Education 173 Cognition and Learning in Educational Settings ...

Education 173 Cognition and Learning in Educational Settings ...

Education 173 Cognition and Learning in Educational Settings Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development Fall Quarter 2007 What is Development? Learning vs. Development Types of Development

Cognitive Physical Social Emotional Moral 02/13/20 2 Themes in Development Nature vs. Nurture Genetics or experience Continuity vs. Discontinuity Ramp or staircase?

Biological unfolding Like a butterfly Implications: Readiness to learn 02/13/20 3 Jean Piaget Assimilation Means to fit experience to existing cognitive structures Accommodation Means to change cognitive structures in response to experience

In order to make internal (cognitive structures) and external (experience, perception) compatible In response to disequilibrium (incompatibility of knowledge with experience) 02/13/20 4 Piagetian Stages Sensorimotor (Birth to 2) Understanding is rooted in present action Object permanence as early as one year Preoperational (2 to 7) Egocentrism Lack of conservation; Irreversibility

Concrete Operational (7 to 11) Reversibility of operations Classification (multi-way); seriation Formal Operational (11 to Adult) Abstract and hypothetical reasoning 02/13/20 5 Neo-Piagetian Theory The American Challenge Decalage: Uneven development Children can sometimes think abstractly Domain specificity of stages

Sometimes dependent on knowledge e.g., about dinosaurs Processing constraints are relevant Such as working memory Robbie Cases Theory WM increases with age/experience Chunking/automaticity important Control processes important 02/13/20 6 Jerome Bruner Knowledge Representation

Enactive Enactive (motor) Iconic (mental images) Concrete Symbolic (e.g., text, numerals) Iconic Symbolic Abstract Not a Stage Theory Rather, an accumulation of representations Bruners Bold Claim Any content can be taught in meaningful fashion to learners of any age

A bit of a challenge to Piaget 02/13/20 7 Cognitive Changes in Development Executive Control (Metacognition) Improves WM Capacity Increases Automaticity Increases Specific Knowledge Accumulates Source: ww.brown.edu/Research/Memlab/py47/diagrams.html 02/13/20

8 Socioeconomic Status SES Includes Both Family income Parent education levels SES is Descriptive, Not Explanatory What are the proximal causes? Computers, books, games, travel Language? Values? Are Schools & Classrooms Middle Class Institutions? Are Role Models Important for Promoting Social Mobility?

02/13/20 9 Other Influences On Development Home Environment Not the same as SES Presence of books Question asking Encouragement for exploration

Amount of adult-child language Peer Influence Parental Involvement in Schools 02/13/20 10

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