Education 173 Cognition and Learning in Educational Settings ...
Education 173 Cognition and Learning in Educational Settings Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development Fall Quarter 2007 What is Development? Learning vs. Development Types of Development
Cognitive Physical Social Emotional Moral 02/13/20 2 Themes in Development Nature vs. Nurture Genetics or experience Continuity vs. Discontinuity Ramp or staircase?
Biological unfolding Like a butterfly Implications: Readiness to learn 02/13/20 3 Jean Piaget Assimilation Means to fit experience to existing cognitive structures Accommodation Means to change cognitive structures in response to experience
In order to make internal (cognitive structures) and external (experience, perception) compatible In response to disequilibrium (incompatibility of knowledge with experience) 02/13/20 4 Piagetian Stages Sensorimotor (Birth to 2) Understanding is rooted in present action Object permanence as early as one year Preoperational (2 to 7) Egocentrism Lack of conservation; Irreversibility
Concrete Operational (7 to 11) Reversibility of operations Classification (multi-way); seriation Formal Operational (11 to Adult) Abstract and hypothetical reasoning 02/13/20 5 Neo-Piagetian Theory The American Challenge Decalage: Uneven development Children can sometimes think abstractly Domain specificity of stages
Sometimes dependent on knowledge e.g., about dinosaurs Processing constraints are relevant Such as working memory Robbie Cases Theory WM increases with age/experience Chunking/automaticity important Control processes important 02/13/20 6 Jerome Bruner Knowledge Representation
Enactive Enactive (motor) Iconic (mental images) Concrete Symbolic (e.g., text, numerals) Iconic Symbolic Abstract Not a Stage Theory Rather, an accumulation of representations Bruners Bold Claim Any content can be taught in meaningful fashion to learners of any age
A bit of a challenge to Piaget 02/13/20 7 Cognitive Changes in Development Executive Control (Metacognition) Improves WM Capacity Increases Automaticity Increases Specific Knowledge Accumulates Source: ww.brown.edu/Research/Memlab/py47/diagrams.html 02/13/20
8 Socioeconomic Status SES Includes Both Family income Parent education levels SES is Descriptive, Not Explanatory What are the proximal causes? Computers, books, games, travel Language? Values? Are Schools & Classrooms Middle Class Institutions? Are Role Models Important for Promoting Social Mobility?
02/13/20 9 Other Influences On Development Home Environment Not the same as SES Presence of books Question asking Encouragement for exploration
Amount of adult-child language Peer Influence Parental Involvement in Schools 02/13/20 10
Frida Kahlo Primeros Años Ella nació en México. Cuando es 18 años, tuvo un accidente automovilístico. Estuvo mal de salud de toda la vida. Pasó varios años y empezó a pintar en la cama. Se enamoró de Diego Rivera y...
An Overview of Approaches to Minimize the Risk of Medication Errors Outline the classification of medication errors. Discuss examples of the types of medication errors and examine related clinical cases.
It is a Bi-level form of ventilation with sudden short releases in pressure to rapidly reduce FRC and allow for ventilation Can work in spontaneous or apneic patients APRV is similar but utilizes a very short expiratory time for pressure...
Self-Access Learning Topic : Present Perfect Tense Level : P.6 Shirley collect seashells, last summer A: How long _____? B: She _____ . has Shirley collected seashells has collected seashells since last summer actions that happened in the past actions...
Fusion barriers are not strong enough hybrids are more likely murky water resulting in interspecies mating Stability the hybrid production is stable barriers haven't happened or are too weak still hybrids are not the norm because the location where they...
The University of Waterloo. Opportunity: Application-Optimized Storage. Application Storage System. file access pattern. Storage System Application. file location. There is a great opportunity in optimizing systems through optimizing storage systems using application information.
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