Equine Unsoundness and Blemishes - Weebly

Equine Unsoundness and Blemishes - Weebly

Equine Unsoundness and Blemishes Mrs. Laurie Mays Locust Trace AgriScience Farm Unsoundness vs. Blemish Unsoundness Defect in form or function that ______________________

______________________ ___________________ Defects in conformation, feet, legs, eyes, wind, health, reproductive function Congenital or acquired Working soundness / breeding soundness

Blemish Acquired physical defect Does _____ interfere with usefulness of horse May diminish its value Forelimb of the Horse

Support the majority of the horses weight ____ % of the entire body weight Majority of the injuries that result from concussion and trauma Most unsoundness occur in _____ or below Often accompanied by inflammation of joints, ligaments, and tendons Joint injuries are typically more _______ than those to soft tissues

Splints Calcification or ____________ Inside of the cannon or splint bone area of front leg Usually a result of a tear of the ___________ that binds the splint bones to the cannon Can also be caused by slipping, __________ and jumping, getting kicked, concussion from hard surfaces Splints

Developing splint can cause ________ and lameness Once bony callus is formed, splint rarely causes trouble

Splints can be removed ___________, but not always successful Splints Commonly occur on _________ of front leg b/c this area receives the greatest amount of ___________ Poor nutrition or bad _____________ (over at the knees, bench knees) can be predisposing causes Occasionally occur on the __________ of the cannon or in hind legs

Most __________________ of front limb and usually occurs in young horses Almost always before 6yrs of age Splints Bowed Tendons or Tendonitis Any damage to the tendon which causes ______________ = bow

Inflammation and enlargement of the flexor tendons at the back of the front cannon Main cause is severe ___________ to the area of the flexor tendon Some cases the tendon actually ruptures Galloping, jumping or other major stressor activities Bowed Tendons or Tendonitis

Predisposing causes _________ knees Long, weak _________ Long toe and low heal Improper shoeing Legs that are too fine for the size of the horse

Symptoms Soreness to touch __________ __________ Tendency to flex the knee in order to raise the heel and relieve pressure

Bowed Tendons or Tendonitis Bowed appearance Results from ___________ tissue growth May occur anywhere along the cannon bone Low, medium, high

Treatment Long period of _______, sometimes 1yr + If tendon ruptures or injury is result of conformation issues, prognosis is not good Bowed Tendons or Tendonitis Sidebones Calcifications of lateral cartilages of coffin

bone Rare in ponies, less common in light breeds Lameness may occur during ____________ After condition is set animal is usually sound Common in horses that _________________ Unsoundness in young horses because premature calcification will result in contracted heels and abnormal foot growth Treatment ________ for inflammation,

special shoeing to prevent reoccurrence Sidebones Ringbone _________ growth on pastern bone Raised, bony ridge usually parallel to the coronary band

Classification as high or low describes the location of the new bone growth High: between P1 and P2 Low: between P1 and P2 Bone growth that is in proximity of the joint is much more ____________

Ringbone Named for the ____________ that often encircles the pastern bone More commonly occurs in the front of the

pastern bone, on the sides, or on the front and sides, but can also be found on the back of the pastern bone Usually caused by _________ on the ligaments or tendons where they attach Tearing of fibers at the point of insertion into the bone causes calcification at that site Ringbone ______________ issues that increase concussion can be predisposing to ringbone Can also be direct result of __________

Lameness, heat, and swelling result Location subjects it to continued trauma By the time it is viable, condition is chronic Permanent lameness can result Ringbone Suspensory Ligament Issues Common in _______________

Suspensory ligament attaches to the back of the cannon bone just below the knee, goes down and splits above the sesamoid bones 2 parts Each attach to a sesamoid bone Smaller part continues down and forward to attach to the long pastern bone

One of the main _____________ structures of the leg and important in absorbing shock Suspensory Ligament Subjected to great amounts of ___________ Injury can occur at a number of places _________ _________ _________

Injury can occur in ________ leg More likely in ________ Treatment and prognosis Variable depending on severity and location of injury Wind Puffs Soft, puffy, ________ filled swellings Around a joint capsule, tendon sheath, or bursa

Result of excess _________ fluid Can be found above the knee but are usually on the fetlock and pastern Result from ____________ or heavy work Occur in front and hind legs Rarely cause _________________ Wind Puffs Navicular Disease Occurs in the _________ bone of the front

foot Faulty ________________ and injury are most common causes ____________ pastern and shoulder and small feet will increase concussion Navicular Horses worked on _________ surfaces repeatedly are predisposed Often affects horses in their prime

_______________ years Usually begins as an ______________ of navicular bursa May progress to calcification of associated ligaments and cartilage Navicular

Navicular Disease also refers to __________ __________ of navicular bone Can be caused by earlier damage but doesnt have to be Shortened strides, walks up on toes, increased tendency to _____________ Shoes or foot are typically more worn in toes When standing the horse __________________

More severe cases Navicular Varying degrees of __________________ No permanent cure Corrective shoeing helps Keep toes short Heals elevated Decrease pressure on frog

Pain-killers restore some horses for short times Nerving Posterior digital neurectomy Other complications www.ecmagazine.net/Winter0607/HeelPain.htm This image shows an X-ray of a lateral view of a normal navicular bone in the horse. This X-ray shows a lateral view

of a horse that has had gross boney changes on the proximal aspect of the navicular bone, it is important to note most change of the navicular bone are not seen from this view. Heart Bar Shoes Egg

Bar Shoes Blemishes and Unsoundness of the Hind Limb The Hind Limb Main _____________ force for the horse Problems are result of strains, sprains, and twists

Not concussion injuries Some ________________ still occur in hind limbs Less than in front Stifle Lameness

Stifle is large ____________ joint Held together by number of long ligaments Subject to many different types of inflammation Can affect the patella, ligaments, or joint capsule Result in lameness

Degree of lameness, ______________, and prognosis depends on ___________, type, and severity of inflammation If ligaments are strained, prognosis is ________ If chronic synovitis or arthritis occurs, recovery potential is limited Stifled (Upward Fixation of Patella) Specific type of stifle inflammation

Patella ___________, causing the leg to remain in extended position Stifle and hock are ______________ and the foot is then dragged Patella can be released by manipulating the leg forward or _____________ the horse several steps Young horses may __________ this condition Surgical correction is possible in older horses

Stifled (Upward Fixation of Patella) Prognosis is good as long as stifle inflammation is not severe and ___________ has not developed Some evidence that this may be inherited Stringhalt

Exaggerated ______________ and forward motion of one or both hocks that is spasmodic and involuntary Cause is not completely understood Nerve damage to region may contribute Some horses will ________ show characteristic flexion after warming up Severity may be intermittent Particularly obvious when horse is

________________ or turned sharply Stringhalt http ://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gVaQqQp7Oh Q Capped Hock One of the ________________ blemishes of the

hind limb Firm _______________ on point of hock Reflects inflammation of bursa Caused by ___________ to the hock Kicking a wall, trailer gait, some solid object

Rarely causes lameness Capped Hock Curb Hard enlargement on the rear ____________ immediately below the hock Develops in response to _____________ Develops as inflammation and then thickening of ligament on back of hock Occasionally will affect the bone Associated with faulty ________________

Sickle and cow hocked Kicking or direct blow may also cause Curb May result in temporary lameness __________ usually lessens lameness Thickened scar tissue remains permanently

Bog Spavin Soft distention on the inside front portion of the hock Caused by ______________ of synovial membrane of hock ____________ conformation (straight hocks), strain (quick stops), and rickets (nutritional deficiency) = predisposing causes Rarely interferes with usefulness of horse

Bog Spavin In young horses may appear and disappear spontaneously Treated with some success Draining Corticoid therapy Firing Blistering If cause persists, condition tends to recur

____________ accompanied by lameness Bog Spavin Bone Spavin Bony enlargement on lower ____________ surface of the hock joint May result in limited ______________ Typically results in irregular ____________ Faulty hock conformation, excessive concussion, nutritional deficiencies and

heredity are all predispositions Traumatic event or vigorous training is usually necessary to cause development Bone Spavin Will result in ______________ Varies in severity

Prognosis is good ~ 2/3 of those with this become serviceably sound Will have a blemish Lameness may persist due to tendon irritation Blemishes and

Unsoundness of the Hooves Laminitis or Founder Noninfectious inflammation of sensitive ____________ of one or more hooves Severe pain can result

From circulatory congestion within the foot Variety of causes _____________ (grain founder) Digestive disturbances (enterotoxemia)

Retained afterbirth (foal founder) Lush pastures (grass founder) ________________ (road founder) Cold water ingestion after rigorous work Septicemia (bacterial infection) Hoof Anatomy

Laminitis 3 Phases _______________________ Exposed to factors that can cause laminitis Ends at first clinical sign of lameness ________________ Begins at first clinical sign of lameness

Lasts a variable amount of time Coffin bone can rotate All four feet may be involved Usually affects front feet Digital pulse Extreme pain Heat from hoof wall Laminitis 3 Phases

_________________ Begins as soon as rotation of coffin bone occurs Can last days, weeks, months or rest of animals natural life Laminitis - Treatment Acute case = emergency May stop from becoming a __________________

2 goals Elimination of _____________ _________________ of effects Most acute cases in developmental stage should be treated aggressively with goal being prevention Management of Chronic

Cases Hoof care _______________ shoeing Maintain frog support Reduce tearing forces of deep digital flexor tendon Protect integrity of laminae Provide drainage if sepsis Remove any necrotic tissue and debris

Prognosis is guarded and dependant on severity

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