Energy Systems - Weebly

Energy Systems - Weebly

ENERGY SYSTEMS NUTRITION 3.1.1 LIST THE MACRONUTRIENTS AND MICRONUTRIENTS. Macronutrients include: Lipid (fat) carbohydrate and protein.

Micronutrients include: Vitamins Minerals

Water Fibre 3.1.2 OUTLINE THE ROLES OF MACRONUTRIENTS AND MICRONUTRIENTS. Specific knowledge of individual vitamins and minerals are not required. MACRONUTRIENTS: These are present in our diets in large amounts,

and make up the bulk of our diets providing the human body with energy. It is recommended that our diets are made up of 50 -60% of carbohydrates, 12 15% of protein and less than 30% fat. ROLES OF CARBOHYDRATE Carbohydrates are stored in the muscle and liver and excess carbohydrate can be converted and

stored as triglyceride. Both carbohydrates and triglycerides are mainly used as fuel sources. ROLES OF LIPID Triglycerides (broken down lipid) is stored as adipose tissue. Heat insulation: a layer of subcutaneous fat under

the skin reduces fat loss in mammals and birds. Cell membranes: are composed of phospholipids. Steroid hormones: cannot be manufactured without lipids. Buoyancy: lipids are less dense than water so help animals to float. ROLES OF PROTEIN: Protein is not normally used for fuel but amino

acids (broken down protein) can be used to build muscle fibres. MICRONUTRIENTS: These are in our diets, but in very small amounts. These can be found in vitamins, minerals and trace elements. Micronutrients, just like water do not provide energy, however they are still needed in adequate amounts to ensure that all our body cells function properly.

Most of micro nutrients are known to be essential nutrients, meaning they are those which are dispensable to life processes, and what the body cannot make itself. In other words meaning these essential nutrients can only be obtained from the food in which we eat. 3.1.5 EXPLAIN HOW GLUCOSE MOLECULES CAN COMBINE TO FORM DISACCHARIDES AND POLYSACCHARIDES . The basic subunits of carbohydrates are

monosaccharides. The monosaccharides can be linked to form a disaccharide. More monosaccharides can be linked to a disaccharide to form a polysaccharide. These reactions are all condensation reactions producing water. 3.1.6 STATE THE COMPOSITION OF A MOLECULE OF TRIACYLGLYCEROL.

Triglycerides are formed from a single molecule of glycerol, combined with three fatty acids Ester bonds form between each fatty acid and the glycerol molecule. 3.1.7 DISTINGUISH BETWEEN SATURATED AND UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which

there are one or more double bonds in the fatty acid chain. A fat molecule is monounsaturated if it contains one double bond, and polyunsaturated if it contains more than one double bond. a saturated fat is "saturated" with hydrogen atoms. In cellular metabolism hydrogen-carbon bonds are broken down to produce energy, thus an unsaturated fat molecule contains somewhat less energy (i.e

fewer calories) than a comparable sized saturated fat. Substituting (replacing) saturated fats with unsaturated fats helps to lower levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in the blood. Foods containing unsaturated fats include avocado, nuts, and vegetable oils such as canola, and olive oils. Meat products contain both saturated and unsaturated fats.

Although unsaturated fats are healthier than saturated fats,[3] the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendation stated that the amount of unsaturated fat consumed should not exceed 30% of one's daily caloric intake (or 67 grams given a 2000 calorie diet). Two amino acids can be joined together to form a dipeptide by a condensation reaction. The new bond formed is a peptide linkage.

Further condensation reactions can link amino acids to either end of the dipeptide, eventually forming a chain of many amino acids. This is called a polypeptide. 3.1.11 DISTINGUISH BETWEEN AN ESSENTIAL AND A NONESSENTIAL AMINO ACID. The human body requires 20 naturally occurring amino acids for its proper functioning.

There are 8 essential amino acids for humans: phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, methionine, leucine, and lysine. They are called essential because the body does not manufacture them but must be ingested in the diet. Therefore a proper diet should be balanced and must include all the essential amino acids. Foods

that contain a good and varied amount of amino acids, including the essential ones should be included in our daily diet. Based on their content of amino acids, foods are often classified as complete, partially complete, or incomplete protein sources. In order for a protein to be complete, it must contain all of the essential amino acids.

The body continually breaks down protein molecules and rebuilds the resulting amino acids into other usable chains required by particular areas of the body. In addition to their main functions of building needed proteins, amino acids also assist vitamins and minerals to do their jobs properly. Even if vitamins and minerals were absorbed and assimilated rapidly, they would not be as

effective as they are in the presence of amino acids. An adequate diet must contain enough protein to supply these amino acids. The generally accepted sources of amino acids are meat and dairy products. However, the necessary amino acids can be supplied on a vegetarian or vegan diet but good nutritional planning is necessary to make sure of an

adequate supply. Certain combinations of cereal grains (wheat, corn, and rice) along with legumes (beans, peanuts) will provide a complete amino acid. 3.1.12 DESCRIBE CURRENT RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A HEALTHY BALANCED DIET.

UK It is recommended that our diets are made up of 50 -60% of carbohydrates, 12 15% of protein and less than 30% fat. In conclusion, a healthy diet must include proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Intake of saturated fats should be strictly limited, as should intake of high glycemic index carbohydrates. Protein and fat nutrition must emphasize the essential acids

while carbohydrates shall include only those of low glycemic index. Protein foods should also be chosen in consideration of the fat content. 3.1.13 STATE THE ENERGY CONTENT PER 100 G OF CARBOHYDRATE, LIPID AND PROTEIN. Carbohydrate = 1600 kJ Protein = 1700 kJ

Fat =3700 kJ Both carbohydrates and lipids can be used for energy storage in humans. Carbohydrates are usually used for energy storage over short periods and lipids for long term storage. 3.1.14 DISCUSS HOW THE RECOMMENDED ENERGY

DISTRIBUTION OF THE DIETARY MACRONUTRIENTS DIFFERS BETWEEN ENDURANCE ATHLETES AND NON-ATHLETES. Depending on intensity and duration of exercise, an athlete may regularly expend twice as much energy as a sedentary person. Furthermore, many sports are performed in environments that can increase energy expenditures (cold, humidity, altitude).

Consequently, sporting activities can involve additional energy expenditure ranging from around 1,000 kilocalories/day (dancing, martial arts) to as much as 7,000 kilocalories/day (longdistance cycle races, endurance treks). During prolonged, aerobic exercise, energy is provided by the muscle glycogen stores which directly depend on the amount of carbohydrates ingested.

This is not the only reason why dietary carbohydrates play a crucial role in athletic performance; they have also been found to prevent the onset of early muscle fatigue and hypoglycaemia during exercise. By keeping carbohydrate intake high, an athlete therefore replenishes his glycogen energy stores, and reduces the risk of rapid fatigue and a

decline in performance. At the same time, carbohydrate intake should not be so high as to drastically reduce the intake of fat, because the body will use fat as a substrate once glycogen stores are depleted. The use of body protein in exercise is usually small, but prolonged exercise in extreme sports can degrade muscle, hence the need for amino

acids during the recovery phase. 3.2.4 EXPLAIN THE ROLE OF INSULIN IN THE FORMATION OF GLYCOGEN AND THE ACCUMULATION OF BODY FAT. Insulin and glucagon regulate the sugar level in the body. These two hormones are manufactured in the pancreas and through circulation are carried to

the liver where they perform their functions. Enzymes that convert glucose to glycogen though a condensation reaction are stimulated by Insulin. Storage of triglycerides in the adipose tissue is is stimulated by insulin.

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