USS New York In 2009 the U.S. Congress and President Barack Obama joined together to pass bi-partisan national service legislation that formally designated September 11 as a National Day of Service and Remembrance. In the years that have followed,
participation in 9/11 Day has continued to grow. Four million people participated in 2008, the year before Congress passed the legislation. Today, nearly 30 million Americans of all ages participate throughout the nation, by volunteering, supporting charities, and
doing good deeds, according to independent research studies. That makes 9/11 Day the nation's largest annual day of charitable engagement. What can you do?
Bring in a donation of any of the following items:
Sunscreen Pg. 1 under How does the Geography of Health Influence Population Dynamics? In the USA (2004)IMR for African-Americans was 13.6, for nonHispanic whites it was 5.7,.. The region with the highest IMR is the South with the Northeast having the lowest IMR. The U.S. has the 2nd biggest newborn death rate in the world from
premature birth and low birth weight, while poorer nation have high newborn death rates from diarrhea and infection. Pg. 2 at the top: Medical Geographers use locational About 65% of all diseases are infectious diseases. The other 35% are divided into chronic or degenerative and genetic or inherited Endemic-disease spread over a small or particular area
Epidemic-disease spread over a large region Pandemic-a disease with global scope A vectored infectious disease is transmitted by an intermediary vector (Malaria spread by mosquito) Yellow fever and Dengue fever are also spread by mosquitos, but fleas, flies, worms, and snails also serve as vectors.. Tropical climates are the worst afflicted areas
Non-vectored diseases are transmitted by direct contact between the host and victim HIV/AIDS is a non-vectored infectious disease The Demographic Transition 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Population Demography Why patterns exist, where they exist, and the implications of current population patterns As the global population rises, geographers become increasingly concerned with how the world can sustainably provide for growing populations.
Population patterns overlap with economic development; for example, places with the highest fertility rates are typically less economically developed. Population Distribution 60% + of the worlds population lives within 60 miles of the ocean. Population concentrates in area with high soil arability/fertility which also tend to have mild climates.
Increasingly, population is becoming more urban. Over 50% of the global population is urban, with much higher rates in highly developed regions. Population Distribution General Patterns Worlds current population is over 7 billion China and India together comprise over one-third of the total
population with over 1 billion people each. Major population concentrations include East Asia, South Asia, Western Europe, and North America. Population Density Crude density, or arithmetic density, is the total number of people divided by total land area. Physiological density, (sometimes called nutritional density) is the
number of people divided by the amount of agriculturally productive, or arable land. Agricultural density, The population density measured as the number of farmers per unit area of arable land. Population Data Includes total population counts and rates such as CBR, CDR, etc. Reliable sources include the UN Statistical Office, the World Bank, the
Population Reference Bureau, the CIA World Factbook and national censuses (census.gov) In developing regions, census data may be unreliable due to illiteracy, corrupt governments, accessibility issues, and other factors. In the U.S., decennial census provides detailed and mostly accurate information on the demographic characteristics of the country. CBR and CDR
CBR=number of live births in a single year for every thousand people in the population. CDR=number of deaths in a single year for every thousand people in the population. Both rates are crude because they do not take other factors into account including the age structure of a population. For example, several countries in Western Europe have relatively high death rates because of a high proportion of individuals in older-age
cohorts. Crude Birth Rate Birth rates tend to be highest in the least developed regions of the world where both number of women at or near reproducing age and fertility rates are high. Places with high birth rates tend to be countries where womens access to education is low.
Places with high birth rates tend to have a higher portion of their population engaged in agriculture; more children equals more laborers. Birth rates are somewhat determined by religionRoman Catholics and Muslims forbid the use of artificial birth control Natural Increase and Natural Decrease
CBR minus CDR equals Natural Increase or Natural Decrease Population=Births-Deaths When births outnumber deaths, there is a natural increase When deaths outnumber births, a country experiences natural decrease Infant Mortality Infant Mortality---number of deaths during the first year of life
Tends to be much higher in developing regions as it tends to indicate a countrys access to health care. Overall, global rates have decreased significantly over the last 50 years. Child Mortality---number of deaths between the first and fifth year of life Life Expectancy
Average number of years an infant newborn can expect to live. Number varies globally with highly developed countries experiencing much higher life expectancies than developing countries. Varies within countries, within cities, among ethnicities, and even between sexes. Worlds Highest Life Expectancies 1
Monaco 89.52 11 Israel
2 Japan 84.74 12
13 Luxembourg Australia 14 Italy
82.12 15 Sweden 81.98
16 Liechtenstein 81.77 17
Jersey 81.76 18 Canada
81.76 19 France 81.75
3 4 5 6 7 8
Singapore Macau San Marino Iceland Hong Kong Andorra 84.68
52.15 Chad 2015 Estimates CIA World Factbook Demographic Rates/Population
Growth TFR = average number of children a woman will have during childbearing years (age 15-45) TFR provides a more accurate picture of fertility than CBR as it allows demographers to predict birth rates of a particular cohort over time. Replacement levela fertility rate slightly higher than two (2.1) (accounts for infant/childhood mortality and childless women) In some countries, where mortality rates are high, replacement rate
increases dramatically. Global Total Fertility Rates World Population Growth Population Growth Rates A countrys growth rate is determined by its natural increase
(NI=CBR-CDR), expressed as a percentage. Ex. A country with a CBR of 22 (per 1,000 population) and a CDR of 12 (per 1,000) is 22-12 or 10 per 1,000, translating to a growth rate of 1 percent (1%) High growth rates are in developing countries, where growth rates are above 2 percent. World Population Growth Rates
Factors Determining a populations Rate of Natural Increase Economic development Education Gender empowerment (role of women Cultural traditions/religion Government policies
Global Population Growth Doubling time is the amount of time it will take a particular population to double in size. Doubling time can be calculated by dividing 70 by the population growth rate. A country with a growth rate of 1% will double in 70 years, whereas a country with a growth rate of 2% will double in only 35 years.
When this growth rate is graphed, a J-curve represents exponential growth, and globally, J-curve growth began in the 1950s In the last couple of decades, growth rates have declined and population follows more of an S- curve, meaning greater stability Population Pyramids Often called age-sex graphs or age-sex pyramids In general, come in four shapes
Rapid growth, distinguished by a wide base Stability, characterized by a more rectangular shape indicating stable growth Decline, in which the base is smaller than previous cohorts Disrupted growth, which shows significant gaps in the pyramid, usually as a result of war, restrictive policies, or other drastic events
What are they used for? Population pyramids provide a good indication of the dependency ratio within a country; in addition they are often used to predict population growth. In general, countries in the developing world tend to have pyramids predicting rapid growth, whereas highly developed countries pyramids are stable or even declining.
Figure 2.16 AgeSex Population Pyramids for Countries with High Population Growth Rates. Countries with high total fertility rates, high infant mortality rates and low life expectancies will have population pyramids with wide
bases and narrow tops. Data from: UN, World Population Prospects Figure 2.17 AgeSex Population Pyramids for Countries with Low Population Growth Rates. Countries with lower total fertility
rates and longer life expectancies have population pyramids shaped more uniformly throughout. Data from: UN, World Population Prospects 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Dependency Ratio A measure of the economic impact of younger and older cohorts on
the economically productive members of a population. Younger cohorts are under the age of 15, and older cohorts are over the age of 64. Dependency Ratio=Number of people 0-14 and over 65 People 15-64 Baby Boomers People born after WWII (1946-1964)
Largest population cohort in U.S. demographic history As this cohort enters retirement, the burden will be felt on the economically productive members of the country. Baby Bust Following the Baby Boom, the Baby Bust was a period of time during the 1960s and 1970s when fertility rates in the U.S. dropped. Factors include education and careers causing fewer children than the
previous generation. Carrying Capacity Number of people an area can sustain without critically straining its resource base Depends on both level of technology and determining an appropriate standard of living for the Earths population. Advanced technologies (countries) can typically sustain many more
people than more primitive technologies (countries). What if developing countries began to consume at a rate comparable to developed countries? Thomas Malthus According to Malthus, carrying capacity is limited by food availability. Food production grows arithmetically, whereas population grows geometrically or exponentially.
Food supplies cannot support an ever-increasing population. Neo-Malthusians Following Malthus, Neo-Malthusians believe population growth to be a problem. Advocate Zero Population Growth. ZPG may limit environmental repercussions, but it does not address the long-term consequences of a young population base that does
not exist to support the ever-increasing aging population. Cornucopians In the 1980s, many argued that increasing populations stimulate rather than hinder economic development. Cornucopians believe that with increasing populations come increasing opportunities for development. Current global trends have not proven to have the dire consequences
predicted by Malthus and his followers. While many across the globe die of starvation, it is more an issue of food distribution than food availability. Pronatalists Typically exist in countries where population is declining, providing incentives for women to have children. In Europe, where negative population growth is common, countries
have instituted programs that encourage births through subsidized child care costs, offering generous maternity leave packages and other services to reproducing women. Some countries outside of Europe, like Singapore, are instituting pronatalist policies in response to dramatic results of antinatalist policies in previous decades. Antinatalists
Encourage couples to limit the number of children they have. Most often, these policis discourage growth through the provision of contraception, abortion, or disincentives. China is famous for its one-child policy from the 1980s in which many drastic measures ensured decreasing population growth. HIV/AIDS Major and dramatic exception to recent population growth trends,
particularly in the developing world, where the epidemic is having dramatic effects on birth rates, death rates, and life expectancy. Currently one of the most common causes of death worldwide and expected to surpass the Black Death of the fourteenth century as historys worst ever epidemic. AIDS and Sub-Saharan Africa Particularly hard hit by the AIDS virus, with 75% of global deaths from
the virus predicted to occur there. In some countries, one in four people is HIV positive AIDS has dramatically altered life expectancy in many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa; in some places (Botswana, Swaziland) life expectancy has been cut in half, from 70 to under 40. Additional Resources 200 Countries, 200 Years, 4 Minutes
Population 10 billion ted+talk+population+pyramid 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
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