# Ethics in Marketing Research - Jacksonville State University

Comparative Scaling Some Key Concepts Measurement Assigning numbers or other symbols to characteristics of objects being measured, according to predetermined rules. Concept (or Construct) A generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes, occurrences, or processes. Relatively concrete constructs Age, gender, number of children, education, income Relatively abstract constructs Brand loyalty, personality, channel power, satisfaction Some Key Concepts Scaling The generation of a continuum upon which measured

objects are located. Scale A quantifying measure a combination of items that is progressively arranged according to value or magnitude. Purpose is to quantitatively represent an items, persons, or events place in the scaling continuum. Primary Scales of Measurement Primary Scales Nominal Scale Ratio Scale Ordinal

Scale Interval Scale Primary Scales of Measurement Nominal A scale in which the numbers or letters assigned to objects serve as labels for identification or classification. Ordinal A scale that arranges objects or alternatives according to their magnitude in an ordered relationship. Primary Scales of Measurement Interval A scale that both arranges objects

according to their magnitudes and Distinguishes the ordered arrangement in units of equal intervals I.e., indicate order and measure order (or distance) in units of equal intervals Primary Scales of Measurement Ratio A scale that has absolute rather than relative quantities and an absolute zero where a given attribute is absent. Money & weight are good examples of attributes that possess absolute zeros and interval properties. Primary Scales of Measurement Scale Nominal

Numbers Assigned to Drivers/Cars 1 Ordinal Rank Order of race finishers Third Place Interval Championship Points earned

170 175 185 Time to Finish, behind winner 5.1 2.3 0.0 Ratio 31

Second Place 8 First Place Classifying Scaling Techniques Comparative Scales Involve the direct comparison of two or more objects Noncomparative Scales Objects or stimuli are scaled independently of each other. Classifying Scaling Techniques

Scaling Techniques Noncomparative Scales Comparative Scales Paired Comparison Constant Sum Rank Order Continuous Rating Scales

Itemized Rating Scales Likert Stapel Semantic Differential Paired Comparison Scaling Respondent is presented with two objects at a time Then asked to select one object in the pair according to some criterion Data obtained are ordinal in nature Arranged or ranked in order of magnitude Easy to do if only a few items are compared. If number of comparisons is too large,

respondents may become fatigued and no longer carefully discriminate among them. Paired Comparison Scaling: Example For each pair of professors, please indicate the professor from whom you prefer to take classes with a 1. Cunningham Cunningham Day Parker Thomas 0 0

0 1 0 Day 1 Parker 1 0 Thomas 1

1 1 0 # of times preferred 3 1 2 0 0

Rank Order Scaling Respondents are presented with several objects simultaneously Then asked to order or rank them according to some criterion. Data obtained are ordinal in nature Arranged or ranked in order of magnitude Commonly used to measure preferences among brands and brand attributes Rank Order Scaling Please rank the instructors listed below in order of preference. For the instructor you prefer the most, assign a 1, assign a 2 to the instructor you prefer the 2nd most, assign a 3 to the instructor that you prefer 3rd most, and assign a 4 to the instructor that you prefer the least. Instructor

Ranking Cunningham 1 Day 3 Parker 2 Thomas 4

Constant Sum Scaling Respondents are asked to allocate a constant sum of units among a set of stimulus objects with respect to some criterion Units allocated represent the importance attached to the objects. Data obtained are interval in nature Allows for fine discrimination among alternatives Constant Sum Scaling Listed below are 4 marketing professors, as well as 3 aspects that students typically find important. For each aspect, please assign a number that reflects how well you believe each instructor performs on the aspect. Higher numbers represent higher scores. The total of all the instructors scores on an aspect should equal 100. Instructor

Availability Fairness Easy Tests Cunningham 30 35 25 Day 30 25

25 Parker 25 25 25 Thomas 15 15 25

Sum Total 100 100 100 Non-Comparative Scaling Classifying Noncomparative Scaling Techniques Noncomparative Rating Scales Continuous Rating Scales Semantic Differential

Itemized Rating Scales Stapel Likert Continuous Rating Scale Example Very Poor 0 X 10 20

30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Very Good 100 Method of Summated Ratings:

The Likert Scale Extremely popular means for measuring attitudes. Respondents indicate their own attitudes by checking how strongly they agree/disagree with statements. Response alternatives: strongly agree, agree, uncertain, disagree, and strongly disagree. Generally use either a 5- or 7-point scale Semantic Differential Scales A series of numbered (usually seven-point) bipolar rating scales. Bipolar adjectives (for example, good and bad), anchor both ends (or poles) of the scale. A weight is assigned to each position on the

rating scale. Traditionally, scores are 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, or +3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3. Semantic Differential Scales for Measuring Attitudes Toward Tennis Exciting ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Calm Interesting ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Dull Simple___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ Complex Passive ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ Active Stapel Scales Modern versions of the Stapel scale place a single adjective as a substitute for the semantic differential when it is difficult to create pairs of bipolar adjectives. The advantage and disadvantages of a Stapel

scale, as well as the results, are very similar to those for a semantic differential. However, the Stapel scale tends to be easier to conduct and administer. A Stapel Scale for Measuring a Stores Image Department Store Name +3 +2 +1 Wide Selection -1 -2 -3 Graphic Rating Scales

A graphic rating scale presents respondents with a graphic continuum. Graphic Rating Scale Stressing Pictorial Visual Communications 3 Very Good 2 1 Very Poor Balanced and Unbalanced Scales Balanced Scale

Surfing the Internet is Unbalanced Scale Surfing the Internet is ____ Extremely Good ____ Extremely Good ____ Very Good ____ Very Good ____ Good ____ Good ____ Bad

Disadvantages Continuous Rating Scale Place a mark on a continuous line Reaction to TV commercials Easy to construct Cumbersome scoring unless computerized Itemized Rating Scales

Likert Scale Degree of agreement on a numbered scale Measurement of attitudes, perceptions Easy to construct, administer, & understand More time consuming Semantic Differential

Numbered scale with bipolar labels Brand, product, & company images Versatile Difficult to construct appropriate bipolar adjectives Stapel Scale Unipolar numbered scale, no neutral point

Measurement of attitudes & images Easy to construct, can administer over telephone Confusing difficult to apply Summary of Itemized Rating Scale Decisions 1. Number of categories While there is no single, optimal number, traditional guidelines suggest that there should be between five and nine categories. 2. Balanced vs. unbalanced

3. Odd or even number of categories In general, the scale should be balanced to obtain objective data. If a neutral or indifferent scale response is possible for at least some of the respondents, an odd number of categories should be used. Summary of Itemized Rating Scale Decisions (continued) 4. Forced versus nonforced In situations where the respondents are expected to have no opinion, the accuracy of data may be improved by a nonforced scale. 5. Verbal description

An argument can be made for labeling all or many scale categories. The category descriptions should be located as close to the response categories as possible. 6. Physical form A number of options should be tried and the best one selected. Scale Evaluation Scale Evaluation Validity Reliability Test-Retest

Alternative Forms Content Internal Consistency Criterion Construct Convergent Validity Discriminant Validity Nomological Validity Reliability Extent to which a scale produces consistent results

Test-retest Reliability Respondents are administered scales at 2 different times under nearly equivalent conditions Alternative-form Reliability 2 equivalent forms of a scale are constructed, then tested with the same respondents at 2 different times Reliability Internal Consistency Reliability The consistency with which each item represents the construct of interest Used to assess the reliability of a summated scale Split-half Reliability Items constituting the scale divided into 2 halves, and resulting half scores are correlated Coefficient alpha (most common test of reliability) Average of all possible split-half coefficients resulting

from different splittings of the scale items Validity Extent to which true differences among the objects are reflected on the characteristic being measured Content Validity A.k.a., face validity Subjective, but systematic evaluation of the representativeness of the content of a scale for the measuring task at hand Criterion Validity Examines whether measurement scale performs as expected in relation to other variables selected as meaningful criteria I.e., predicted and actual behavior should be similar Construct Validity Addresses the question of what construct or characteristic the scale is actually measuring Convergent Validity

Extent to which scale correlates positively with other measures of the same construct Discriminant Validity Extent to which a measure does not correlate with other constructs from which it is supposed to differ Nomological Validity Extent to which scale correlates in theoretically predicted ways with measures of different but related constructs Relationship Between Reliability and Validity A scale can be reliable, but not valid In order for a scale to valid, it must also be reliable. In other words, Reliability is a necessary but insufficient condition for Validity.

Reliability and Validity on Target Old Rifle Low Reliability New Rifle High Reliability (Target A) (Target B) New Rifle Sunglare Reliable but Not Valid (Target C)

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