Tracing and Evaluating Argument Claims RI.7.8 Learning Targets #6 I can understand how claims and/or arguments are supported by evidence from the text. #7 I can trace and evaluate how the claims and/or arguments are supported by evidence from the text. Learning Target 6 Pre-Assessment 4.5 Pre-Assessment Data 4 3.5 3
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 What is an argument in informational text? IT IS NOT: IT IS: A text that explains why the author thinks their
authors position is valid. A screaming match where someone gets punched in the face. IN OTHER WORDS: A piece of writing that explains using evidence why an author thinks their opinion statement is true. Prior Learning Targets Vocabulary: Central Idea Text Evidence Thesis Statement
Infer Authors Purpose Authors Point of View New Learning Targets Vocabulary: Argument Authors Position Claim Sound Relevant Sufficient Evaluate Trace
Essentia l Vocabul ary When building an argument a writer makes CLAIMS Claims are statements that the author believes to be true. Each claim must be backed up with evidence which is information that supports the claims. The writer will give this information in his or her writing and you will find it as text evidence to support the claim. Very similar to central idea and supporting textual evidence. Claims
Evidenc e Argume nt Dont get argument/claims confused with opinions! OPINIONS Opinion is supported by more opinion (and ultimately you end up with something along the lines of Well, just because, okay?). ARGUMENT CLAIMS
An argument is supported by evidence, which can be debated/challenged. A claim can be substantiated with research, evidence, testimony, and academic reasoning. A claim is something more than statement and support: an arguable claim also goes on to address the so what? question, the implications and why we OPINIONS Twinkies are
delicious. I like dance music. I think Virginia Woolf is better than James Joyce. The governor is a bad man. ARGUMENT CLAIMS Twinkies taste better than other snack cakes because of their texture, their creamy filling, and their golden appearance. Dance music has become popular for reasons that have nothing to do with the quality of the music; rather, the clear, fast beats respond to the need of people on amphetamines to move, and to move quickly. Virginia Woolf is a more effective writer than
James Joyce because she does not rely on elaborate language devices that ultimately confuse and alienate the reader. The governor has continually done the community a disservice by mishandling money, focusing on frivolous causes, and failing to listen to his constituents. Dangerous Predators? Think sharks are dangerous? Although they are the ocean's most feared and fascinating predators, most sharks, such as the whale shark and the megamouth, are gentle giants. These sharks prefer to dine on algae and small fish rather than large prey and pose no threat to people. There are, however, a few sharks that prefer larger prey and can be very dangerous to people. The most dangerous sharks include the great white, the hammerhead, the tiger shark, and the bull shark. These sharks have been known to attack humans. Although, according to statistics, shark attacks occur only about a hundred times a year and, out of those, only ten are mortalities. But that's not the idea we get from the media. Sharks are
portrayed in movie and even cartoons as big, bad, mean, and predatory. This inspires everyone from kids to adults to fear them even before they know the facts. In contrast, people kill thousands more sharks each year for food and sport than sharks kill people. Shark-fin soup and shark steaks are popular delicacies in many countries. In America, mako is one of the most popular items on the menu. Up until the 1950s, shark liver was used to create vitamin A supplements. Today, sharks are hunted for their fins and their cartilage. Certain shark populations have decreased so dramatically over the last decade that their names have been added to the endangered species list. From a shark's point of view, people pose a serious threat to shark survival. So, who's the dangerous predator? As proficient readers, you must now take your skill of finding central idea and text evidence and TRACE and EVALUATE IT! Trace means to explain the steps of your conclusion and Evaluate means to make a judgment.
Thought Process for Determining Authors Claims 1.What is the article about? What is the topic? 2.What is the authors purpose (Persuade, Inform, Entertain?) 3.What is the author trying to argue/prove? This is the CLAIM. 4.What text evidence was provided to support this claim? Once youve determined the Authors CLAIMS, now you must trace and evaluate whether the claims are strong enough: How do I know if its strong enough?
Was the evidence sound? Sound = TRUE Can the evidence be proven to be true and accurate? Was there sufficient evidence? Sufficient = ENOUGH Example: Was there only one reason given? Did they say some people or did they say 95% of people? Was there relevant evidence? Relevant = MAKE SENSE TO USE. RELATES TO CLAIM. Example: To argue the claim that dogs are better pets, I would NOT mention that my brother once had a pet fish that died. This is not relevant evidence. Your turn: Relate two vocabulary words to each other. How do they influence each other? Compare/Contrast? EXAMPLE: How do the words authors
point of view and authors position relate to each other? ANSWER: Authors Point of View is the authors opinion on the topic shown by the words the author chooses to use when writing about the subject. Authors Position is similar because it is what the author thinks about the subject: whether he or she is supporting or not supporting what he or she is writing about. How did I relate the two
words? 1.I defined both words. 2.I found and explained a similarity or difference. Maybe one words meaning was part of the other words meaning too.
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