Electrostatics Electroscope Detects electric charges Cannot tell what type of charge

Conduction Induction Polarization Grounding

3 Types of Charging 1. Charging by friction Transfer of charge due to rubbing contact between materials. 2. Charging by conduction electrons are transferred from one object to another by touching. 3. Charging by induction electrons are grounded, which leaves a positive charge

when a negative object is brought near. Particle information is on Equation Sheet

Things like: Mass of a proton, neutron, and electron. The charge of an electron or proton. Coulombs constant. Insulator Does not allow charges to move easily. Can be charged, but charge is localized.

glass, mica, paraffin, hard rubber, sulfur, silk, dry air, plastic Electric Fields

Represents the physical effect of charges on the nearby space. By definition, the Electric Field lines are LINES OF ELECTRIC FORCE

No two lines of force intersect each other. The electric field is the force on one charge caused by the presence of another charge. Is a vector field. Always is in the direction that a POSITIVE test charge would move. The lines of force start at right angles to the surface of a charged conductor. No electric field lines are present inside a conductor under steady state conditions. The amount of force PER test charge. So units are N/C

Electric Field Lines Between Charged Particles and Plates POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE A. Electric Potential 1. A charge in an electric field experiences a force according to Coulomb's law

a. If charge moves in response to force, work is done by elec. field and Energy is removed from the system b. If charge is moved against the coulomb force, work is done on it using Energy from some outside source, Energy is stored c. If work is done as a charge moves from 1 point to another in an electric field, or if work is required to move a charge from 1 point to another, these 2 points differ in electric potential.

d. Magnitude of the work is a measure of this difference of potential 2. Potential difference, V, between 2 points in an electric field is the work done per unit charge as a charge is moved between these points: Faraday Discovered a. all static charge on a conductor lies on its surface

b. there can be no V between 2 points on the surface of a charged conductor c. The surface of a conductor is an equipotential surface d. electric lines of force are normal to equipotential surface e. lines of force originate or terminate normal to the conductive surface of a charged object

Capacitors--any isolated conductor can retain a charge. Can increase charge until spark--in a vacuum, can withstand more charge 1. a combination of conduction plates separated by an insulator that is used to store an electric charge is known as a capacitor a. area of plates

b. distance of separation c. characteristics of insulating material determine charge that can be placed on capacitor 2. Larger charge--greater is E between plates Capacitors in Series Capacitors in series each charge each other by INDUCTION. So they each

have the SAME charge. The electric potential on the other hand is divided up amongst them. In other words, the sum of the individual voltages will equal the total voltage of the battery or power source. Capacitors in Parallel In a parallel configuration, the voltage is the same because ALL THREE capacitors touch BOTH ends of the battery. As a result, they split up the charge amongst them.

2. Note the current flows from + to -. 3. Electric currentthe net amount of charge that passes through it per unit time at any point. I = Q/t Its unit is the ampere, amp, A = 1 C/second 4. In any single circuit, the current at any instant is the same at one point as at any other point since electric charge is conserved.

ResistivityThe R of a metal wire is directly proportional to its length, L, and inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area, A. Where rho is a resistivity and depends on the material used. Resistors in Series2 or more resistors are connected end to end. Resistors could be simple resistors [the striped things] or light bulbs,

heating elements, or other resistive devices. 1. I is equal across all resistors in a series 2. V = V1 + V2+ V3 = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 My students came up with a clever way to remember this. They had Sr. V as in seniors are victorious. It helped them remember that in SERIES, Resistors & Voltage are additive. {They already knew that capacitor behave opposite to resistors.} 3. Equivalent ResistorSince resistors are additive in series, you can replace all those zig-zags with one equivalent [the sum of ] zig zag like

the picture above on the far right. The relationship is V = I Req. This simplifies things! Resistors in parallel Here the current from the source splits into two or more branches. This is how the wiring in buildings and houses is done. This way, if you disconnect one device, the current to the others is not disrupted. With series, if one goes out, the current is stopped! 1. I is split across the branches and is therefore additive

I = I1 +I2 + I3 WHERE EACH I = V/its R AND total I = V/Req 2. It follows that This means that the NET resistance in parallel is LESS than any single resistor since you are giving the current additional paths to follow, hence the resistance will be less. 3. Heres an analogy: Consider 2 pipes taking in water near the top of a dam and releasing it below as shown here. The gravitational potential difference, % h, is the same for both pipes, just as in the electrical case of parallel resistors. If both pipes are open, rather than

only one, twice as much current will flow through. This, with 2 equal pipes open, the net resistance to the flow of water will be reduced by half. Kirchhoffs Rules A. These rules were invented in the mid 1800's to deal with complicated circuits. There are 2 rules and they are simply convenient applications of the laws of conservation of charge and energy. B. Kirchhoffs first rulethe junction rule, based on the conservation of

charge which we already used in deriving the rule for parallel resistors. At any junction point, the sum of all currents entering the junction must equal the sum of all currents leaving the junction. What goes in must come out! Charges entering a junction must also leavenone is lost or gained. C. Kirchhoffs second rulethe loop rule, based on the conservation of energy. The sum of the changes in potential around any closed path of a circuit must be zero.