Enzyme Catalyst [4/3/13]

Enzyme Catalyst [4/3/13]

Enzyme Catalyst (write on EOCT worksheet, NOT ON CATALYST SHEET) **Turn in homework to blue tray. Name the parts of a Big Mac. What macromolecules are these parts made of? Objective 3 & 4: Skinny Wednesday SWBAT differentiate between the four macromolecules (organic molecules) SWBAT describe the function of enzymes and explain what scenarios denature them.

By the end of class: I can identify the parts in an enzyme-substrate complex I know the common characteristics of enzymes I can describe what activation energy is I can predict whether a scenario will denature an enzyme and understand its effects

Enzyme Active Site

Activation Energy Chemical Reaction Rate Substrate pH (acid, base/alkaline) Temperature Reactant Product Denature Optimum

Key Words An EOCT Problem might look like this What is the primary function of enzymes? A They keep the pH of the body within acceptable levels B They make essential biochemical reactions possible or speed them up C They enable the body to use energy to produce food D They give cells the energy they need to carry

out life functions 4 Organic/Macromolecules Carbohydrates Monosaccarides Lipids Fatty Acids Protein Amino Acids Nucleic Acid Nucleotides

Monomers: Building Blocks Each macromolecule is made up of different monomers MOnO = 1 Carbohydrates: Starch & sugar Monomer: monosaccarides

Function: main source of quick, short-term energy Example: glucose, fructose, cellulose Mean Girls Uh. Butter is a mixture of triglycerides of several

different fatty acids which makes it a Lipids (Notes) Monomer: fatty acids Function: Long-term energy storage Makes up the cell membrane Insulation: trap heat Pad/protect organs

Examples: fats, oils, waxes Too much long-term energy stored up, not enough activity to use it all http://makechildrenfirstpg.org/lets-get-fatter/ Protein: Do work! Monomer: amino acid Function: provide structural support

transport substances speed-up chemical reactions Examples: Muscle tendons, enzymes KwashiorkorProtein Deficiency A disorder when a diet consists of excessive nonprotein calories (from starch or sugar), but is deficient in total protein and essential amino

acids. Characterized by generalized edema, "flaky paint' dermatosis, thinning and discoloration of the hair, enlarged fatty liver, and slowed growth. Protein Example: Enzymes Enzyme-Substrate Complex Enzyme= proteins that speed up chemical reactions without being chemically changed

Substrate= reactants that are affected Or you might see it like this You will have to be ready to read a variety of different diagrams Check Your Knowledge Label each of the components of

the diagram A= B= C= D= E= Enzymes are likea Lock & Key (Notes) Substrates bind to an active site The shape of the

substrate fits the shape of the active site Lock=Active Site Key=Substrate/s Remember this?? Wall = Hole = People =

Characteristics: Specific (NOTES) Enzymes can only chemically recognize and bind with a specific type of substrate Ex: ENZYME Lipase Amylase Protease Catalase

SUBSTRATE ACTED UPON Fats & oils (Lipids) Starch (Amylose) Protein (Polypeptides) Hydrogen peroxide PRODUCTS Glycerol & fatty acids Maltose Amino acids Water and oxygen

Characteristics: Reusable (NOTES) Once the enzyme releases the products, the enzyme is free to facilitate another reaction How Enzymes Help: Activation Energy (NOTES) Activation energy= energy required to START

a chemical reaction SHORTER hill = Reaction WITH an enzyme Analogy (Notes) Which would you prefer? Bigger or shorter hill? Hill Height= Activation Energy Required A= Reactants

B= Products Smaller hill = Reaction with Enzyme Enzyme Factors (Notes) Enzymes are affected by 1) Temperature 2) pH 3) Concentration 4) Surface area HIGH Temperature and

LOW pH (ACIDS) DENATURE enzymes Mei/Mit Homework Answers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. to make body cells

To make reproductive cells (gametes) 23 46 Left = mitosis Right = meiosis Mei/Mit homework answers Mitosis Asexual Makes body cells 1 round of cell division

Makes diploid cells 1 cell -> 2 cells Used for growth and repair Keeps chromosome number the same 46 chromosomes -> 46 chromosomes Meiosis Sexual Makes gametes

2 rounds of cell division Makes haploid cells Creates genetic variation 1 cell -> 4 cells Divides in half Cuts chromosome number in half 46 chromosomes -> 23 chromosomes

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