C H A P T E R 1 History of Physical Education Chapter 1 Colonization Early 1600s to 1700s Early New England colonists
Puritan influence: Play was snare of the devil Later colonization Increased focus on education and play Benjamin Franklin: Early proponent of physical activity for children Thomas Jefferson: Physical exercise should be part of education Early American Period Mid-1700s to 1900 Physical training and hygiene (health)
Early emphasis, especially for men Development of systems German (Turner) system Swedish system American systems German (Turner) System of Gymnastics Emphasis: Developing strong, healthy men Use of heavy handheld weights, calisthenics, and apparatuses (ropes, ladders, bars, rings, vaults)
Leaders Charles Follen: First college gym at Harvard College Francis Lieber: Opened first swimming pool Charles Beck: Included PE as part of education program at the Round Hill School, Massachusetts Swedish System of Gymnastics Emphasis: Therapeutic approach Develop heart and lungs through movement patterns Hold movements on teachers command
Leaders Hartwig Nissen: Director for Boston schools Nils Posse: Started the Posse Normal School Amy Morris Homans: Director of Normal School of Gymnastics American Systems and Leaders Emphasis Modification of early systems and advancement in physical training and hygiene concepts
Catharine Beechers system Calisthenics for girls and women to help develop good posture, strength, and grace Less rigorous without excessive use of apparatuses Movements to music (continued) American Systems and Leaders (continued) Robert Roberts system (YMCA)
Balance and symmetry of muscles Importance of daily hygiene and physical activity Dio Lewis system: New gymnastics Exercises for everyone using weighted beanbags, wooden rings, wands, dumbbells, and clubs Lighter weights and more repetitions Dio Lewis Exercises American Systems and Leaders (continued)
Edward Hitchcocks system Personalized hygiene program Collected pre- and postanthropometric measurements Dudley Sargents system Modified and developed exercise machines Included individual remedial or corrective exercises Developed Harvard Summer School for PE (continued)
American Systems and Leaders (continued) Delphine Hanna 35 years at Oberlin College, Ohio First woman to use anthropometric measurements and corrective procedures in her PE program First woman appointed full professor in PE Oberlin College First college to offer a teacher prep program in PE for credit
Important Events Adelphi conference in Brooklyn, 1885 Association for the Advancement of PE (AAPE), the birth of the national organization Boston conference, 1889 What should be the focus of physical education? Discussion and controversy about which system(s) to use lead to upcoming changes. Early 20th Century, 1900 to 1930
Early emphasis The new physical education: Educate through the physical (develop the body, as well as the spirit and mind) Leaders of the new physical education Thomas Wood: Natural gymnastics Clark Hetherington: Believed education should address these areas: (1) organic, (2) psychomotor, (3) character, and (4) intellectual Trends Playground movement
Luther Gulick: Outdoor and recreational education programs More four-year teacher prep programs Prevalence of sports, games, and dance in PE programs Increased scientific study of the effects of physical training Mid-20th Century, 1930 to 1970 Issues Poor fitness levels of military
Poor fitness levels of school-aged children (KrausWeber tests) Fitness tests in PE programs Youth fitness test by AAHPER, 1957 Presidents Physical Fitness Award Program, 1966 Influential Leaders Jay Nash Outdoor education and recreation Rosalind Cassidy Movement education for children
Charles McCoy Substantial research in physical education Impetus for future changes Trends Physical education emphases Sports, recreation, and lifetime activities Leaders were more likely to have PhDs and EdDs than to be medical doctors (MDs) Advancement in research and fitness
Late 20th Century, 1970 to 2000 Pressure for educational accountability NASPE National Standards for PE, 1995 Shift to academic focus Emergence of subdisciplines, more course offerings, and department name changes AAHPERD Dance was added to the Alliance in 1979
Development of Teaching Models Movement education model Explore and refine fundamental movements Concepts-based model Movement learned through subdiscipline concepts Responsibility model Don Hellison Responsibility levels for students to achieve (continued)
Development of Teaching Models (continued) Sport education model Experience multifaceted aspects of sports Tactical games model Learn games through understanding of strategies Cooperative models Group initiatives, ropes courses, outdoor adventure
education (continued) Development of Teaching Models (continued) Fitness education model Health-related fitness emphasis Fitness-related programs and testing Fitness for Life, by Charles Corbin PE4life, Developed by Phil Lawler
SPARK: Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids Fitnessgram: Criterion-referenced fitness tests Federal Mandates 1972 Title IX (part of the Education Amendment Act) 1975 PL 94-142, Education for All
Handicapped Childrens Act 1990 Individuals With Disabilities Act (IDEA) 1991 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Early 21st Century to Present:
Issues and Concerns Decline of PETE programs Physical education teacher education E-learning and online PE classes for credit 22 states (43%) allow online PE credit Finding value Connection between fitness and (1) academic scores, (2) attendance, and (3) disciplinary issues (continued)
Early 21st Century to Present: Issues and Concerns (continued) Optional PE credit for graduation Interscholastic sports, JROTC, marching band, cheerleading Fitness and obesity After-school and community programs Exergaming (active video) in PE Curricular program shift to an emphasis on fitness Summary
How has the history of physical education affected our current status in the overall education curriculum? How has the history of physical education affected the content that is currently taught at the K-12 level? Where do we go from here?
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