Carbon capture & Storage: EU enabling legal framework Stakeholder Meeting European Marine Strategy 6 June 2007 Scott Brockett C5 Energy & Environment European Commission DG Environment Slide 1 European Commission: DG Environment CCS Chain of Processes Explicitly excludes ocean storage Slide 2 European Commission: DG Environment Slide courtesy of Karin Ritter, IPIECA
Why do we need CCS? Climate change context Cannot reduce EU or world CO2 emissions by 50% in 2050 with energy efficiency and renewables alone Must also use the possibility to capture and store CO2 Major fossil fuel use in the developing world must be addressed. Potential of CCS Could contribute around 14% of all reductions needed by 2030 by 2050 almost 60% of emissions from the power sector should be captured, compared with none today. More than 90% of all coal-fired electricity generation would be from plants equipped with CCS. After initial deployment in developed countries, rapid uptake in developing countries will follow. Slide 3 European Commission: DG Environment Potential for long-term storage Most oil and gas fields have contained high-pressure
CO2 for millions of years (200 Mt trapped in Pisgah Anticline in the US for 65M years) Significant storage potential Detailed work on storage potential in Europe: Slide 4 Technical potential likely to exceed 2000 GT Total CO2 emissions currently around 24 GT/yr National geological surveys Geocapacity FP6 project
ENV contract with TNO on source-sink matching European Commission: DG Environment Contribution of physical and chemical trapping options over time Source: IPCC Slide 5 European Commission: DG Environment Risks of CCS Estimates in IPCC Special report: Local risks associated with pipeline transport could be similar to or lower than those of current hydrocarbon pipelines With appropriate site selection, monitoring and remediation, the local risks of CCS would be comparable to those of natural gas and Enhanced Oil Recovery
The fraction retained in appropriately selected and managed sites is very likely to exceed 99% over 100 years, and likely to exceed 99% over 1000 years. Need to balance risks and benefits Slide 6 European Commission: DG Environment How can its potential be achieved? Requirements Manage risks of CCS Commercialise the technology bring costs down substantially Actions Enabling legal framework end 2007 10-12 demonstration plants. Widespread deployment by 2020 Slide 7
European Commission: DG Environment Impacts and risks to be managed Storage Adopt framework approach similar to IPCC guidelines Model expected behaviour of CO2, and use site only if have demonstrated expected permanence of storage Monitor site after use to confirm that CO2 behaving as expected Decommission and close, with monitoring period after closure Centralised verification of safety in the initial phase Other provisions: Transfer of responsibility to state on condition that risk of future leakage is
demonstrated to be insignificant Provisions on composition of the CO2 stream Financial provisions for insolvency of operators before site is safely closed Prospection for CCS sites Free-standing legal framework or integration into IPPC? Slide 8 European Commission: DG Environment Removal of barriers indicative options Water Amendment of Article 11.3.j of Directive 2000/60/EC to allow CO2 injection on the same basis as natural gas injection for storage: - injection of CO2 streams for storage purposes into geological formations which for natural reasons are permanently unsuitable for other purposes, provided that such injection is authorised under Directive XX/XX/EC
Waste Examination in Impact Assessment Propose to remove CCS (as regulated elsewhere) from waste legislation In Article 1 of Directive 2006/12/EC, the following new paragraph is inserted: Slide 9 3. CO2 streams that are transported for the purpose of storage, injected or stored in accordance with the provisions of Directive XX/XX/EC are not considered to be waste as defined in paragraph (a). European Commission: DG Environment
Liability for leakage from storage site Local damage to health and property: leave to MS level Local damage to the environment Confer Environmental Liability Directive (automatic under IPPC route) On analogy with landfill, applies to incidents during: Full operational phase Post-closure phase where monitoring is required The phase where monitoring has ceased and site has been abandoned. The basic requirement will be strict liability. Non-local damage (i.e. climate implications) covered by inclusion in ETS Requirement for remediation of any leakage ELD plus specific provisions in our framework. Financial provision for future liability
Environmental Liability Directive Article 14 For non-local damage, requirement to buy credits under ETS Directive Slide 10 European Commission: DG Environment Marine risks example: Leakage at a rate of 3,200,000 tons CO2 per year Slide 11 European Commission: Slide courtesy Ken Caldeira; Data ChenDGetEnvironment al., 2005 Atmospheric CO2 stabilization above preindustrial concentrations implies massive placement of CO2 in the ocean Stabilizing atmospheric CO2 at 450 ppm will result in
4,500,000,000,000 tons of CO2 ( = 4500 GtCO2 ) added to the ocean in equilibrium Slide 12 Commission: DG Environment Slide courtesy Ken Caldeira; European data IPCC SRCCS, 2005 Progress in OSPAR Amendment to Convention to allow CCS Risk management framework Reasonable text on table in form of a Decision
Timing OSPAR Commission meeting 26-29 June Commission working with D presidency to ensure effective EC co-ordination Slide 13 European Commission: DG Environment Making CCS mandatory post-2020 Target in Communication on Sustainable Power Generation from fossil fuels communication
Impact asssessment What would we regulate: coal, gas, all fossil fuels, only large installations? Cost of regulating? Practicality of regulating? Optimal retrofitting schedule for capture-ready plant Effect on structure of energy market Advantages Slide 14 All new post-2020 must use CCS All new prior to 2020 must be capture-ready and retrofit rapidly after 2020
Clear long-term signal which would stimulate deployment Capture-ready at risk of operator: what investment to make now to make retrofit in 2020 easier European Commission: DG Environment Timing Slide 15 Draft proposal late summer 2007 Internal procedures until November 2007 Adoption by Commission November/Dec 2007
European Commission: DG Environment Summary Cant meet our climate goals without CCS Technology for deployment exists today Significant storage capacity both worldwide and in Europe If sites properly managed, prospects for long-term storage are good Regulatory framework needed:
Risk management Demonstration/commercialisation Widespread deployment by 2020 Slide 16 European Commission: DG Environment
- What is happening in this food chain? Who eats whom? As we said, some fish eat bethnic organisms. If the benthic community is in polluted sediment, the benthos become polluted. This means the fish are eating a polluted benthic...
IRB e22615. Informed consent on file (lock and key in my office). Participants not compensated. Pseudonyms only (they chose). Minimal risk (reprisal). Audio recordings made for transcription, then erased after transcript editing complete. Expedited IRB approval e22615.
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