Equine Parasites - Yola

Equine Parasites - Yola

Equine Parasites General Considerations Parasites are most successfully prevented through a combination of management and therapeutic strategies Husbandry Decrease parasite burden in environment

Therapeutic Deworming with proper product at proper intervals Parasite Prevention Adequate pasture acreage Compost manure Cleanliness

Pasture rotation Mixed grazing (cattle and horses) Pasture Rotation Infective larvae on pasture decreases greatly over the winter and also in hot, humid days of summer Move horses from old, infested pastures to ones

that have minimal numbers of infective larvae Deworm prior to moving Foals and young horses should go to cleanest available pastures Internal parasites

1. 2. 3. The amount of clinical disease a horse will show depends on three factors: Type of parasite involved

Number of parasites involved Host defenses. Young and debilitated animals more susceptible Life Cycle of Parasites Eggs Larvae (immature worms) Adults (mature worms)

Life cycle of the parasite Eggs or larvae are deposited on the ground in the manure of infected horse The eggs and larvae develop in the environment and are

swallowed while the horse is grazing Larvae mature in the horses digestive tract where most of them become egg laying adults. Internal parasites Common

signs Poor growth Weight loss Decreased feed efficiency Colic Diarrhea

Pneumonia Death Dull hair coat Clinical sign colic

Poor performance Important Parasites in the horse Large strongyle (Stongylus vulgaris, S.edentatus, S.equinus) Small strongyle (Cyathostemes) Round worm (Ascarids) Bots (Gastrophilus spp)

Pin worms (Oxyuris equi) Tapeworms (Anoplochephala) Threadworm (Strongyloides) Large Strongyle Strongylus vulgaris Blood worm- bloodsucking of the large instestine

Most dangerous parasite of horses Causes thromboembolic colic, various degrees of anemia. Direct life cycle Larvae live in artery supplying blood to the intestines. Blood clots form which block blood supply to the intestine First stage is the egg in feces or soil, molts to 2nd stage in feces or soil.

3rd stage becomes sheathed or sticks to walls, buckets, etc. When ingested by the horse the infective 3rd stage larvae of S.vulgaris cast off there sheath in the lumen of the s. intestine and enter the wall of the cecum and ventral colon. They curl up under the mucous membrane and prepare to molt. After 8 days the molt is complete and become a 4th stage larva and resume migration.

4th stage penetrate nearby small arterioles and wanders to the cranial mesenteric artery, which supplies blood to the instestine. (this leaves a path of inflammation, which can lead to thrombosis or occlude the vessel) After 2-4 months they enter the surrounding tissue of the intestinal wall and a final molt takes place and the immature adults (5 th stage) enter the lumen of the cecum and ventral colon , mature and reproduce 6 months after original ingestion

Life Cycle Adult large strongyle Strongylus vulgaris,adults in equine intestine bloodworm

s After deworming red worms This verminous arteritis lesion is from the cranial mesenteric artery of a weanling Quarter

Horse colt. Verminous arteritis is caused by the migration of larvae of Strongylus vulgaris through the blood vessels. It was once a common cause of colic and death in domestic horses.

S.edentatus, S. equinus 2 times as large as adults The 3rd stage of S. edentatus migrate to the liver, become encapsulated and molt to the 4th stage in approx. 2 weeks. After molting the larvae wander aimlessly in the liver for 2 months, leave the liver by ligaments that hold the liver in position, wander for months in the connective tissues, and 11 months (PPP) after

ingestion can be found in the lining of the cecum and colon. 3rd stage S.equinus encyst and undergo molt in the wall of the large intestine. After molting they bore into the right half of the liver which lies in contact with this portion of the large intestine. They stay for 6-7 weeks, enter the pancreas and abdominal cavity where the complete their development to adults. Reenter the lumen of the

large intestine and mate. (9mo. PPP) Large and small strongyle Diagnosis Diagnosis of mixed strongyle infection is based on demonstration of eggs in the feces. Specific diagnosis can be made by identifying the

infective larvae after fecal Large Strongyles Treat every 6 months Use Ivermectin or monoxidecin Small StrongyleCyathostominae

Numerous species of strongyles (40) Direct Life cycle Larvae life in gut wall of large intestine- therefore not as pathogenic as large stongyle

Cause damage to gut wall resulting in G.I. upset, and severe diarrhea. Internal parasites of highest concern- encysted stage is not affected by dewormers Very short life cycle 4 to 6 weeks

Life Cycle Symptoms Colic Diarrhea Ill-thrift, loss of body condition

Subclinical diseases is more common and may result in greater economic losses Diagnosis of Strongyles Fecal flotation- small and

large stongyles look similar on float. Assume the worst and treat for large Baermann apparatus for larvae ID Necropsy Encysted cyathostome larvae in the large colon of a horse.

Treatment Many products available nearly all horse wormers are effective against adults in the GI tract Ivermectin, mixodectin, and fenbendazole effective against migrating larvae Check fecal samples for eggs to gauge success of worming program

Control of strongyles Use effective wormers routinely Avoid overgrazing pasture Use clean pastures for young animals Pile and compost manure

Pinworms Oxyuris equi Adult pinworms lay eggs around the anus Direct lifecycle Eggs cause irritation and horses will rub their tails against objects Bare patches around the tail and perineum- pruritus ani Vague signs of abdominal discomfort if any

Controlled by most wormers Life Cycle Pinworms Diagnosis of Pin Worms

Egg masses in perineal region Tail rubbing Eggs in feces (rare) Cellophane tape across anus Adults in feces Pinworms usually are the cause of the irritation that

leads to tail rubbing. Adult females deposit adhesive egg masses on anal and perianal skin. Note the broken hair at the base of the tail. Adults in feces Control of Pin Worms

Thorough cleaning of stalls Fresh food and water Treatment: Moxidectin, Piperazine, Pyrantel Stomach bots Gastrophilus ssp

Insects the adult is a fly, the larvae live in the horses stomach Flies lay eggs on hair, they hatch and penetrate into the mouth tissue, then migrate to stomach May cause stomach irritation and colic G. nasalis, G. hemorrhoidalis, G. intestinalis

Life Cycle Bot fly and egg Bot fly larvae Migrate thru the tongue and esophagus after they

are ingested, and attach themselves to the lining of the stomach, where they stay for up to 11 months. In large numbers, they contribute to gastric (stomach) ulcers and

occasionally rupture of the stomach. gross lesion with adult worms, equine stomach Mutual grooming leads to the ingestion

of bot eggs by horses Diagnosis of Bots

See eggs on hair and mane Endoscopy of stomach Necropsy Knowing flies are in area

Treatment of Bots Because flies are insects, only wormers that are effective against insects will kill bots Ivermectin and moxidectin are effective Nits can be removed from hair before they hatch Nit removal combs, pumice stones Warm water with insecticide added

Public health significance Flies can lay eggs on human hair Larvae will hatch and burrow into skin The stomach worms Habronema

muscae H microstoma , and Draschia megastoma Summer sores The adults are 6-25 mm in size. Draschia are found in tumor-like swellings in the stomach wall. The eggs or larvae are ingested by larvae of house or stable flies, which serve as intermediate hosts. Horses are infected by ingesting flies that

contain infective larvae or by free larvae that emerge from flies as they feed around the lips Habronema If the larvae which are in the mouthparts of the immediate host are deposited in the open skin well the fly feeds it can cause summer sores. Summer sores are ulcerated irritations. These lesions can cause soreness and itchiness and

become covered in a reddish-yellow tissue If the worms get deposited into the eye or the area around the eye it can cause a persistent case of conjunctivitis. Cycle Lesions

Prepuce lesions (Summer sores) Habronema muscae Diagnosis: Skin scraping of lesions Egg flotation

Rx: Ivermectin, moxidectin Ascarids - Roundworms

Parascaris equorum Most common in foals/young horses can cause impactation and colic Interfere with digestion and absorption of nutrients, notably protein

Cause telescoping of intestine in foals Direct life cycle Larvae migrate through lungs where they can cause pneumonia Build up in large numbers in the anterior part of the small intestine

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