EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Introduction & Economy Agenda 1. 2. 3. 4. Course Logistics Course Content Design Implementation Options VLSI Economy Announcements 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Welcome

All assignments are posted to the course website Please check your email regularly There is a digital circuit review at the end of these lecture notes Read Chapter 1 EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 1 Course Overview Office Hours: Requisites: Grading: Check my website for most recent schedule. Also available by email appointment Pre-requisite EE262, EE317

Homework Exam #1 Exam #2 Exam #3 - 40% - 20% - 20% - 20% - Homework Assignments will be posted on Tuesdays - Homework Assignments are due at the beginning of class on the following Thursday. (i.e., 1.5 weeks later) - Late homework will be accepted for one week after the due date with a penalty of 50% point reduction. No credit will be given for assignments over one week late. - No make up exams will be given. Plan on being available on the exam dates. - Check website frequently for the most up to date schedule. EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 2 Course Overview

Where does this course fit into the Electrical Engineering curriculum? EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 3 Course Overview Where does this course fit into the Computer Engineering curriculum? EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 4 Course Content What is this course? - An introductory course into VLSI Circuit Design - We will learn the transistor level implementation of the digital logic blocks used in VLSI designs - We will learn the design and analysis, simulation, layout, and fabrication of these circuits

- We will learn to use modern CAD tools to design these circuits What topics will be covered? 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) VLSI Implementation Options / Economy MOSFET Characteristics SPICE Modeling Circuit Layout CMOS Fabrication Static Behavior of a MOS Inverter Dynamic Behavior of a MOS Inverter CMOS Logic Gates

Sequential Logic SRAM DRAM EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 5 Course Content At What level can we design? - a level of abstraction allows the description of larger and more complex systems - but we lose touch with the details of the implementation - as engineers, we want to have experience in all levels of abstraction. EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 6

Course Content What areas of VLSI do my EE/CpE courses cover? EE367 EE261 EE414 EE317 You are here EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 7 Course Content CAD / CAE Tools - Modern designs are too large to be designed using manual techniques - We rely on a set of CAD / CAE tools in order to manage the complexity of the designs

- We won't use all of the tools for a VLSI design in this course, but it is good to understand the basic options and how they are used in a typical VLSI design Analog Simulators - SPICE, Cadence Spectre - Simulation Program for the Integrated Circuit Environment - Numerical Solver that performs KVL, KCL, and Branch Equations - Performs Numerical Integration for transient simulations Advantages - Real analog view of signals Disadvantages - long run time limits number of nodes that can be simulated - typically used for 10's of transistors - full VLSI designs can't be simulated using SPICE EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 8 Course Content Digital Simulators - ModelSim, Xilinx, NC-Verilog - only gives the state of the node (0,1,X,x,Z,z,) - this simplifies computation which reduces run time - allows 1000's of nodes to be simulated simultaneously

Advantages - many nodes can be simulated - relevant for VLSI systems Disadvantages - only see the state, not the analog nature Analog vs. Digital Simulation - We use Analog simulation to verify the operation of basic building blocks (inverters, NANDs) - From the analog results, we define specs used in the digital simulation (t rise, tfall, tprop, fanout) - the digital simulations then incorporate the specs of the block as timing delays EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 9 Course Content Design Entry Sel - Schematics A Out

B - Hardware Description Language (HDL) if (Sel = 0) Out = A else Out = B Synthesis - Automatically generates the gate level netlist from an HDL Sel if (Sel = 0) Out = A else Out = B Synthesis EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design A B Out

Module #1 Page 10 Course Content Layout - Physical implementation of the circuitry Side Top DRC / LVS - Design Rule Checker: Were manufacturing capabilities violated - Layout versus Schematic Check EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 11 Course Content VLSI Design Sizes - more transistors are being integrated on chip

- this means we must rely more heavily on CAD/CAE EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 12 Course Content VLSI Design Process EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 13 Required Text CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits 3rd Edition. Sung-Mo Kang and Yusuf Leblebici, McGraw Hill, 2003. ISBN 0-07-246053-9 EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 14

Design Implementation Options Implementations Options - once a design is defined at the gate level, there are many options to implement the design - each option is an engineering trade-off between 1) Cost : up-front, engineering time, per-piece 2) Schedule : how long does it take to get to market 3) Performance : does the final design meet spec (features, speed, power, area) - VLSI designs are especially difficult due to the rapid progression of fabrication technology - a new process is available every 18-36 months - each process is faster, small, and takes less power - product life cycles can also be short - if development takes too long, a competitor can have a competing product in a better process - the product may be obsolete before enough are sold to cover the investment EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 15 Design Implementation Options Custom ASIC

- "Application Specific Integrated Circuit" - each gate is designed, laid out, and optimized by hand Advantages - Best circuit performance - Best use of area on silicon Disadvantages - Long Design Cycle - Full Custom Mask = More up-front $$$ - Takes skilled physical design engineers Standard Cell - all of the gates and basic building blocks are designed - each block has a spec sheet, layout, symbol, HDL instance, and simulation deck - the designer combines the pre-existing blocks to form the new ASIC - still considered an ASIC Advantages - faster development - still relatively fast in performance Disadvantages - not as much optimization in performance, area, power as a custom ASIC EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 16

Design Implementation Options Gate Array - transistors are already created but not connected - the designer provides the interconnect design to implement the given functionality aka Advantages "structured - faster development time ASIC" Disadvantages - less performance FPGA - Field Programmable Gate Array - an array of programmable logic blocks are designed and packaged - the designer creates a programming file to implement the given functionality - user downloads the file and is running in hardware without any fab Advantages - fastest development Disadvantages - lowest performance EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design

Module #1 Page 17 Design Implementation Options Trade-offs Up-Front Cost Custom ASIC Development Time Per-Piece Cost most most least least least most STD Cell ASIC

Gate Array FPGA EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 18 VLSI Economy Economy - there are two general types of economy in VLSI 1) you are going to use the IC design in your own product you sell 2) you design and sell the individual IC - both require a financial analysis that includes: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) upfront cost engineering development cost per piece cost predicted monthly volume predicted life span of product

- items 1,2, and 3 are deterministic - items 4 and 5 are marketing best guesses and probably the most difficult thing to predict in business EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 19 VLSI Economy Economy Example of Using your IC - your company is developing a product that will use a VLSI design. You are to choose which implementation option is the best between a Custom ASIC, STD Cell ASIC, Gate Array, or FPGA - in this case, all 4 of the implementation options meet the electrical specifications so it a simple matter of economy in selecting the best option - the product that this IC goes into will ship in 24 months regardless of the development time of your IC (assuming it is done of course!) - your marketing department thinks that you will sell 5,000 product per month and that the product life cycle is 5 years (starting after the 24 months of development) - you are given the following: NRE Engineering

Per-Piece Cost Custom ASIC $500k 4 engineers, 24 months, $15k/engr/mo $5.00 STD Cell ASIC $300k 4 engineers, 18 months, $15k/engr/mo $8.00 Gate Array $200k 3 engineers, 12 months, $12k/engr/mo $11.00 FPGA $0k 2 engineers, 9 months, $10k/engr/mo $16.00 EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 20 VLSI Economy Economy Example EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 21

VLSI Economy Economy Considerations Quantitative considerations for this example. Answer - Which options takes the most development? ASIC - If the product runs 5 years, which option is the most cost effective? ASIC - What if the product only sells for 1 year? FPGA - What if the product only sells for 2 years? Gate Array EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 22 VLSI Economy Economy Considerations Qualitative considerations for this example. Idea - If performance mattered, how could you justify doing a Custom ASIC? for the product - What if you are a small company and cant afford the NRE? use an FPGA

- What is the danger of doing an FPGA? You could charge more You might be forced to It might not take long for a competitor to develop the same thing if they see you are successful selling your product EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 23 VLSI Economy Economy of Selling your IC - if you design and sell your IC, you need a similar analysis. - But now you need to consider 1) Profit Margin - for each IC sold, how much of that is gross profit versus the cost of simply making the IC 2) Break Even Point - you invest upfront NRE and engineering time. The gross profit from the first x ICs that you sell go toward paying off that investment.

The # of ICs and the time it takes to reach that point is called Break Even - If the product doesnt sell enough, you may not make enough to pay for the initial development. 3) Opportunity Cost - if you only have 5 skilled IC designers, you want to make sure they are working on the most profitable product. If they are working on product A then they cant be working on product B. If B is more profitable, you are not using your resources effectively. EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 24 Digital Review Combinational Logic Combinational Logic Gates : - Output depends on the logic value of the inputs - no storage EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 25

Digital Review NOT out = in = in f(in) = in = in OR out = a+b f(a,b) = a+b AND out = ab f(a,b) = ab EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 26

Digital Review XOR out = ab f(a,b) = ab NOR out = a+b f(a,b) = a+b NAND out = ab f(a,b) = ab EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 27 Digital Review XNOR

out = ab f(a,b) = ab Also remember about XOR Gates: f(a,b) = ab = (ab + ba) Also remember the priority of logic operations (without parenthesis) is: NOT, AND, OR EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 28 Digital Review DeMorgans Theorems - Inverting the output of any gate results in the same function as the opposite gate (AND/OR) with inverted inputs EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 29

Digital Review DeMorgans Theorems - Graphically : breaking the bar changes the logic function (AND-OR) under the break out = a+b 1) Break bar out = a+b 2) Change + to under break out = ab EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 30 Digital Review Boolean Expressions Using SOP - Logic functions can be described using a Sum of Products techniques

Sum of Products (SOP) is the summation of all minterms resulting in the truth table A minterm is the expression for an input configuration which yields a TRUE output A minterm expression is the ANDing of the input "1" signal configuration Truth Table a b out 00 0 0 1 1 minterm m1 = ab 1 0 1 minterm m2 = ab 11 0 SOP Expression : f(a,b) = ab + ab Note : un-minimized Boolean expression EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 31 Digital Review Boolean Expressions Using POS - Logic functions can be described using a Product of Sums techniques

Product of Sums (POS) is the multiplication of all maxterms resulting in the truth table A maxterm is the expression for an input configuration which yields a FALSE output A maxterm expression is the ORing of the input "0" signal configuration Truth Table a b out 0 0 0 maxterm m0 = a+b (input configuration of 0's) 01 1 10 1 1 1 0 maxterm m3 = a'+b' (input configuration of 0's) POS Expression : f(a,b) = (a+b) (a'+b') EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 32 Digital Review Boolean Expressions Using SOP & POS - SOP and POS functions are equivalent

SOP Expression : f(a,b) = ab + ab is equal to POS Expression : f(a,b) = (a+b) (a'+b') EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 33 Digital Review Karnaugh Maps - K-maps provide a graphical method to find SOP/POS expressions K-maps also provide a graphical method to perform logic minimization K-map SOP Process 1) Circle minterms to create SOP 2) Circle in Horizontal & Vertical manner 3) Circle in groups with powers of 2

(1,2,4,8,) Truth Table ab 00 01 10 11 out 0 1 1 1 a 0 1 b 0 1 0 1 1

1 No dependency on b, minterm = a No dependency on a, minterm = b SOP expression : EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design f(a,b) = a + b Module #1 Page 34 Digital Review Karnaugh Maps - K-maps provide a graphical method to find SOP/POS expressions K-maps also provide a graphical method to perform logic minimization K-map POS Process 1) Circle maxterms to create POS 2) Circle in Horizontal & Vertical manner 3) Circle in groups with powers of 2 (1,2,4,8,)

Truth Table ab 00 01 10 11 out 0 1 1 1 a 0 1 b 0 1 0 1 1 1

Dependency on a' and b', maxterm = a+b POS expression : f(a,b) = a + b EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 35 Digital Review Sequential Logic - Concept of Storage Element - With Storage, logic functions can depend on current & past values of inputs - Sequential State Machines can be created D-Flip-Flop - on timing event (i.e., edge of clock input), D input goes to Q output CLK D

Q D Q Q Q tc2q EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 36 Digital Review State Machines - Moore : - Mealy : Outputs depend on present state Outputs depend on present state and current inputs EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1

Page 37 Digital Review State Machine Example : Design a 2-bit Gray Code Counter 00 01 1) Number of States? :4 2) Number of bits to encode states? : 2n=4, n=2 3) Moore or Mealy? : Moore For this counter, we can make the outputs be the state codes 11 10 EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 38

Digital Review State Machine Example : Design a 2-bit Gray Code Counter 00 01 11 STATE Current Next Acur Bcur Anxt Bnxt 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0

Acur 0 1 1 1 0 0 Anxt Logic Bnxt Logic Bcur 0 1 Bcur 0 1 0 1 0 1

Acur 0 1 10 A B A Q 1 0 0 Bnxt = Acur Anxt = Bcur D

1 D counter output Q B Q Q CLK EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Module #1 Page 39