Eisenhower Presidency - Loudoun County Public Schools
EISENHOWER PRESIDENCY Fit American Mood Craved peace and stability Ike middle of the road Modern Republicanism Domestic program Inspired confidence Dynamic Conservatism Big Picture Delegated authority Reconciled contending factions Governing Style Stayed out of legislative process Let Cabinet do its thing Laid-back to public Ruthless politician Focused on business principles
Slashed budget Promoted private development of hydroelectric and nuclear power Economic advisors (CEA) Increases government spending in times of recession Centrist course Pragmatic Reduce taxes Contain inflation Govern efficiently Resisted national health care Civil rights Federal aid to education Eisenhoover nickname Successes Large tax cut for wealthy and business Increased funding for public housing Increased minimum wage from .75 to 1.00 Extended social security Construction of St. Lawrence Seaway Interstate Highway System Fiscal conservative 1st priority to balance budget Great domestic achievement, legacy 40,000 miles Election of 1956 Democrats
Adlai Stevenson Ike Everything booming but the guns Landslide victory Democrats retained control of Congress JIM CROW IN COURT Chief Justice Earl Warren (1953) Jencks v. United States 1957 Accused has right to inspect government files used by prosecution Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka 1954 Yates v. United States 1957 Overturned convictions of Communist party officials under Smith Act Ended further prosecution of communists Impeach Earl Warren
Landmark case!!!! NAACP Thurgood Marshall (lawyer) Reversed Plessy v. Ferguson violated 14th amendment and equal protection under the law Federal district judges to monitor South vowed resistance Ike wouldnt force White resistance increased Revival of KKK CIVIL RIGHTS Resistance climaxed Sept. 1957 Little Rock, Ark. Gov. Orval E. Faubus President had to intervene Mobilized National Guard to block desegregation of Central High 1st President since Reconstruction to use troops to protect rights of African-Americans Court ordered withdrawal of Guard Eisenhower forced to back federal laws Cold war issue 1956 Campaign Civil Rights act of 1957 Established permanent commission
To investigate voting rights issues Civil Rights act of 1960 No protection for voting Didnt empower federal officials to register African-Americans to vote PHASE 2 OF THE COLD WAR Ike and Dulles Ike appoints John Foster Dulles as Secretary of State Spirit of Geneva To appease GOP 1955, suspension of further atmospheric tests- 1958 Dulles Diplomacy New look for foreign policy Though containment too passive Initative to challenge Soviet Union and China Talked of liberating captive nations of Eastern Europe Brinkmanship never backing down
Threatened instant, massive retaliation to Soviet Dulles pactomania Mutal defense pacts with 43 nations new look defense program Eisenhower not happy No response to uprisings in East Germany (1953) or Hungary (56) Atoms for Peace Idea for both superpowers to contribute fissionable materials to a new U.N. agency for industrial progress More nucs Russia countered with own hydrogen bomb Nucs actually held superpowers in check Reduce conventional forces Early Distant warning systemAlaska Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center PHASE 2- COLD WAR Unrest in 3rd world countries End of colonization in Africa/Asia Pawns in Cold War
CIA Allen Dulles, head of CIA Covert actions to prevent communism TRs grandson Operation Ajax Overthrow of Iran 1953 Sowed seeds of hatred U.S. played major role, oil the issue Philippines Guatemala Operation success Mercenaries overthrew the government Had threatened U.S. business interests DOMINO THEORY Vietnam Domino Most expensive operations Ike refused to send troops French surrendered 1954 French had try to retake after WWII Imperialism increased support for communism
U.S. supported France (financially) Result: Indochina divided into: Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam Vietnam divided at 17th parallel North Vietnam- Communist South Vietnam- Democratic Domino Theory All of SE Asia would follow US refused Geneva Peace Accords Created SEATO South East Asia Treaty Org. GB, France, Australia, New Zealand, Philippines, Pakistan, Thailand, and the U.S. CIA installed South Vietnamese government TROUBLES IN THE THIRD WORLD Middle East Difficult for U.S. to balance maintaining ties with oil rich states and supporting Israel at same time 1954 Nasser/Egypt Suez Crisis US tried to woo with building Aswan
Dam Recognized China instead Seized the Suez Canal in 1956 Threatened Western Europe supply line to oil Joint attack of British, French and Israeli forces 1956 Did not consult Ike Eisenhower Doctrine 1957 US would send military aid to any country threatened by communism Britain/ France never again important in world affairs U.S. became protector of Middle- East interests Lebanon 1958 14,000 troops sent to prevent breakout of civil war between Christians and Muslims Anti-America Supported U.N. resolution to remove allies from Egypt Eisenhowers response Withdraw troops Anti-western sentiment in Middle East
Peru/Venezuela 1958 Fidel Castro/Cuba 1959 Overthrows government Nationalizes businesses, cuts of U.S. trade Turns to Soviets Breakdown of peace Spy plane/Russia 1960 Spirit of Camp David EISENHOWER LEGACY Warning to Americans Threat to traditional military life military industrial complex Gave Americans prosperity and reassurance Tried to prevent war AFFLUENT SOCIETY Coined by John Kenneth Galbraith 1958 Broad-based prosperity in America 1950s fulfillment of American Dream
60% owned homes 75% owned cars 87% owned one T.V. GNP up 50% Despite debt 3 recessions Highest standard of living in US ever people of plenty INDUSTRY AND COMPUTERS Federal spending major source of economic growth 1944 Doubled in 1950s Public spending Roads, airports, home mortgages, supported farm prices, stipends for education Electronics
Consumption tripled Oil replaced coal as nations industry source of budget went to defense industries R&D New Industries Plastics, chemicals, general dynamics 1946 International Business Machines Mark I calculator 500 miles of wiring US Army ENAIC, 1st electronic computer debugged, literally bugs Led to development of programs Changed economy like 1st steam engine, electric motor Sales to Industry and government Crucial to IRS 30,000 by mid 1960s for banks, hospitals, universities, etc. Silicon Valley 1951 Stanford Industrial Park
Home to technology core COSTS OF BIG BUSINESS Rapid technological advances accelerated power of big B 1950: 20 firms over $1 billion Massive oligopolies formed New multinational enterprises executives replaced capitalists the Lonely Crowd 1950 No creativity Scientific and mechanized Technology cut hours Factories in the fields Silent Spring 1962 Rachel Carson Poisons DDT 1955 merger of AFL and CIO 85% of union members Higher wages, shorter
workweeks, paid vacations, health-care coverage, automatic wage hikes Fewer strikes Unions more conservative since more workers were in middle class Decreased in numbers More machines, more chemicals Changes to the Environment Consolidation transformed Labor Movement Changes in agricultural Blue-Collar Blues TV, Auto Companies Success required conformity Automation New jobs in service sector 1956 White-collar workers outnumber blue collar for 1st time US now post-industrial society
PROSPERITY AND THE SUBURBS Real income rose More income spent on luxuries 58 million new cars purchased in 1950s Credit installment plan 1st credit card: Diners Club Card 1950 Indebtedness rose Advertisement increased Flashier models Exodus to the suburbs Highways constructed Income tax stimulated home sales Low interest loans (FHA, VA) 98% white 85% of homes built in 1950s Embodiment of American dream Greatest internal migration in US history
20 million Sunbelt and Cali profited CONSENSUS AND CONSERVATISM Togetherness 1954 McCalls Magazine Ideal couple/family Wed younger, children younger Post- war- traditional roles return Antibiotics 1950s schools construction 1970s homes Domesticity Pop culture glorified marriage
Trend Doris day, Debbie Reynolds Movies Ben Hur, Ten Commandments Songs I believe, Man Upstairs Congress Added under God to pledge Added In God we Trust to currency Books Bible sales all time high Education Enrollment increased Progressive educators promoted socialibility Despite, increasing #s in workforce Laid groundwork for 1960s feminism Evangelist: Billy Graham RC Bishop: Fulton J. Sheen Prot. Minister: Norman Vincent Peale Pop Culture Dr. Benjamin Spock, Baby & Child Care 1946 Dont work, Breastfeed Less scolding/spanking
Cold war anxieties Surge of religious activity 1946-1964 Concern of child-rearing Church attendance up Baby Boom Religion Fertility rate rose Increase in population Self-expression over math/science well-rounded students CULTURE OF THE 1950S Reflected prosperity and fear of Cold War New York/ Modernism Jackson Pollack
Dissatisfaction with jobs and homes John Clecters The Wapshot Chronicles 1957 John Updikes Rabbit Run 1960 African-American Culture James Baldwins Go tell it on the Mountain 1953 Ralph Ellisons Invisible Man 1951 Jewish Culture Bernard Malamuds The Assistant 1957 Philip Roths Goodbye Columbus 1959 Southern Culture William Faulkners The Town 1957, The Mansion 1960 Eudora Weltlys The Ponder Heart 1954 Diminished interest in political issues Westerns, musicals, spectacles Working women replaced with dumb blondes Minorities invisible Movie attendance down 50% ABC, CBS, NBC TV Guide, TV Diners Retail Davy Crockett 1955 Coonskin hats TV Culture At 1st showcased creativity and talent
Opera Documentaries Sitcoms with ethnic families As price decreased demand for mass appeal increased Hollywood 1946: 1 in 18,000 had a TV 1960: 9 out of 10 Radio stations transitioned Literature Message of Medium: TV Art Few with conflict or controversy Exception The Honeymooners I love Lucy controversy Leave it to Beaver the norm Difficult to assess impact Racial and gender stereotypes reinforced Virtually ended network radio Changed political life McCarthy Trials, Checkers speech THE OTHER AMERICA Poverty and Urban Blight
35 million below poverty line Bulk lived in inner-city slums Latinos and Latinas Inadequate schools and housing Loss of culture African-Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans Michael Hummingtons The Other America, Poverty in the United States 1962 Rosa Parks Dec. 1, 1955 Arrested = Montgomery bus boycott Challenged in Supreme Court 1956 1957 SCLC
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Led non-violent sit-ins Banned exclusion of Mexican-Americans from juries (1954) Breaking boundaries Non-violent resistance Deportation of illegal immigrants Supreme Court Decision 1954 Brown decision sparked new civil rights movement 7.5 million new irrigated acres in SW Operation wetback 1953-1955 Blacks struggle for justice 1951 Bracero program reintroduced Poor trapped in vicious cycle Need for low-cost housing Puerto Ricans Mexican-Americans 1st Mexican-American mayor 1958 Roberto Clemente Native Americans Poorest minority 1954-1962: 12 Termination bills of reservations passed 60.000 relocated
SEEDS OF DISQUIET Sputnik October 4, 1957 1st artificial satellite launched by Soviet Union Nov 3, 1957 US response Launched another satellite, this time with a dog inside Dec 6. 1957 flopnik Doubled funds for missiles development Lead to creation of NASA 1958 New focus on education National Defense Education Act 1958 Math, science, and foreign languages new focus College enrollment increased 1.5 billion in new funding SEEDS OF DISQUIET Social consequences Juvenile delinquency Rock-n-Roll
1950s Alan Freed Bill Haleys shake, rattle, and roll 1954 First white Rock-n-Roll hit Corruption of youth, delinquency, mix races, devils music Portents of Change Movies Beatniks Elvis Presley Embodied new Rock-n-Roll movement Developed out of Jazz and R&B Associated with African-Americans first Record sales tripled American Bandstand 1960 Outsiders Buddy Holly Frankie Lymon Richie Valens
Marlon Brando in The Wild One 1954 James Dean in Rebel without a Cause 1955 Revolt against middle-class America Allen Ginsbergs Howl 1956 Jack Kerouacs On the Road 1957 J.D. Salingers Catcher in the Rye 1951 Joseph Heller Catch-22 Scorned conformity and materialism square America Romanticized outcasts Reaction Scorned by Mass media Admired by college youth Advocated spontaneity, rebellion against social standards, drugs Set stage for youth rebellion in 1960s END OF THE NIFTY 50S Revolution on the way
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