

Dec 2011 The apostrophe of omission The apostrophe is also used when letters are omitted (left out) from a word or words. The apostrophe always goes in the place where letters are missing. For example: have not becomes havent because the o is omitted. Some more examples on the next slide The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011

Apostrophes of omission have not shall not will not do not must not cannot is not you are havent shant wont dont mustnt

cant isnt youre he is they are hes theyre The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Almost over The function of punctuation is to make

your writing clearer and easier to understand. A good way of checking whether you need a punctuation mark is to read your work out loud. If you pause for breath, its a good bet that you need to add a punctuation mark of some kind. The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011 Hurrah! Its the end! Yup

You now know all there is to know about punctuation! Thank you for listening The PiXL Club English Conference 12th Dec 2011

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