Endocrine System - Mission College

Endocrine System - Mission College

Terminology in Health Care and Public Health Settings Unit 7 Endocrine System Endocrine System Objectives Define, understand and correctly pronounce medical terms related to the Endocrine System Describe common diseases and conditions, laboratory and diagnostic procedures, medical and surgical procedures and medications related to the Endocrine System Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version

2 Endocrine System Overview Composed of eight Endocrine Glands Functions in the regulation of our bodys activities Located in various locations in body Acts through chemical messengers called hormones Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 3 Endocrine System Overview The eight endocrine glands are:

Adrenal gland Pancreas (Islets of Langerhans) Pituitary gland Pineal Gland Ovary(ies) Testicle(s) Thyroid gland Thymus gland Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 4 Endocrine Glands

Thyroid gland Thymus Adrenal gland Testis Ovary Pineal gland Pituitary gland Pancreas Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 5

Endocrine System Overview Hormones Acts as messengers Travel in our bloodstream to tissues or organs Can act in varying amounts of time (minutes, hours or even weeks) Affect our bodys processes and functions Growth and development Metabolic processes Sexual function Reproduction Mood Component 3/Unit 7

Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 6 Endocrine System Overview Hormone Disorders Levels too high Levels too low Other factors Stress Infections Changes in levels of blood and body fluids Hormone Diseases When your body does not respond as it should to the presence of the hormone Most common endocrine disease Diabetes

Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 7 Adrenal Gland Overview Adrenal gland (s) also called the suprarenal gland are located above your kidneys are paired organs composed of two layers Outer cortex Three Hormones Inner medulla

Two Hormones Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 8 Adrenal Gland Diseases Addisons Disease Symptoms Diagnostic Tests Treatment Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version

9 Adrenal Gland Cancers Adrenal Gland Cancers Adrenocortical carcinoma Neuroblastoma Pheochromocytoma Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 10 Pancreas Islets of Langerhans Pancreas Soft organ that lies

transversely in front of the spine Has both an exocrine and endocrine function Pancreatic islets alpha cells that secrete glucagons beta cells that secrete insulin Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 11 Pancreatic Disorders Diabetes Type 1 Type 2

Symptoms Diagnostic Tests Treatments Type 1 Insulin Islet Cell Transplantation Type 2 Exercise and weight control Oral Medications Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 12 Pancreatic Diseases Pancreatitis

Definition Symptoms Diagnostic Tests Treatment Pancreas Transplant Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 13 Pancreatic Diseases Cystic fibrosis Definition Symptoms Diagnostic Tests Treatment

Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 14 Pancreatic Cancer Location of tumors exocrine cells endocrine Risk Factors Symptoms Diagnostic Tests

Treatment Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 15 Pituitary Gland Overview Pituitary Gland Also known as the hypophysis Located on the underside of the brain in a depression at the base of the skull About the size of a pea or 1 centimeter in diameter Connected to the brain by

a slender stalk-like projection referred to as the infundibulum Known as the master gland Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 16 Pituitary Gland Hormones Hormones produced by the pituitary gland Prolactin Growth Hormone (GW) Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Antiduretic hormone (ADH) Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 17 Pituitary Gland Disorders Growth Disorders Growth Hormone (GW) in the pituitary gland stimulates the growth of bone and other tissues. Too little GH results in dwarfism A person of short stature, under 410, as an adult Achondroplasia causes about 70% of all dwarfism Too much GH results in gigantism in children where their bones and their body grow too much In adults it causes acromegaly, which makes the

hands, feet and face larger than normal Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 18 Pituitary Gland Disorders Diabetes Insipidus Also called DI Symptoms causes frequent urination Extremely thirsty Different from diabetes mellitus (DM) Less common than DM Result of a problem with the pituitary gland or kidneys

Treatment depends on the cause of the disorder Medications may be helpful Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 19 Pituitary Gland Tumors Pituitary tumors are fairly common 1 in 10,000 persons have a pituitary tumor Characteristics Grow slowly Do not spread Usually not cancerous Most common tumors produce hormones and may result in conditions such as:

Cushings syndrome hyperthyroidism Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 20 Pituitary Gland Diagnostic Tests Diagnostic Tests Adrenocorticohormone Test Aldosterone and Renin Tests Follicle-stimulating Hormone Test Growth Hormone Test Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Test Lutenizing Hormone Test MRI of the Head Component 3/Unit 7

Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 21 Pineal Gland Pineal Gland Also called the pineal body or epiphysis cerebri Is a small coneshaped structure attached to a portion of the brain(cerebrum) by a stalk Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010

Version 22 Pineal Gland The Pineal gland consists of Neurons Neuroglial cells Pinealocytes, specialized secretory cells Secrete the hormone melatonin into the cerebrospinal fluid, which carries it into the bloodstream Melatonin affects reproductive development and daily physiologic cycles Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version

23 Thyroid Gland Overview Located in the front of the neck on either side of the trachea Consists of two lobes Two lobes connected by a band of tissue called the isthmus Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 24 Thyroid Gland Overview Helps the body generate energy from

the food we eat Parathyroid glands located on the thyroid gland and secrete parathyroid hormone Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 25 Thyroid Gland Overview Thyroid gland consists of follicles that produce chemicals or hormones that contain iodine Thyroxine 95% Triiodothyronine 5%

Both thyroid hormones require the presence of iodine to be synthesized Thyroid hormone is also produced in response to another hormone released in the pituitary gland Simple goiter or iodine deficiency goiter Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 26 Thyroid Diseases Four main types of disease Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Benign (non-cancerous) thyroid disease Thyroid cancer Risk Factors

Symptoms Treatments Surgery, radioactive iodine, hormone treatment, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients receive a combination of treatments. Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 27 Reproductive Organs Endocrine Function Overview Ovary Produces female sex hormones Estrogen Progesterone

Part of the female reproductive organs Secondary sexual characteristics at puberty from estrogens include: Development of breasts Distribution of fat Maturation of reproductive organs Other hormone functions from progesterone include: Uterine lining thickening Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 28

Reproductive Organs Endocrine Function Overview Testes Male sex hormones Called androgens Testosterone is main hormone secreted by the testes and its production Begins during fetal development Responsible for Growth and development of male reproductive structures Increased skeletal and muscular growth Enlargement of the larynx Growth and distribution of body hair Increased male sexual drive Component 3/Unit 7

Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 29 Thymus Gland Overview Thymus Gland Location small organ in your upper chest, under your breastbone Function before birth and during childhood, the thymus helps the body make a type of white blood cell, lymphocytes, which help protect you from infection

Hormone produces thymosin, a hormone that plays an important role in the development of the bodys immune system Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 30 Thymus Gland Overview Diseases of the thymus Cancer of the thymus is rare Symptoms include: A cough that doesnt go away Chest pain

Trouble breathing Treatment The most common treatment is surgery to remove the tumor Other options include radiation and hormone therapy Component 3/Unit 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Version 31 Endocrine System Combining Forms Word Part adrenal/o oophor/o orchi/o pancreat/o

pituitar/o thym/o thyroid/o Component 3/Unit 7 Meaning adrenal gland ovary testis pancreas pituitary gland thymus gland thyroid gland Health IT Workforce Curriculum 1.0/Fall 2010 Key Term adrenalectomy oophoritis orchitis pancreatectomy hypopituitarism

thymoma thyroidectomy Version 32

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