Eukaryotic Cell Structure

Eukaryotic Cell Structure

Cells Long, Long Ago. Before microscope, people thought that diseases were caused by curses and supernatural spirits Microscopes enabled scientists to view and study cells Anton VanLeeuwenhoek developed the 1st light microscope

Todays microscopes Today we have much more advanced microscopes Compound light microscope series of lenses to magnify objects SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) scans the surface of cells

TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) see structures inside the cell Cell Theory All organisms are composed of cells All cells come from other living cells Cells are the basic unit of structure and function Homeostasis

All organisms must maintain a balance regardless of internal and external conditions This task is controlled by the plasma membrane Plasma Membrane The plasma membrane serves as the

boundary between the cell and its environment Allows specific amount of nutrients to enter and allow waste to exit Characteristics of cell membrane Selectively permeable allows some

molecules to enter and keeps others out Like a screen door Plasma Membrane Made up of two layers of phospholipids Controls what

moves into and out of the cell Selectively permeable AKA: Lipid Bilayer, Fluid Mosaic, Cell Membrane Cell Wall Rigid structure

Located outside of plasma membrane Found in plant cells, fungi, some bacteria and protists Provides support and protection Composed of cellulose (carbohydrate) Two Basic Cell Types

Prokaryote Eukaryote Nucleus Control center of

the eukaryotic cell Contains directions to make proteins Chromatin strands of genetic material (DNA) Nucleolus Structure within the nucleus Produces ribosomes

Ribosomes The site of protein synthesis Found in the cytoplasm or on the Endoplasmic Reticulum

Cytoplasm Clear, gelatinous fluid inside the cell Helps suspend organelles Endoplasmic Reticulum Site of cellular chemical reactions Series of highly folded membranes

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum have ribosomes attached Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum does not have ribosomes attached Golgi Apparatus AKA: Golgi Body Flattened system of

tubular membranes Modifies and packages proteins Sort proteins to be sent to appropriate destination Vacuoles Temporary storage of materials Store food, enzymes,

other materials needed by the cell, and waste Plant cells usually have one large vacuole, animal cells usually contain many smaller vacuoles Lysosomes Contain

digestive enzymes that digest excess or worn out organelles, food particles, viruses and bacteria Chloroplasts Found in the cells of green plants

Organelle that captures light energy and produces food to store for later use Contains chlorophyll gives plants their green color Mitochondria Organelles that

transform energy for the cell Double membrane structure with highly folded inner membrane Cytoskeleton Support structure for the cell Composed of

microtubules and microfilaments Helps cell to maintain shape Cilia and Flagella Aid in locomotion or feeding May move the entire cell, or aid in movement of

substances across the cell surface Identify the Following Cellular Structures Plant and Animal Cells Animal Cells - Dont have a cell

wall - Contain centrioles - Contain many small vacuoles Plant Cells - Generally larger than animal cells - Have a cell wall - Contain

chloroplasts - Have one large central vacuole Critical Thinking : Why are plant and animal cells similar? Advantages of highly folded Membranes Folded membranes are an advantage to a cell because

Cell processes can be more efficient Membranes provide a larger surface area for cell process to take place Remember all cell membranes are made up of phospholipids and by controlling what goes in and out of the membrane they help the cell maintain homeostasis

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