ETHICBOTS D2 Methodology for the Identificacion and Analysis ...

ETHICBOTS D2 Methodology for the Identificacion and Analysis ...

Methodological Issues in the Ethics of HumanRobot Interactions Rafael Capurro (Stuttgart Media University) Michael Nagenborg (University of Karlsruhe) Jutta Weber (Universitt Duisburg-Essen) Christoph Pingel (Center for Art and Media) Content Introduction A. Meta-theoretical Questions B. Techno-Ethical Issues 1. General background 2. Epistemological, ontological, and psychoanalytic implications 3. Ethical aspects of man-machine relations Conclusion

Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 2 Introduction What kind of societal conflicts and power relations are intertwined in the production and usage of agents and robots? How does the fusion of science, technology, industry and politics come into play? What about the military interest in robotics

and agents? Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 3 Introduction A reflection on the socio-cultural context of the debate on robots and agents is needed. A central task for techno-ethics is to learn the lessons from the discussion on bioethics

Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 4 Introduction For example: We should avoid abstract discussions of the agency or intentionality of agents and robots and reflect whether they are helpful to work out the contest on the future development and use of agents and robots. Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo

logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 5 A. Meta-Theoretical Questions From which standpoint do we as ethicists speak and for whom? What are the consequences and what is the (potential) field of application of an ethics of human interaction with communication, bionic and robotic systems (in the following techo-ethics) Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo

logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 6 A. Meta-Theoretical Questions Techno-ethics should support strong, contestatory democratic practice and citizen activity that is involved in the creation of techno-scientific artifacts. Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 7

A. Meta-Theoretical Questions The leading question is how to design an interdisciplinary process that also involves engineers and technology designers in the ongoing discussion. Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 8 B. Techno-Ethical Issues 1. General Background The massive use of robots will change

society probably in a similar way as cars and airplanes (and in former times: ships etc.) did and it already changed society think of industrial robots in the workplace who are an important factor with regard to the growing unemployment in Europe. Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 9 B. Techno-Ethical Issues This broad view of societal changes and consequently of the view(s) of ourselves,

including our (moral) values, is fundamental There may be a redefinition of what it means to be human For instance the EU Charter of Human Rights is human centered. The massive use of robots may challenge this anthropocentric perspective. Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 10 B. Techno-Ethical Issues Why do we want to live with robots? What do we live with robots for? There

are different levels of reflection when answering these questions, starting with the trivial one that robots can be very useful and indeed indispensable for instance in todays industrial production or when dealing with situations in which the dangers for humans are big. Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 11 B. Techno-Ethical Issues 2. Epistemological, ontological, and psychoanalytic implications

The relation between humans and robots can be conceived as an envy relation in which humans either envy robots for what they are or they envy other humans for having robots that they do not have. In the first case, envy can be positive in case the robot is considered either as a model to be imitated or negative in case the relationship degenerates into rivalry. Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 12 B. Techno-Ethical Issues This last possibility is exemplified in many

science fiction movies and novels in which robots and humans are supposed to compete. Robots are then often represented as emotionfree androids, lacking moral sense and therefore less worth than humans. Counter examples are for instance 2001: A Space Odyssey (Stanley Kubrick 1968) or Stanislaw Lems novel Golem XIV (Lem 1981). Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 13 B. Techno-Ethical Issues

The mimetic conflict (Ren Girard) arises not only by the fact of imitating what a robot can do but more basically of imitating what it is supposed to desire. But a robots desires are paradoxically our own since we are the creators. The positive and negative views of robots shine back into human selfunderstanding leading to the idea of enhancing human capabilities for instance by implanting artificial devices in the human body Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 14 B. Techno-Ethical Issues

When robots are used by humans for different tasks, a situation arises in which the mimetic desire is articulated either as a question of justice (a future robot divide) or as new kind of envy. The object of envy is not the robot itself but the other human using/having it. Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 15 B. Techno-Ethical Issues The foundational ethical dilemma with

regard to robots is thus not just the question of their good or bad use but the question of our relation to our own desire with all its creative and destructive mimetic dynamism that includes not only strategies such as envy, rivalry and model but also their trivial use as a tool that eventually turns to be a question of social justice. Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 16 B. Techno-Ethical Issues

In a mythical sense robots are experienced by our secularized and technological society as scapegoat for what is conceived the humanness of humanity whose most high and global expression is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. From this mythical perspective, robots are the bad and the good conscience of ourselves. Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 17 B. Techno-Ethical Issues

An ethical reflection on robots must take care of these pitfalls particularly when considering the dangers of the mimetic desire with regard to human dignity, autonomy or data protection. It must reflect the double bind relationship between humans and robots. Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 18 B. Techno-ethical issues

3. Ethical aspects of man-machine relations How do we live in a technological environment? What is the impact of robots on society? How do we (as users) handle robots? What methods and means are used today to model the interface between man and machine? Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 19 B. Techno-ethical issues What to think about the mimicry of

emotions and stereotypes of social norms? What kind of language / rhetorics is used in describing the problem of agent and bots and which one do we want to use? Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 20 B. Techno-ethical issues In AI and robotics we can often find a sloppy usage of language which supports anthropomorphising agents.

This language often implies the intentionality and autonomy of agents for example when researcher speak of learning, experience, emotion, decision making (and so on) of agents. How are we in science and in our social practices going to handle this problem? Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 21 B. Techno-ethical issues Robots are not ready-made products of engineers and computer scientists but devices and

emerging technologies in the making. What are the consequences of the fact that today ICT devices are developed by computer scientists and engineers only? What is the meaning of the relation master-slave with regard to robots? What is the meaning of robot as a partner in different settings? Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot

Interactions 22 B. Techno-ethical issues Recent research on social robots is focussing on the creation of interactive systems that are able to recognise others, interpret gestures and verbal expressions, which recognize and express emotions and that are capable of social learning. A central question concerning social robotics is how "building such technologies shapes our self-understanding, and how these technologies impact society" (Breazeal 2002, 5). Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo

logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 23 B. Techno-ethical issues To understand the implications of these developments it is important to analyse central concepts of social robotics like the social, sociality, human nature and human-style interactions. Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions

24 B. Techno-ethical issues Some main questions are: What concepts of sociality are translated into action by social robotics? How is social behaviour conceptualised, shaped, or instantiated in software implementation processes? And what kind of social behaviours do we want to shape and implement into artefacts? Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 25

B. Techno-ethical issues There is a tendency to develop robots modeling some aspects of human behavior instead of developing an android (Arnall 2003). Relative autonomy is a goal for physical robots as well as for softbots. What is the meaning of the concept of autonomy in robotics? What are the affinities and differences between the robotic discourse and the philosophical discourse? Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions

26 B. Techno-ethical issues Obviously, we can experience a strong bidirectional travel of the concept of autonomy (as well as that of sociality, emotion and intelligence) between very diverse discourses and disciplines. How does the concept transfer between the disciplines and especially the strong impact of robotics change the traditional meanings of concepts like autonomy, sociality, emotion and intelligence Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions

27 B. Techno-ethical issues Having regard to the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights following ethical questions might arise: (a) Who is responsible for undesired results of actions carried out by human-robot hybrid teams? (b) How is the monitoring and processing of personal data by AI agents to be regulated? (c) Can bionic implants be used to enhance, rather than restore, physical and intellectual capabilities? Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot

Interactions 28 B. Techno-ethical issues All three questions address possibilities that have an immediate impact on single human beings, since (a) responsibility is traditionally attributed to single actors (with include individuals), (b) the human right to privacy protects the ability to live autonomously, and (c) enhancements are for the benefits of a singular person. Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot

Interactions 29 B. Techno-ethical issues But the importance of robot-humanintegration goes beyond the level of the single individual, and address the question about how society or community could and should look like in which bots are integrated. Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 30

B. Techno-ethical issues Interaction with bots may build new forms of communities. Close attention should be paid to what groups of individuals are likely to interact with certain kind of bots in a certain context while at the same time keeping the perspective on the impact of the specific interactions on the communities and societies in which this specific forms of interactions take place. Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 31

B. Techno-ethical issues All three forms of human-bot integration may include aspects of violation as well as fostering of human rights and dignity. It may not even ruled out that one and the same technology may do have both positive and negative effects. Surveillances infrastructures may be considered harmful with regard to privacy, but they may also enable us to create new kinds of communities. Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions

32 Conclusion The potential benefits or harm may be caused by certain forms of human-botintegration. How to dissolve arising conflicts, especially if there is a conflict between the individual perspective and the perspective of a society or community? Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 33

Conclusion Such kind of enhancements might be considered a benefit to an individual but also raise new questions such as whether only an elite might be able to transform themselves into cyborgs or a worst case scenario whether the unemployed would be forced to have some sorts of implants to enable them to do certain jobs. Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 34

Conclusion At the time given, there is no need to address the issue of whether bots should be seen as persons. Present ethical questions raise the point of human responsibility as a fundamental issue to be addressed in an ethical enquiry on techno-ethics. Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 35 Conclusion

This includes questions such as: (a) Who and how should according to which principles adscript responsibility to whom in cases that involve human-bot integration? and what should be the consequences of such an adscription? Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 36 Conclusion (b) Who is responsible for designing and maintaining an infrastructure in which

information about persons is collected and processed? Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 37 Conclusion (c) How does the possibility of invasive human-bot integration have influence on the concept of responsibility? Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot

Interactions 38 Conclusion This includes (i) Does the fact that a human being is enhanced lead to a special kind of responsibility? (ii) What are the consequences for whose who are responsible for providing the technology used for enhancement? Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions

39 Conclusion Robots are less our slaves which is a projection of the mimetic desire of societies in which slavery was permitted and/or promoted than a tool for human interaction. This throws questions of privacy and trust (Arnall 2003, 59) but also of the way we define ourselves as workers in industry, service and entertainment. Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions

40 Conclusion This concerns different kinds of cultural approaches to robots in Europe and in other cultures that may have different impact in a global world. Different cultures have different views on autonomy and human dignity. Capurro/Nagenborg/Weber/Pingel: Methodo logical Issues in the Ethics of Human-Robot Interactions 41

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • State Home Admissions-Application Process

    State Home Admissions-Application Process

    Veterans solely seeking care for a disorder associated with exposure to a toxic substance or radiation, or for a disorder associated with service in the Southwest Asia theater of operations during the Persian Gulf War (as provided in 38 U.S.C....
  • Investigative Journalism

    Investigative Journalism

    OPTIC. O - Overview. P - Parts. T - Title/Text. I - Interrelationships. C - Conclusion. ... This is equivalent to the "paraphrase" part of CLOSE reading analysis. O - Overview. This is a photograph of a 19th century man...
  • Procrustes Shape Analysis Verification Tool

    Procrustes Shape Analysis Verification Tool

    Book Antiqua Arial Lucida Sans Wingdings 2 Wingdings Wingdings 3 Calibri Apex 1_Apex Procrustes Shape Analysis Verification Tool Review Updates Cell Identification RADAR Application Classification Multi-scale Breakdown Matching Matching - distance vs. Procrustes Fit Comparison Fit Comparison Matching Tags Interface...
  • ECE 252 / CPS 220 Advanced Computer Architecture I Lecture 1 ...

    ECE 252 / CPS 220 Advanced Computer Architecture I Lecture 1 ...

    CISC to RISC. Instruction Management - Shift away from fixed hardware microcode, microroutines - Exploit fast RAM to build instruction cache of user-visible instructions - Adapt contents of fast instruction memory to fit what application needs at the moment. Simple...
  • MUG Shot rules - Sharyland Pioneer High School

    MUG Shot rules - Sharyland Pioneer High School

    Use a period to end all sentences except genuine exclamations or questions. Ex. …you listed the street address as 209 Buena Vista Drive. apostrophe. Use an apostrophe to show ownership or to mark omissions in contractions. ... MUG Shot rules
  • Matty Forever

    Matty Forever

    Matty Forever. Click the link to hear my review! Elizabeth Fensham. Elizabeth Fensham is an Australian author and teacher. She grew up in Sydney and is now living in Victoria. The first book she wrote was called the helicopter man....
  • Main Heading - University of Auckland

    Main Heading - University of Auckland

    The model finds the optimum operating conditions for a given feed stream and pressure ratio with key parameters, such as the feed location, feed time and reflux rates, being calculated rather than specified. We are working towards an implementation in...
  • Professional Learning Community Among English Teachers At ...

    Professional Learning Community Among English Teachers At ...

    Professional Learning Community Among English Teachers at University Level: A Case Study . ... 5 Elements of PLC. Shared norms and values . ... Professional Learning Community Among English Teachers At University Level: A Case Study From A Major University...