Rethinking Teacher Supervision and Evaluation Dudley-Charlton Kim Marshall April 29, 2011 1 Your role? 1. Principal 2. Assistant principal 3. Teacher 4. Union official 5. Instructional coach
6. District official 7. Consultant 8. Education advocate 9. University or college 10. Other 10 Approximate FRPL of your students 1. 0-10% 2. 11-20%
3. 21-30% 4. 31-40% 5. 41-50% 6. 51-60% 7. 61-70% 8. 71-80% 9. 81-90% 10. 91-100% 9 Answer Now
Percent of New York 7th-graders proficient and above in ELA, and FRPL 4 What are the two biggest factors in achievement in low-SES schools? 1. Differences in class size 2. Strict discipline 3. Sense of mission
4. School leadership 5. Teaching practices 6. Curriculum content 7. Parent involvement 8. PD, coaching 9. Teachers credentials 10. Staff morale 8 As a teacher, which two most improved
your teaching and your students learning? 1. 2. 3. Ideas from books, articles PD workshops in school Workshops and courses outside school 4. Supervision suggestions from administrators
5. End-of-year evaluation by administrators 6. Ideas and suggestions from fellow teachers 7. Ideas and suggestions from loved ones 8. Internet resources 9. Figuring it out myself 10. Other 7
Evaluation has become a polite, if near-meaningless matter between a beleaguered principal and a nervous teacher. Research has finally told us what many of us suspected all along: that conventional evaluation, the kind the overwhelming majority of American teachers undergo, does not have any measurable impact on the quality of student learning. In most cases, it is a waste of time. Mike Schmoker, 1992 Except for a few instances, the traditional evaluation process is
exhausting and fruitless. Kathleen Elvin, Brooklyn principal, 2008 Principal evaluation of teachers is a low-leverage strategy for improving schools, particularly in terms of the time it requires of principals. Richard DuFour & Robert Marzano, 2009 7 Your reaction to these statements? 1. Strongly Agree
2. Agree 3. Neutral 4. Disagree 5. Strongly Disagree Answer 6 8 Widget Effect New Teacher Project Chicago teacher ratings 2003-08 on 4-point scale:
Superior 25,332 Excellent 9,176 Satisfactory 2,232 Unsatisfactory 149 Elgin teacher ratings 2003-08 on 3-point scale: Excellent 2,035 Satisfactory 264 Unsatisfactory 11 Denver ratings 2005-08 on binary scale: 2,374 Satisfactory 32 Unsatisfactory
9 A summary Quality of teaching is hugely important to kids futures. Especially is they have any kind of disadvantage. 99% of U.S. teachers are rated Excellent or Satisfactory. But theres plenty of mediocre and ineffective teaching. Were not differentiating excellent, good, mediocre, poor A mediocre hotel isnt a big deal, but with teaching Were not helping mediocre/unsatisfactory teachers
And the evaluation system is exhausting principals. Saints, cynics, and sinners Saints spend 6+ hours per teacher. Pre-observation conference, observation, writeup, post-conference Cynics bang out observations/evaluations. Tedious, wont make much difference, but Sinners dont do them (except when the heat is on). Usually get away with it 11
12 13 14 Bill Ribas, Teacher Evaluation That Works, 2005 15
Which category describes the principal you know best? 1. Saint 2. Cynic 3. Sinner Answer 5 16
The $64,000 Question Could a saints school have low student achievement? The story of one principal in New York City Could a sinners school have high student achievement? 17 The challenge How can principals sample teaching accurately? Positively influence teaching?
Assure quality teaching in every class, every day? Boost learning for all students? Is this humanly possible? 18 Each teacher teaches 900 lessons a year 19 How to supervise this kind of work?
Police departments have a similar challenge Very difficult to keep tabs on police officers How do you make sure theyre doing the right thing all the time? How do you motivate them to do want to do the right thing all the time? Rigid policies and procedures officer-proof Supervisors cruising around checking up Compstat using crime statistics, arrests - results Video cameras in patrol cars 20
Teachers are on their own 99.9% of the time; many are great, many are not. What to do? Hire more administrators to evaluate more frequently Master Educators from central to evaluate teachers Evaluate teachers using value-added test scores Wyoming proposal: once-a-year videotaping Cameras monitoring classrooms all the time Student input; parent input A 4-year evaluation cycle Trust in teachers professionalism
Prayer 21 Logic model how it could work A. A shared definition of good teaching B. Principals see everyday teaching in action. C. Principals are knowledgeable and perceptive observers. D. Principals have an effective way to give feedback. E. Principals address mediocre and ineffective teaching. F. Teachers hear and accept the feedback.
G. Teachers take ownership for student learning. 22 A. A shared definition of good teaching Every district has criteria in its evaluation form. Required presentation to teachers, sign-off But does everyone pay attention, buy in? A common problem: defining just one level. 23
Is there agreement on good teaching in your school? 1. We all agree on what excellent, good, mediocre, poor teaching looks like. 2.
We agree on what good teaching looks like. 3. There are some disparities within the school. 4. There are many different
opinions on what good teaching is. Answer 7 24 Teachers are immune to feedback from a coach or administrator when they have different definitions of quality. The single most important thing
that a school leader can do is reach agreement with the staff about quality. Fisher and Frey, 2010 25 B. Principals see everyday reality Factors that make this difficult: H.S.P.S. evaluation avoided, procrastinated Principals see only 0.1% of teaching The principals presence changes things. Announced observations, glamorized lessons
A collusive deal utterly bogus Restaurant owners concerns Its what teachers do every day that boosts learning. Like healthy eating, exercise keeping it up 26 It has been said that when a principal walks into a room, it has the same effect as seeing a state trooper pull out onto the highway the students straighten up and take their foot off the gas,
even if they werent speeding (er, misbehaving). Peter Hall, Nevada principal (2005) 27 In your school, how many formal teacher evaluation visits are announced in advance? 1. All of them 2. About 75% 3. About half
4. About 25% 5. None of them 6 In defense of pre-announced visits I want to see teachers at their best. It is my firm belief that mediocre teachers will hang themselves whether announced or unannounced. I have never met a bad teacher who didnt look horrible despite an announced visit.
29 30 C. Principals are knowledgeable and perceptive observers of teaching A shared definition of good teaching helps. So does knowledge of curriculum goals, calendar, ideas Touring classrooms with thoughtful colleagues helps. Best of all: being in classrooms a lot, talking to teachers, and looking at student learning.
Most principals dont do enough of this. 31 D. An effective way to give feedback Often low-quality forms, checklists Teacher signs, files away little impact High skill level needed to do good lesson write-ups. Lots of words without clear judgment, feedback. Plus its time-consuming, exhausting for principals Some principals have teachers draft their evaluations. Some cut corners, paste in boilerplate
32 Your opinion of your districts end-of-year teacher evaluation form? 1. Excellent tool that improves teaching 2. Good feedback tool 3. Not bad but doesnt affect teaching much 4. Poor tool that doesnt
capture good teaching or help teachers improve 6 Problematic models
Narratives verbiage without impact Teacher goal-setting very hard to follow up Checklists perfunctory, dont distinguish 4-3-2-1 Quality descriptions with no rubric Binary ratings Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory Three-point scales: Excellent Satisfactory Unsatisfactory
Five-point scales: Gentlemans C 35 36 E. Principals step up to the plate on mediocre and ineffective teaching Some dont push teachers to be better. Want to keep the peace, avoid conflict, be liked Fear of grievances, lengthy proceedings
Afraid of jeopardizing other initiatives. Wait for them to retire. And some teachers are scary 37 38 F. Teachers hear and accept the feedback Can be overwhelming too much feedback to absorb Many teachers shrug off criticism.
Lots of reasons to ignore a principal: Youre hardly ever in my room. You havent taught in years. You never taught my grade level/subject. You dont have children of your own. I was having a bad day. Criticism makes some teachers shut down 39 40
G. Teachers take ownership for student learning Many teachers work in isolation. Little ownership for the schools mission For many, evaluation is paternalistic, top-down. Impressing, charming, getting over on boss Its about instructional inputs, which are debatable. How to instill intrinsic motivation? Get teachers focused on learning, finding the most effective methods and materials, always improving?41
Dependency Paternalistic Glamorized lessons Winning the bosss approval I liked when you Lesson plans turned in Data analysis because we have to CYA Working in isolation
Results Shared vision, mission Team unit planning On-the-spot assessments Common interim
assessments Immediate team analysis, action plans Supervisory voice in head all the time Continuously improving 42 In short, the logic model isnt working No school effectiveness lists include supervision/eval.
Marzano, DuFour, Saphier: a weak lever for change Core problem: full-lesson evaluations that are infrequent, announced, time-consuming, not focused on results Lots of mediocre, ineffective teaching under the radar How can we get good teaching in every class, every day? Heres my 4-part proposal 43 I. MINI-OBSERVATIONS Principals need
a system for: Getting into classrooms Seeing everyday reality Giving teachers meaningful feedback Continuously improving student learning Gathering data for year-end evaluations Many are racked with guilt about not doing this. 44 Mini-observations: systematic, frequent sampling and coaching
Short visits to fit them in to very busy days Unannounced to see what kids are experiencing daily Lots of them to sample all aspects of teaching, blend in Prompt, thoughtful feedback to each teacher Informal and low-stakes to maximize adult learning Systematic cycling through the whole staff Integrated with team unit planning and results analysis 45 Like a Gallup Poll
46 Still not much time, but Much more representative than one dog-and-pony A random sampling is amazingly accurate. And this is as much as most principals can do. My challenge: Whats the alternative? We still rely on teachers professionalism, skill. But by frequently checking in and giving feedback Message: Its what you do every day that matters. 47
About how often is the average teacher visited and given feedback in your school? 1. Never 2. Once every two years 3. Once a year 4. Twice a year 5. 3-5 times a year 6. 6-8 times a year 7. About once a month 8. About every two weeks
9. Once every week 10. More than once a week Answer Now 5 Why not call them walk-throughs? Confusion with learning walks - a team touring the whole building, general feedback (Resnick, Elmore) The wrong term for a focused, thoughtful observation with feedback sounds to teachers like a drive-by.
Video clip Safety walkthrough Showing the flag Learning walk/ Instructional rounds
Miniobservations Full-lesson observation Education Week, March 12, 2008 50 What might worry teachers about mini-observations?
If you were introducing this idea, what concerns would you predict? What might principals worry about? Brainstorm in groups of 2-3 Jot down your key points for a kick-off meeting. 51 Nine key success factors Staying long enough to gather helpful information Making enough visits to get a balanced picture
Having a clear sense of what to look for Capturing and remembering key insights Giving feedback in a way teachers can hear and accept Stepping up with criticism, not accepting mediocrity Shifting gears with unsatisfactory teaching Being clear that mini-observations are evaluative Explaining mini-observations to teachers 52 How long depends on your purpose
Showing the flag: 5 seconds Checking on a substitute: 6 seconds In-depth professional development: 45 min. + Making the case for dismissal: multiple 45 min. But what about a dialogue about instruction? 53 How long does a principal need to stay to form a meaningful impression? 1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1 minute
3 minutes 5 minutes 10 minutes 15 minutes 20 minutes 25 minutes 35 minutes 45 minutes 1 hour or more Answer
5 54 55 56 Videotape and role-play preferred grade level? 1. Kindergarten 2. Grade 4-5 3. Middle school
4. High-school English 5. High-school science 5 Answer Now Was that enough time to get a sense of what was going on in the classroom? 1. Yes 2. No Answer
5 58 Was it possible to give meaningful feedback to the teacher afterward? 1. Yes 2. No Answer
5 59 Best range: 5-15 minutes Depending on: How many teachers How many administrators doing mini-observations Discipline issues 5 minutes worked for me with 42 teachers to supervise I could fit them into the nooks and crannies
But not too short! Principal who sees all classes 2nd per. Note: no pre-observation conferences 60 So who does full-lesson observations? All teachers should have them periodically. Instructional coaches (also co-observe with principal) Peer observers Lesson study colleagues Videotaping lesson, watching with a critical friend New teachers need more detailed feedback.
But principal only does unsatisfactory teachers. 61 2. Doing lots A good annual target: 10/teacher/year Seeing each teacher every 2-3 weeks Sampling all aspects of instruction Frequent visits build dialogue, candor, and trust. How? Set a daily target number and keep it up! My track record: 11, 12, 12, 14, 12, 7, 12, 11, 11+ 62
Do the math for your staff # of teachers Minis for year # per day Stretch goal 60
600 3.3 4 50 500
2.7 3 40 400 2.2 3
30 300 1.7 2 20
200 1.1 2 10 100 .6
1 A hypothesis on frequency The less frequently a principal visits classrooms The more chance for an inaccurate impression The riskier for teachers caught in a bad moment The more teachers do their own thing The more teachers get into bad habits The more frequently a principal visits The more accurate a picture of daily instruction
The safer for teachers accurate sampling The more thoughtful the feedback The better the quality of instruction 64 Refinements and variations Mixing up morning, mid-day, and afternoon visits Arriving at beginning, middle, or end of lessons Doing a grade-level team in a single day Deciding to stay longer Intensives Herb Daughtry
Following one class through an entire day Others? 65 Which strategy would help you keep up mini-observations all year? 1. Will power 2. My boss being on my case 3. A daily target number of visits
4. A weekly target 5. Tracking data 6. Rewarding myself 7. A bare office 8. Other Answer 5 66
The bosss support really helps Regularly visiting, asking good questions Hows it going? Hitting target? What noticing? Very helpful if its a district policy Seen as a best practice, frequently discussed Training and support, watching videotapes Also, taking something off the table! Like what? 67
3. Knowing what to look for Cant use the end-of-year evaluation checklist, rubric Too much to look for Only seeing a lesson fragment; not fair or practical Many mini-observation checklists are being developed. eCOVE, iObservation, others Problem: the principal is rating, evaluating Schoolwide or systemwide data gathering, but does that help the individual teacher. Is it good coaching? 68
69 70 71 A hypothesis on checklists The more detailed and elaborate the checklist The more constrained the principal The more consumed with recording data The less perceptive in observing students, tasks
The less seriously teachers take the feedback The less frequent are classrooms visits The simpler and clearer the vision of good teaching The more observant principal is The more focused on a few key change levers The more seriously teachers will take the feedback The more frequently visits will occur 72 You can observe a lot by watching Slowing down, breathing, listening, paying attention
Not imposing a checklist on the situation This teacher in this classroom in this moment Whats most important? What deserves feedback? Capturing 1-3 thoughtful points So as not to miss anything, a mental checklist helps. The irreducible elements of good teaching With a clear sense of your red flags on each 73 S - Safety
O - Objectives T - Teaching E - Engagement L - Learning 74 The L in SOTEL Ultimately, year-end state tests, but in real time? Teachers checking for understanding Looking at the learning task (City, Elmore, et al.) Asking a student What are you working on?
Teacher teams looking at student work Teacher teams looking at interim assessments One-on-one principal/teacher chats with work 75 4. Capturing insights You dont want to forget important stuff. For example, COPWAKTA, great moment, low rigor Clipboards, checklists, iPhones, laptops can distract. Plus, you can miss the forest for the trees. The key: Being a good observer!
Not missing the big picture! One or two key points only. Jot notes later? 76 77 78 Which would you as a teacher prefer your principal to use?
1. Checklist on a clipboard 2. Notepad 3. Laptop 4. BlackBerry 5. iPad 6. Flip video camera 7. Recording device 8. No writing in class 9. Doesnt matter
Answer 5 79 5. Giving feedback that will make a difference After a mini-observation, theres lots to say: Praise, on-the-edge, reinforcement, suggestions Questions, redirection, criticism, reprimand Whats the best way to deliver the feedback?
How soon? Where? 80 Some possible approaches No feedback to the teacher; supervisus interruptus Memo to whole staff showcasing best practices Post-It note on teachers desk on the way out Hand-written feedback in mailbox Checklist filled out, in teachers mailbox
Palm Pilot electronic checklist sent to teacher E-mail later that day Face-to-face conversation soon afterward 81 The trouble with written feedback In e-mail, people talk at you; in conversation I can talk with [people], and a casual remark can lead to a level of discussion that neither party anticipated from the beginning. I am more likely to learn from someone in a
conversation than in an e-mail exchange, which simply does not allow for the serendipity, intensity and giveand-take of real-time interaction. Steven Levy, Newsweek, June 11, 2007 82 Especially in our digital age, the power of talking to people in person is exponential. Howard Schultz
Starbucks founder 83 9 advantages of face-to-face Can quickly and efficiently cover a lot of ground Less paperwork Less threatening than written, less bureaucratic Focus on 1-2 key points, teacher not overwhelmed The teacher can push back, informal dialogue. Can be tentative, check on something (girls card)
Can judge if the teacher can handle criticism. Can segue into general talks about instruction, status. Much more likely to change ineffective practices 84 Four-squares feedback Whats going well Any concerns Next steps
What I can do? 85 Informal, somewhat humble posture Stand-up chats are lighter, less threatening. Brief 30 seconds to 5 minutes; dont overdo it! Not an all-seeing, all-knowing, judgmental god I was only there for ten minutes; heres what I saw. Im curious about what happened after I left
Really listening to how the teacher responds Give-and-take, suggestions, commendations 86 Feedback in writing? Signature? Feels bureaucratic, CYA to the teacher Less nuanced, detailed than face-to-face Teacher not invited into the conversation Face-to-face is quicker, more direct, more powerful. Signature only if theres a red flag letter to file How about this sequence:
Mini-observation Face-to-face conversation A short e-mail to the teacher summing up 87 Nine ineffective practices Intervening with students Excuse me, Giving the teacher private feedback on the spot Sending e-mail feedback from a laptop while in class Written feedback that ends there
Several-day delay before giving feedback Bureaucratic checklist, robotic use of technology Distracted Hes there but hes not there. Perfunctory Im checking you off my list. Not giving all teachers feedback all the time Arizona district: trio visit, pullout, demo 88 Which is most likely to improve teaching and teachers investment in improving?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
No feedback Verbal feedback during class Post-it note on desk Memo to staff on best practices Checklist in mailbox Electronic checklist Written comments in mailbox or e-mail Face-to-face talk
Written comments, then face-to-face Face-to-face, then written comments Answer 5 89 Best location for mini feedback?
1. 2. 3. 4. Principals office Corridor Playground Teachers classroom during free period 5. Cafeteria
6. Faculty lounge 7. Parking lot 8. A bar after hours 9. A phone call in evening 10. Other Answer Now 5 Avoidance Im too busy!
Cant track down teachers. Will I have enough to say? Bite the bullet on criticism? Im more comfortable with a checklist, e-mail Another reason: binge mini-observing 91 I made it my business Face-to-face feedback is the driver of change. Paul Bambrick-Santoyo, 2010
If its perceptive and delivered well, it can really affect teaching and learning. Being strategic about tracking down teachers. And following up on subsequent visits, chats 92 Scheduled check-in meetings? Each teacher has a scheduled meeting time Do mini-observations shortly before check-ins Use the check-in to give feedback
Also to have a more general Hows-it-going talk Helps keep principal on track Any disadvantages? 93 Linking to school-wide improvement The principal can be a cross-pollinator! Spread good ideas, things to avoid, think about Organize PD on specific areas Put teachers in touch with each other
Peer observation Pass along insights to teams, instructional coaches. Talk about units, student learning. 94 6. Stepping up to the plate 95 A leader who is silent on mediocrity speaks loudly
Some teachers get into bad habits, slack off - mediocrity Addressing mediocre and poor teaching depends on: A clear, shared vision of effective teaching Urgency good teaching really, really matters Guts How to keep our moral edge? Co-observe classrooms with your boss Regularly look at interim assessment results 96 Pointers from Thomas Hoerr (2004)
Pick the time and place carefully. Be timely. Be specific. Watch your body language. Tell why this is important to you and the school. Say that youve been there too. Allow for a response. Review and reinforce at the end. 97 7. Shifting gears with
unsatisfactory teaching Mini-observations arent sufficient. Full-lesson observations, ideally unannounced Union reps, lawyer consulted at every step Diagnosis and prescription, improvement plan 2-3 chances to improve, plenty of support If insufficient improvement, dismissal 98 8. A clear, explicit link to end-of-the-year evaluations
Its understood that mini-observations are evaluative. No firewall between minis and evaluation. Its all part of improving teaching and learning. This may require collective bargaining or a waiver. At the Mather, there was rapid acceptance of the idea. People trusted I was seeing reality, feedback was honest. We did away with the dog-and-pony show! Which opened up time for mini-observations. 99 9. A clear explanation to teachers
Launch with a good rationale Whats the problem to which this is the solution? Old system is chewing up time and is ineffective Change will help our schools mission. Reassure teachers on the key worries. Show a videotape! It really helps make the point. In the first couple of cycles, accentuate the positive. 100 101
The logic of mini-observations Unannounced to see everyday reality. But it would be unfair to observe just once a year. So observations must be frequent to sample accurately. But if frequent, dont have time to stay for full lessons. So observations need to be short. But visits are short, full write-ups arent possible. So brief, face-to-face feedback and follow-up e-mails. But its easy to lose track, miss teachers, double up. So the process must be systematic. 102
Advantages for teaching and learning See reality without distortion (no glamorized; blend in) Get to know how all teacher are doing, spot problems CEO visibility, listening, getting ideas, credibility Build trust, the lubricant of school culture Unspoken message: everyday teaching is what matters Im your coach; lets solve problems together. More humble, winning posture teachers hear, accept Good time management squeezed into busy days Gathering anecdotes for meetings, parents
Lots of information for year-end evaluations 103 How would you personally feel about being supervised using mini-observations? 1. Strongly prefer this approach 2. Prefer it 3. No difference one way or the other
4. Uncomfortable with it 5. Very negative about it Answer 5 104 With 10-12 mini-observations with feedback a year, would you have a pretty accurate picture of each teachers performance?
1. Yes 2. No Answer 5 105 How much impact would this have on teaching and learning? 1. Very positive
2. Somewhat positive 3. Not much impact 4. No impact Answer 5 106 II. SUPERVISING CURRICULUM UNIT PLANNING
107 108 To be a good mini-observer, it helps to know the curriculum A razzle-dazzle lesson, but does it Align with standards? Big ideas? Contain the appropriate level of rigor, detail? Get at the big ideas, essential questions?
Principals cant micromanage every lesson. 25,000 a year! But can monitor teacher teams curriculum unit plans 109 110 111 112
113 Key to increasing teacher ownership Teacher teams (e.g., Grade 3, 7th-grade social studies) Starting with the end in mind: a shared vision of what students should know and be able to do Planning each 4-6 week curriculum unit in advance Principal reviewing drafts, dropping in Instructional coaches supporting teacher teams 114
A difference in tone Asking for lesson plans feels officious, untrusting. Working with teams on unit plans is stimulating and productive work. Its also much more manageable! Essential Questions are better for classroom walls than SWBAT lesson objectives. 115 Some insights on backwards design It wont happen by itself.
It pushes teachers to plan deeper, more thoughtfully. Its challenging intellectual work, best done in teams. It builds collaboration, investment in the mission. Its the best way to integrate standards. It gets higher-order, college-ready ideas into lessons. Much easier to supervise unit plans than lesson plans 116 A simplified unit planning template 1. State standards (written out verbatim, unpacked) 2. Knowledge goals - Students will know
3. Skill goals - Students will be able to 4. Big ideas - Students will understand that 5. Essential Questions (3-4 in kid-friendly language) 6. End-of-unit assessments (written up front) 7. Lesson-by-lesson instructional plan See sample fifth-grade nutrition unit 117 Some key leadership steps Clarity on end-of-year learning goals for each grade Having teams decide on units, calendar them
Insisting that teacher teams collaboratively plan units Providing a simple unit planning template, model unit Giving teams the time to plan Making sure teachers start with the standards Reviewing unit drafts, revising, visiting meetings Subscribing to www.ubdexchange.org, www.betterlesson.org, providing UbD training, support 118 What is the potential of backwards unit design in your school?
1. Were doing this already. 2. It would greatly improve the quality of teaching and learning. 3. It would bring about some improvements. 4. It wouldnt make much difference. 5. It would confuse and overload teachers. 5
How does involvement in unit planning affect teacher supervision? 1. It makes the principal a more perceptive and helpful observer. 2. It gives the principal a little more of an idea of curriculum content. 3. It turns the principal into a desk-bound curriculum
bureaucrat. 4. Principals dont have the time to get this involved in curriculum. Answer Now 5 Synergy with mini-observations 121
III. INTERIM ASSESSMENTS: Introducing student learning into supervision and evaluation
122 123 124 Mini-observations and curriculum units: Necessary but not sufficient Its not enough to get into classrooms a lot. Its not enough to have good curriculum unit plans. Are students learning?
This must be part of supervision and evaluation. But how? A national debate is raging. 125 Problems with individual merit pay Practical Test scores not available till summer. Psychometric Tests not valid for individual evaluation. Value-added We need three years of data for validity. Staff dynamics Collaboration is undermined. Curriculum quality Low-level test prep.
Moral Turning up the heat increases cheating. Fairness How to divvy up credit among all the teachers who contribute to students success? 126 But isnt there some way? Heres why it matters. The moment of truth in classrooms A teacher teaches a curriculum unit, assesses learning Inexorable gap-widening forces
Pressure to cover the curriculum, prepare for tests Pressure from parents of high-achieving students Beliefs about intelligence Fatalism about the bell curve Shortage of ideas, materials to help those kids Isolation from colleagues How can we stop the gap from widening? 128 129
130 131 Professional Learning Communities good interim tests, analysis, action Same-grade, same-subject teacher teams collaborating Common goals, interim assessments every 6 weeks Immediate scoring and data display Collegial sharing on what worked, what didnt Non-evaluative to foster adult learning
Grappling with student misconceptions, learning problems This gets teachers really invested. The engine of improvement in high-achieving schools. 132 133 Visible Learning by John Hattie (2009) 134 135
8 keys to success with interim assessments High-quality tests, well aligned, appropriate rigor Rapid turnaround (24 hours) Clear, graphic data display Productive team data meetings, data without blame Administrator/coach involvement, support - video clip Honest reflection, continuous improvement Immediate follow-up with students Students involved: knowing status, setting goals
136 137 138 139 140 Principals are the key orchestrators
Building understanding and trust Insisting on common interim assessments Scheduling assessments, team meetings, follow-up Ground rules to keep focused, low-stakes Team leaders facilitate; principal drops in, supports Young administrators entry point: results vs. methods Teachers hold each other accountable for high quality. Man on Fire swimming sequence 141 Agile teaching,
responsive to student learning minute by minute, day by day, month by month. Dylan Wiliam and Ian Beatty, 2009 142 What is the potential of interim assessments in your school? 1. Were doing this now.
2. If done well, this would bring about major improvements in teaching and learning. 3. It would have some benefits. 4. Teacher teams are resistant to this kind of work. 5. Interim assessments would have a negative impact on our school. Answer Now
5 How about the principals role in interim assessments? 1. Shifting the conversation to results is key to effective supervision and leadership. 2. The principal should help guide this process but not lead it. 3. The principal should let
teachers handle assessments. 4. Principals dont have the time or expertise to do this kind of work. Answer Now 5 Three kinds of supervision interact 145
IV. TEACHER EVALUATION RUBRICS 146 End-of-year evaluation After doing 10+ mini-observations with feedback After working with teams on curriculum unit plans After working with teams on interim assessments How to sum up a teachers performance for the year? Narratives, checklists, and goals all have problems
Must differentiate between great, good, mediocre, poor Recognize quality, give tough-love feedback to others 147 Teacher evaluation rubrics Rubrics spell out four levels of teaching quality. They force judgment. A road-map to help underperformers to improve Charlotte Danielson: Framework for Teaching,1996 Some districts, charter schools using rubrics Endorsed in Education Sector report, Rush to Judgment
Big advantages over write-ups, checklists, goal-setting 148 Kims rubrics (2006, 2010) Open source Researched rubrics, best ideas, step-by-step process: First, deciding on buckets based on many models:
A. Planning and preparation for learning B. Classroom management C. Delivery of instruction D. Monitoring, assessment, and follow-up E. Family and community outreach F. Professional responsibilities 149 The rating scale and labels 4 Highly Effective
3 Effective 2 Improvement Necessary 1 Does Not Meet Standards Differentiate the four levels of performance The goal all teachers performing at Level 3 and 4 Identify master teachers for maxi roles in school Intervene with mediocre and ineffective 150 Sorting and drafting A wide search for the criteria of good teaching
Finding the most powerful, best written The inputs that lead to high student achievement Sorting them into the six buckets Drafting Level 3 (Effective) Short and sweet! 151 D. Monitoring, Assessment, and Follow-up [Effective level] - Posts clear criteria for proficiency, including rubrics and exemplars of student work.
- Diagnoses students knowledge and skills up front and makes small adjustments based on the data. - Frequently checks for understanding and gives students helpful information if they seem confused. -
Has students set goals, self-assess, and know where they stand academically at all times. - Regularly posts students work to make visible and celebrate their progress with respect to standards. - Uses data from interim assessments to adjust teaching, re-teach, and follow up with failing students. -
Takes responsibility for students who are not succeeding and gives them extra help. - When necessary, refers students for specialized diagnosis and extra help. - Analyzes data from assessments, draws conclusions, and shares them appropriately.
- Reflects on the effectiveness of lessons and units and continuously works to improve them. 152 Drafting the other three levels and creating headlines
153 Involving teachers Goal: understanding, trust, investment in improvement Rubrics negotiated, shared and discussed up front Voluntary self-assessment and goal-setting In May/June, each teacher fills out the rubric. Input in areas where principal lacks information. Meet, compare, discuss the evidence Finalize, celebrate, set goals
154 155 Lets try one page Think of a teacher you know well. Pick one domain (Classroom Management?) Read across each line circling 4, 3, 2, or 1 The best description of that teachers performance. What strikes you about using rubrics?
Pluses Concerns 156 Flip through the whole package A total of 60 facets of teaching (Danielson has 77) Covering all aspects of the job Judged by at least 10 mini-observations, conversations, visits to team meetings, other interactions For teachers at Level 1 and 2, improvement plan, support
Rubrics not appropriate as classroom visit checklists! Rubric data from a whole faculty can be very helpful 157 158 Policy questions with rubrics A 4-3-2-1 score for each domain? An overall score? More weight for some domains? B, C, D ? A different rubric for new teachers? Involving teachers, others in tweaking the rubrics?
Student input? Parent input? Rubrics for other job categories? (Westwood, Mass.) Differential pay depending on rubric level? 159 Do you think teachers rated at Levels 3 and 4 produce high achievement? 1. Without a doubt 2. Probably 3. Not necessarily
4. Other factors matter more 5 Answer Now 161 Would it be OK for your child (or niece or nephew) to be in a Level 2 classroom? 1. Yes
2. No 5 Answer Now Suggestions for Level 2 teachers For those with an overall Level 2 rating No salary step raise A year to improve to Level 3 Lots of support If insufficient improvement, dismissal
Being implemented in Hillsborough, Florida with strong union support 163 Ideas for rewarding teachers for results Who gets rewarded? Individual teachers Teacher teams The whole staff What is measured? End-of-year standardized test scores
Value-added gains in test scores Student gains on in-school assessments Classroom performance (observations, rubric scores) Whats the reward? A $$ pay bonus Commendation in the year-end evaluation Verbal praise from the principal 164 My suggestions
Who gets rewarded? Individual teachers Teacher teams The whole staff What is measured? End-of-year standardized test scores Value-added gains in test scores Teams student gains on in-school assessments Classroom performance (observations) Whats the reward? A $$ pay bonus
Commendation in the year-end evaluation Verbal praise from the principal 165 Highly effective teachers share their magic, boost their schools Mentors and team leaders They observe classes, are observed Work with their teams on curriculum units Work with their teams analyzing results
Mentor new teachers, struggling colleagues Serve on the school leadership team Write proposals, dream up new ideas Think about policy, district issues 166 How would you personally feel about being evaluated with these rubrics? 1. 2. 3.
4. 5. Great Quite good Doesnt matter either way Quite worried Very concerned, negative Answer
5 167 How much impact do you think using these rubrics would have on teaching and learning? 1. Very positive impact 2. Somewhat positive impact 3. Not much difference 4. Very little impact 5. Negative impact
Answer 5 168 Will the logic model work now? A. A shared definition of good teaching B. Principals see everyday teaching in action. C. Principals are knowledgeable and perceptive observers. D. Principals have an effective way to give feedback. E. Principals address mediocre and ineffective teaching.
F. Teachers hear and accept the feedback. G. Teachers take ownership for student learning. 169 How to make this sustainable? A principals time (35 teachers) Full-dress evaluation - 300 hours (50 observations, 6 hrs each) Mini-observations - 115 hours (4 a day, follow-up talk) Showing the flag - 80 hours (1/2 hour a day most days) Lesson plan inspection - 70 hours (2 hours a week) Rubrics, conferences - 55 hours (1 hour each, 1/2 hr. conference)
Interim assessments- 50 hours (5 a year, 10 hours each) Curriculum planning - 40 hours (six hours 6 times a year) Learning walks/rounds - 12 hours a year (4 hours x 2 + 1 processing) 170 171 The most powerful activities - 260 hours 172
Instructional leadership on the hoof
Early-morning e-mailing, paperwork, calls Out front greeting colleagues, students, parents Quick meeting with leadership team, secretary 2-3 mini-observations; face-to-face feedback to 2-3 Monitoring the big rock projects for the year Dropping in on a teacher team doing unit planning Dropping in on a team looking at data, student work Cafeteria time and other interaction with students Private conversations with students, teachers, parents
Outside at dismissal having informal chats, unwinding 173 Late afternoon e-mailing and paperwork Work smart, build collaboration, close the achievement gap! 174