Earthwork Training - Georgia Department of Transportation

Earthwork Training - Georgia Department of Transportation

Earthwork Training Introduction We will cover 7 subjects 1 - General Info 2 - How to determine the appropriate method of payment 3 - How to calculate quantities 4 - How to set up CAiCE Files 5 - What to provide for FPRs 6 - What to provide District Earthwork Coordinator 7 - What to provide Contracts Administration

HANDOUTS TOPPS 2434 Supplemental Spec 201 Clearing and Grubbing Sample Calculations Sample Designer Checklist 1 - General Info Background The contractor has to bid the project with the items and quantities that are in the plans.

1 - General Info (Contd.) What the designer can control Pay items and Quantities in the Plans Information in the plans What the designer cannot control Erroneous Survey Info 1- General Info (Contd.) Common Reasons for Errors Not Familiar with Specs

Not Familiar with TOPPS 2434 Incorrect Addition, Subtraction, or other calculations Overlaps / Gaps in Cross Sections Did not apply shrinkage factor correctly Applied shrinkage factor backwards Incorrect or Outdated Survey Data Inexperience or Lack of Training Staging not Considered Lack of QC (CAiCE and/or calculations not checked) 1- General Info (Contd.) Common Reasons for Errors

Assuming that if the Pay Item is Grading Complete earthwork is not important. Do all calculations as if the quantities were being used as pay items 1- General Info (Contd.) How to Do Earthwork Correctly First READ Specifications 201, 205, 206, 208 and 209 and 210 Then READ TOPPS 2434 Use the following Glossary when using Unclassified Excavation and Borrow, Including Material pay items:

General Info (Contd.) Glossary Raw Cut Excavation volume as shown on cross sections Raw Fill Embankment volume as shown on cross sections Unclassified Excavation Volume of excavation within the R/W that will be paid. Stripping Removal of Topsoil / Grass and tree roots Undercut material that must be excavated that is not shown in the typical grading template. Intercept ditch A ditch at the top of the cut that intercepts off-site water before it runs down the slope.

Toe ditch A ditch at the bottom of a fill slope that controls water running along the base of the fill. Berm Ditch A ditch formed in a high cut or fill slope to intercept the water running down the slope. General Info (Contd.) Glossary Shrinkage The percentage that soil decreases in volume from its undisturbed volume (prior to excavation) to the final in-place compacted volume (when placed in an embankment). Swell The percentage that rock (and excavated pavement, curb and gutter, etc.) increases in volume from its undisturbed volume (prior to

excavation) to the final in-place volume (when placed in an embankment). Neat Borrow Confusing term, has no meaning, do not use Neat Excavation See Raw Cut Cut (in CAiCE output) = Excavation Fill (in CAiCE output) = Embankment Waste This is the excavated mass of earthwork that is left over at the end of the project that can not be used anywhere as fill material. Stockpile Earthwork that is excavated from a Cut section that can be used throughout the project as fill material. 1 - General Info (Contd.)

Additional Stuff For PM to worry about The Design Project Manager must assume that the original ground has been verified for accuracy. If during the design of the project the PM notices anything that does not look right he should request a survey re-verification. Generally the first design run should use 6:1 or 4:1 slopes. Then the Designer must look at each area to determine where to use 2:1 slopes and guardrail. If the project is a Waste project be very liberal with the fill slopes. Plans need to include a Stake Out Sheet.

2 - What Pay Item to Use? For Method of Payment See TOPPS 2434 There is a FLOW CHART to assist your selection. TOPPS 2434 The purpose of this document is to provide general guidelines for determining the method of payment for earthwork. These are general guidelines and are not inclusive of all types of projects. The field plan review inspection team will make recommendations as to the method of payment for earthwork using these general guidelines and the team's engineering judgment and experience to ensure the appropriate

method of payment for earthwork is selected. * Unadjusted volume of cut + fill ** If total EW>500,000*, or if no significant traffic control is required for the grading work except at tie-ins and crossroads, the project is suitable for earthwork measurement. Borrow pits that fill with water are suitable for measurement. *** In place embankment is acceptable for use only as follows: Locations where borrow sources (pits) will not be reserved for the exclusive use of the project. This is particularly applicable to urban areas. Embankment placed by dredging or hydraulic methods.

Selection Guide

Presentation of Earthwork in the Plans No earthwork quantities should be shown anywhere in the plans except for the summary sheet and the detailed estimate. When a quantity is shown on the summary sheet, it should be the total quantity, not broken out by sheet, or station numbers. For GRADING COMPLETE, no quantity is shown in the plans just "lump sum" is shown on the detailed estimate sheet. However, calcualtions must still be computed in order to produce a cost for the designers estimate. For UNCLASSIFIED EXCAVATION, the neat volume of excavation is shown on the summary sheet and the detailed estimate. For IN PLACE EMBANKMENT, the neat volume of embankment is shown

on the summary sheet and the detailed estimate. For BORROW INCLUDING MATERIAL , the volume of the borrow pit excavation is shown on the summary sheet and the detailed estimate. Where approved borrow sources can be identified, they should be indicated on the plans. The GRADING PER MILE (KM) pay item should not be used except on maintenance shoulder building projects. 2 Method of Payment Grading Complete Grading Complete - All work shown in the plans is included in the Lump Sum price bid. This includes

excavation inside the R/W, constructing the fills, any Borrow needed, and Clearing and Grubbing. Small projects (Less than 100,000 CY total EW) Volume of Earthwork is not related to the cost of Earthwork. (Significant Traffic Control) (Soil is moved for staging) Grading Complete includes the grading shown on the plans. If grading is required but is not shown, it is not included. 2 - Method of Payment

In-Place Embankment Projects with more than 100,000 but less than 500,000 Cubic yards. Where multiple Borrow pits will likely be used and the pits may not be reserved for exclusive use of the project. (Urban Areas) Grading Complete is often better for these type projects due to staging issues. Projects where the fill is being placed hydraulically, (Not likely with current Environmental Regulations) If the In-place Embankment pay item is used, the constructed fills are measured in-place. No separate payment is made for excavation or borrow.

2 - Method of Payment Unclassified Excavation and Borrow - Use when the total earthwork is over 100,000 CY and is measurable. - Unclassified Excavation is all of the excavation on the project (shown in the cross sections) except excavation for: - bridge footings and channel excavation which are paid as separate items - minor structures which is not paid for separately (see Spec. 207)

- Borrow is the additional soil that is needed to construct the fills that are not available on the project R/W. 3- Calculation Methods Grading Complete You do not show quantities in the plans but you do calculate the quantities of Excavation and Borrow for: To provide the construction cost estimate to Contracts. To provide to Engineering Services with FPR request. To provide to the District Earthwork coordinator. These calculations are done the same as if the pay quantities were going to be Unclassified Excavation

and Borrow, Including Material. 3- Calculation Methods In-Place Embankment If the In-place Embankment pay item is used, the constructed fills are measured in-place. Therefore, no adjustments for shrinkage are required. If your original ground line is correct and your grading template is correct the plan quantity will be the pay quantity. You do not show quantities for excavation and/or borrow in the plans, but you do calculate the quantities of Excavation and Borrow to provide to Engineering Services and the District Earthwork Coordinators.

These calculations are done the same as if the pay quantities were going to be Unclassified Excavation and Borrow. 3- Calculation Methods Unclassified Excavation and Borrow There are two calculation methods that are normally used. Both methods will produce the same results if used correctly, but they cannot be mixed together. The Swell the Fill method mathematically increases the volume of the fill and subtracts the raw cut volumes from this number. Note that the word Swell indicates the inverse of the Shrinkage and not the Swell percentage for rock.

The Shrink the Cut method basically reduces the volume of the excavation and subtracts this volume from the Raw Fill. When the Unclassified Excavation and Borrow, incl. Material pay items are used, the size of the hole is measured for payment. Unclassified Excavation is a hole on the R/W and Borrow is a hole (that the contractor provides) that is not on the R/W. 3- Calculation Methods Unclassified Excavation and Borrow It is easy to get confused when calculating these quantities. 160 140

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Material before excavation Fluffed material being hauled

relative soil volume Relative rock volume Material compacted in the fill

Earthwork Example 1 Determine the appropriate Pay Items and Quantities Excavation (cut) from X-Sections ----90,000 CY Embankment (fill)from X-Sections ---150,000 CY Assume Shrinkage of 25% Assume No Undercuts Assume No Stripping Assume No Unsuitable Material Assume No Staging Required.

Earthwork Example 1 (Contd.) Determine appropriate method of payment from TOPPS 2434 The total earthwork is 150,000+90,000 which is well over 100,000. Staging is not a factor that would require significant traffic control. Borrow pits can be controlled and is suitable for measurement. Therefore, from the Selection Guide that we went over before, what would you include in this plans to pay for this? No, the 210-0100 GRADING COMPLETE Lump Sum pay item cannot be used.

Earthwork Example 1 (Contd.) If borrow is required and borrow sources can not be measured or controlled, the appropriate pay item will be In-Place Embankment. The earthwork pay quantities would be: 201-0100 Clearing and Grubbing ???? ???? = Lump Sum 208-0100 In Place Embankment - ???? ???? = 150,000 CY Earthwork Example 1 (Contd.)

If the borrow source can be measured and controlled, the appropriate pay items would be Unclassified Excavation and Borrow, including Material. Note that in this example, the calculations will show that Borrow is required. (There is not enough excavated material (cut) on the project to build the fills.) If the earthwork Calculations show that there will be waste soil then the Unclassified Excavation pay item would be used and the Borrow, incl. material pay item would not be used. Earthwork Example 1 (Contd.)

The earthwork pay quantities would be: 201-0100 Clearing and Grubbing ???? Lump Sum 205-0001 Unclassified Excavation - ???? 90,000 CY 206-0002 Borrow Excavation, including Material ???? CY Earthwork Example 1 (Contd.) (Shrink on cut method) [150,000 (Embankment from Xsections) minus

(90,000 (Cut from Xsections) x(1-0.25 (shrinkage)))] divided by (1-0.25(shrinkage)) = [150,000 - 67,500] / (1-0.25) Earthwork Example 1 (Contd.) (Shrink on cut method) cont. = [82,500] / (1-0.25(shrinkage)) = 110,000 CY Borrow Earthwork Example 1 (Contd.) (Swell on fill method) 150,000/(1-0.25)= 200,000 (Swelled Fill)

minus 90,000 (Excavation from Xsections) = 110,000 CY Borrow Please note that the pay quantity is the same regardless of the method. However, this check is mathematical swell and not the same factor used to compute for Rock. Earthwork Example 2 Determine the appropriate Pay Items and Quantities Excavation from Cross Sections ------90,000 CY Embankment from Cross Sections ----150,000 CY Assume Shrinkage of 25%

Assume No Stripping Assume No Staging Required Assume that an area of contaminated soil 900 feet long by 100 foot wide by 9 feet deep must be undercut and disposed of OFF the project. (Assume that this area is not shown in the CAiCE files.) (900x100x9/27=30,000 CY) Earthwork Example 2 (Contd.) Determine appropriate method of payment from TOPPS 2434 The total earthwork is 150,000+90,000+30,000 which is well over 100,000. Since no staging is required, the earthwork is measurable.

Therefore the 210-0100 GRADING COMPLETE Lump Sum pay item cannot be used. Note that IF the Grading Complete pay item is used AND the undercut IS SHOWN on the plans, the cost of the Undercut is included in the Grading Complete pay item. Earthwork Example 2 (Contd.) If the borrow is required and borrow sources can not be measured or controlled, the appropriate pay item will be In-Place Embankment. The earthwork pay quantities would be: 201-0100 Clearing and Grubbing ????

???? = Lump Sum 208-0100 In Place Embankment - ???? CY ????= 150,000 plus 30,000 = 180,000 CY Earthwork Example 2 (Contd.) If the borrow source can be measured and controlled, the appropriate pay items would be Unclassified Excavation and Borrow, including Material. Earthwork Example 2 (Contd.) The earthwork pay quantities would be: 201-0100 Clearing and Grubbing ????

Lump Sum 205-0001 Unclassified Excavation - ???? 90,000 plus 30,000 = ???? ???? = 120,000 CY 206-0002 Borrow Excavation, including Material ???? CY Earthwork Example 2 (Contd.) (Shrink on cut method) [(150,000(Embankment from X-sections)+ 30,000 (undercut) ) minus (90,000 (Cut from X-sections) x(1-0.25 (shrinkage)))]

divided by (1-0.25(shrinkage)) = [180,000 - 67,500] / (1-0.25) Earthwork Example 2 (Contd.) (Shrink on cut method) cont. = [112,500] / (1-0.25(shrinkage)) =150,000 CY Borrow Earthwork Example 2 (Contd.) (Swell on fill method) (150,000+30,000) /(1-0.25)= 240,000 (Swelled Fill) 90,000 (Excavation from X-sections)

= 150,000 CY Borrow Notice that the pay quantity is the same regardless of the method. Earthwork Example 3 Determine the appropriate Pay Items and Quantities Excavation from Cross Sections ------90,000 CY Embankment from Cross Sections ----150,000 CY Assume Shrinkage of 25% Assume No Stripping Assume No Staging Required.

Assume that an area of soil (which is suitable to use after it is removed and re-compacted) 900 feet long by 100 foot wide by 9 feet deep must be undercut. The difference is that this soil can still be used, but this area is not shown in the CAiCE files. (900x100x9/27=30,000 CY) Earthwork Example 3 (Contd.) Determine appropriate method of payment from TOPPS 2434 The total earthwork is 150,000+90,000+30,000 which is well over 100,000. Since no staging is required, the earthwork is measurable. Therefore the 210-0100 GRADING COMPLETE Lump

Sum pay item cannot be used. Note that IF the Grading Complete pay item is used AND the undercut IS SHOWN on the plans, the cost of the Undercut is included in the Grading Complete pay item. Earthwork Example 3 (Contd.) If the borrow is required and borrow sources can not be measured or controlled, the appropriate pay item will be In-Place Embankment. The earthwork pay quantities would be: 201-0100 Clearing and Grubbing ???? Lump Sum

208-0100 In Place Embankment - ???? CY ????= 150,000 plus 30,000 = 180,000 CY Earthwork Example 3 (Contd.) If the borrow source can be measured and controlled, the appropriate pay items would be Unclassified Excavation and Borrow, including Material. Earthwork Example 3 (Contd.) The earthwork pay quantities would be: 201-0100 Clearing and Grubbing ???? Lump Sum

205-0001 Unclassified Excavation - ???? ???? = 90,000 plus 30,000 = 120,000 CY 206-0002 Borrow Excavation, including Material ???? CY Earthwork Example 3 (Contd.) (Shrink on cut method) [(150,000(Embankment from Xsections)+ 30,000 (undercut) ) minus ((90,000 (Cut from Xsections) + 30,000 (undercut) ) times (1-0.25 (shrinkage)))] divided by (1-0.25(shrinkage))

= [180,000 - 90,000] / (1-0.25) Earthwork Example 3 (Contd.) (Shrink on cut method) cont. = [90,000] / (1-0.25(shrinkage)) = 120,000 CY Borrow Earthwork Example 3 (Contd.) (Swell on fill method) (150,000+30,000) /(1-0.25)= 240,000 (Swelled Fill) (90,000 (Excavation from Xsections) + 30,000 (undercut) ) = (240,000 - 120,000)

= 120,000 CY Borrow Notice that the pay quantity is the same regardless of the method. Earthwork Example 4 Determine the appropriate Pay Items and Quantities Excavation from Final X-Sections Embankment from Final X-Sections Excavation from Stage 1 X-Sections Embankment from Stage 1 X-Section Excavation from Stage 2 X-Sections Embankment from Stage 2 X-Section

90,000 CY 150,000 CY 25,000 CY 115,000 CY 65,000 CY 35,000 CY Earthwork Example 4 (Contd.) Assume Shrinkage of 25% Assume No Undercuts Assume No Stripping

Assume No Unsuitable Material Earthwork Example 4 (Contd.) Determine appropriate method of payment from TOPPS 2434 The total earthwork is 150,000+90,000 which is well over 100,000. Staging is required, but the soil does not have to be moved multiple times, therefore the earthwork is measurable. Therefore the 210-0100 GRADING COMPLETE Lump Sum pay item cannot be used. Note that even IF the Grading Complete pay item is used, Staging Cross Sections should be provided so that the

contractor can determine how much soil will be required in Stage 1. Earthwork Example 4 (Contd.) If the borrow is required and borrow sources can not be measured or controlled, the appropriate pay item will be In-Place Embankment. The earthwork pay quantities would be: 201-0100 Clearing and Grubbing ???? Lump Sum 208-0100 In Place Embankment - ???? ???? = 150,000 CY

Earthwork Example 4 (Contd.) If the borrow source can be measured and controlled, the appropriate pay items would be Unclassified Excavation and Borrow, including Material. Earthwork Example 4 (Contd.) The earthwork pay quantities would be: 201-0100 Clearing and Grubbing ???? Lump Sum 205-0001 Unclassified Excavation - ????

???? = 90,0000 CY 206-0002 Borrow Excavation, including Material ???? Note that this must be done by stages. If at any point during construction more soil is needed that has been excavated at that point, additional Borrow must be provided. Earthwork Example 4 (Contd.) (Shrink on cut method) Stage 1 [(115,000(Stage 1 Embankment from Xsections) minus 25,000 (Stage 1 Cut from Xsections) x(1-0.25)

(shrinkage))] divided by (1-0.25(shrinkage)) = Earthwork Example 4 (Contd.) (Shrink on cut method) cont. = [115,000 - (25,000x(1-0.25))] / (1-0.25) =128,333 CY Borrow in Stage 1 Earthwork Example 4 (Contd.) (Swell on fill method) Stage 1

(115,000) /(1-0.25)= 153,333 (Swelled Fill) (25,000 Stage 1 Excavation (from X-Sect.) = (153,333 - 25,000) = 128,333 CY Borrow Earthwork Example 4 (Contd.) For simplicity, the Stage 2 numbers will only be calculated with the Swell on Fill Method. Stage 2 (Swell on fill method) Borrow = 35,000 / (1-0.25) - 65,000 = - 18,333 CY Note that this is Waste, not

Negative Borrow. Earthwork Example 4 (Contd.) Therefore the Borrow Quantity shown on the plans is 129,000 CY. Note that the quantity of Borrow increased by 19,000 CY from Example 1 even though the final cross sections were the same. This may have been reduced if you had staged a side road or Cut section differently. Always consider staging!

Earthwork Calculation Observations Notice that the pay quantity is the same regardless of the method. Notice also that the Swell on Fill Method is easier to use. Doing both methods is a very good check. Always consider staging to help reduce and/ or to compute all of the quantities related to Earthwork correctly! Earthwork Calculations

Special Cases The only time that you have to use the Shrink on cut method is if the soil has different shrinkage coefficients. This is normally a problem in only two cases. First, if a Borrow Pit has been located for the project and a Soil Survey was done for the Pit. It is not current GDOT policy to locate the pits before hand. Earthwork Calculations Special Cases

Second, if there are large rock cuts on the project. The rock will have an actual Swell Factor. If this is the case you need to carefully consider the staging. Large rock can only be placed deep in large fills. Often the fills have to be built before the rock is available. If this is the case, the rock may have to be wasted. 4 - Organization of Electronic CAiCE Data Proper organization of the electronic CAiCE data is critical for efficient data sharing between business units. Since

this type of data sharing is standard practice within the Department, it is extremely important for all parties involved to follow the same data processing guidelines. The standards for processing CAiCE data are found in several guidelines documents which address each specific discipline in which the CAiCE software is employed. Electronic versions of these documents are available for download from the GDOT CAiCE Support Homepage web site at the following address: http:// topps.dot.state.ga.us/homeoffs/osd.www/internal / graphics/caice.html.

4 - Organization of Electronic CAiCE Data The Guidelines for Processing Design Data in CAiCE is the guidelines document for use by the project designers. This document prescribes standard CAiCE database object naming conventions and standard object feature codes in Section 1.1. Standard CAiCE file naming conventions are prescribed in Section 1.2. Section 1.4 describes the standardized Project Data Sheets which are used to document how each of the critical CAiCE data elements are related to one another and to the roadway project. This section also specifies the location of the electronic versions of the Project Data Sheets for inclusion with the CAiCE archive file. Section 3 describes the GDOT standard files which must be used for

processing the CAiCE data. This section also includes instructions on how to use these standard files and how to obtain the latest versions of these files. The Project Data Sheets and the GDOT standard files are available for download from the GDOT CAiCE Support Homepage web site. Compliance with these guidelines will greatly reduce confusion when the electronic CAiCE data is shared. 5 - What to provide to Engineering Services with FPR requests PFPR A Summary of the output of the Earthwork Volume

Calculations by Stages. The summary should be broken down by Stages and by sideroads, mainline, etc. (this summary should include the raw cut and raw fill from CAiCE and should include the shrinkage calculations showing the actual pay quantities. These numbers are needed even if the pay item will be Grading Complete or In-Place Embankment. FFPR Same info as with PFPR including all changes since the PFPR. 6 Information that the Project Manager must

provide District Earthwork Coordinators: (The E/W coordinator becomes the liaison between Design and Construction for all Earthwork pay items. Everything in your design affects E/W so they are responsible for any discrepancies between the plans and the Contractors quantities.) 6 - For A PFPR When a PFPR Inspection is requested from Engineering Services the following information needs to be provided to the District EWC

The total quantity of earthwork at the time of the PFPR (Raw Volume of Cut and Fill (Done by Stages)), via email The Shrinkage Factor from the Soil Survey Report, via email An Archived CAICE file (on a CD) including a completed Project Data Sheet, E/W quantity calculations, and a halfsize set of plans that it matches are to be mailed to the District EWC 6 - CAiCE Files CAiCE files should match the PFPR plans, follow ALL Department Guidelines, and of which some highlights include: Correct naming of files Only one DTM surface with enhancements of obscured areas included

End Area Files included for both Mainline and each Side Road where the quantities can not be included in the Mainline quantities Horizontal Alignments to match the plans Vertical Alignments to match the plans Median Crossovers in place Right and Left Turn Lanes in place Special Ditches in place Guardrail Shoulders in place Correct Subgrade Blockout (Typical Section at time of PFPR) CAiCE Design File (.VRS) should be able to be reran and E/W quantities should match the quantities provided by the Designer.

6 - FFPR When a FFPR Inspection request is submitted to Engineering Services the following information needs to be provided to the District EWC: Total Quantity of Earthwork at the time of the FFPR (Neat Number of Cut and Fill), via e-mail An Archived CAICE file (on a CD) including a completed Project Data Sheet, E/W quantity calculations, and a half-size set of plans it matches are to be mailed to the District EWC 6 - The CAiCE Files

CAiCE files should now match the FFPR plans and still follow the same standards for the PFPR. The Subgrade Blockout (Typical Section) however, should now be updated to reflect the approved pavement design Once again, CAiCE Design Files (.VRS) should be able to be reran and E/W quantities should match the Designer provided quantities. 6 - Final Plans Please Note: When Final Plans are sent out, the following information needs to be

provided to all of the District Earthwork Coordinators (EWC): 6 Final Plans The Archived CAiCE file (on a CD) including a completed Project Data Sheet, E/W quantity calculations, and a halfsize set of Final Plans it matches are to be mailed to the District EWC Once again, CAiCE Design Files (.VRS) should be able to be reran and E/W quantities should match the Designer provided quantities. The Designer is to maintain updated Design (.VRS) files for each project to be provided to the District EWC each

time a Plan Revision is sent out that would effect Earthwork Quantities. (Any field changes will be updated by the District EWC, themselves.) 7 - What to Provide Contracts Administration with the Final Plans Plans with the correct pay items

Plans with the correct quantities See CAiCE Manual Chapter 7.3 Do NOT provide the .ERP file which is generated in CAiCE that shows the .EAR output you use to calculate from. Only provide the following electronic files: 7 - What to Provide Contracts Administration with the Final Plans Provide Description Files of all the correct Geometry Chains (alignments). New Policy Provide Project Data Sheet with all the

information filled out for each current alignment that is used in the plans. Include .END files (see next slide for an example) which is the preferred output of the End Area Files all burned on a CD. 7 - What to Provide Contracts Administration with the Final Plans

EMX000 7.035 KC11.END -1 3500.000 3500.000 110673.79960000 493565.38200000 L1 15.652378 271.277703

L1 14.070538 271.259713 L1 13.764995 271.256238 L1 12.856763 271.245909 L1 12.747674 271.244669 L1 10.252977 271.256467 L1 9.170855 271.244389 L1 5.382713 271.202108 L1 5.299986 271.201185 L1 4.387850 271.189869 L1 4.277920 271.188642 L1 3.181378 271.178194 L1 3.089205 271.177166

L1 2.283521 271.171440 L1 1.708322 271.165032 R1 2.920898 271.131800 R1 2.942881 271.131557 R1 3.116789 271.122210 R1 3.155311 271.121783 R1 3.473039 271.112026 R1 3.540119 271.111280 R1 4.135385 271.104397 Do Not Send to Contracts !!

Questions ???

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