Early Complex Societies

Early Complex Societies

Unit 1: Early Complex Societies C H A P T E R 1 : B E F O R E H I S T O RY What distinguishes history from prehistory? Prehistory: period before writing History: period after invention of writing, allowed communities to record & store info. Forming the Complex Society Basic development: Hunting and foraging Agriculture Complex society (Major development of first complex societies 3500 B.C.E. 500 B.C.E.) Key issue: surplus capital

Development of Hominids Animals adapt themselves to environment (Evolution) http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=faRlFsYmkeY (Homer Simpsons Evolution) http:// news.discovery.com/videos/news-lizards-s how-evolution-in-action.html (Lizard) http:// dsc.discovery.com/tv-shows/other-shows/v ideos/assignment-discovery-shorts-evoluti on-adaptation.htm (Evolution)

Hominids adapt environment to themselves Use of tools Language Evolution of Homo Sapiens What discovery have researchers made about the link between humans and large apes? (L1) Researchers (archaeologists, paleontologists, evolutionary biologists) have shown

similarity between humans & large apes (i.e. only 1.6 % difference between humans & chimp DNA) Differences = (1) intelligence (able to form language, tools and communicate) (2) ability to control environment. Australopithecu s Australopithecus = southern ape 4 1 million yrs. Ago Walked upright

Used tools & opposable thumbs Able to communicate Discovery of skeleton AL-288-1, north of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Nicknamed Lucy http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=rGFlkcnZRFI Homo erectus = Homo Erectus upright walking man Compare and contrast australopithecus,

homo erectus, and homo sapiens. (L2) 2 million 200,000 yrs. Ago Larger brain Used more sophisticated tools Started to use FIRE! Cook food Defense (weapon) Source of heat (able to migrate to cooler climates) Increased intelligence, communication complex ideas &

language skills (i.e. coordinated hunts) Homo sapiens = Homo Sapiens consciously thinking man What type of hominid was Lucy? How do you know? (L1) Which hominid species made the most gains from previous species? Explain your answer. (L3)

200,000 yrs. ago Skillfully adapted to environment Brain size similar to modern humans (conscious thought; able to understand world) More efficient way to exploit natural resources Communicate/cooperate on more complex tasks i.e. make clothing for cooler climates Migrated throughout world via land bridges

http://www.handprint.com/LS/ANC/ disp.html Global Migrations of Homo erectus and Homo sapiens 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights 11 By 13,000 B.C.E., Homo The Natural Environment sapiens in every part of world Archaeological finds: Sophisticated tools

Choppers, scrapers, axes, knives, bows, arrows Cave and hut-like dwellings Use of fire, animal skins Hunted several mammal species to extinction Climatic change may have accelerated process Paleolithic Era = Old Stone Paleolithic Society Age How does Paleolithic society

differ from present-day society? (L2) Hunting-gathering peoples NO individual accumulation of property or social distinctions based on wealth = egalitarian existence. Social distinction based on age, strength, courage, virility/fertility Neanderthals in middle Paleolithic age Hunting and gathering Hunting and gathering (foraging)

lifestyle Equal contribution Interdependent Describe the foraging lifestyle. (L1) Make a case for men (hunters) or women (gatherers) as being most essential in Paleolithic societies. (L3) Men (hunters) Women (gatherers)

- Provides - Live Provides meat bands (more in small plants, fruits, efficient) nuts, roots Exploit env. systematically (seasonal migrations) Hunt with purpose & use brain Development of weaponry Animal-skin disguises Stampeding tactics Lighting of fires, etc., to drive game into kill zones Natufian society (c. 13,500 Paleolithic Settlements 7,800 BCE)

Modern Israel and Jordan Wild wheat, herding Jomon society (c. 14,000 300 BCE) Japan Wild buckwheat, fishing Chinook society Pacific northwest Berries, acorns, salmon runs Groups of 1000 or more 15 Creativity of Homo sapiens

Able to accumulate/transmit info. Sewing Beads, necklaces Sculptures Fish for added food Adv. tools for hunting Cave paintings (animals & humans) Bow and arrow a dramatic improvement in humans power over nature Venus figurines shows evidence of worship 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. New Stone Age Beginning of agriculture Neolithic Era

Agriculture = cultivating of plants and animals (aka farming) Distinction in tool production Chipped vs. polished Relied on cultivation for subsistence Agriculture became way to sustain life through continuous food source before McDonalds. Men: herding animals rather than hunting Women: nurturing vegetation rather than foraging

Spread of agriculture Slash-and-burn techniques Exhaustion of soil promotes migration Diffusion of crops Early Agriculture 10,000 2,000 B.C.E. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/history/lecture03/r_32.html Origins and Early Spread of Agriculture Early Agricultural Society Why did agriculture have such a significant impact on population? (L1)

Most important change = population explosion Agriculture and Population Growth 20 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Early Agricultural Society Agricultural economy and increasing population led to new forms of social organization. Settled in permanent villages Neolithic Settlements

Earliest known = Jericho in present-day Israel (before 8000 B.C.E.) w/ 2,000 ppl. Concentration of many people in villages led to specialization of labor - with food surplus, some people did other work. atal Hyk (modern-day Turkey) 7250 5400 B.C.E. 5,000 people Made pots, baskets, textiles, leather, stone/ metal tools, jewelry, etc. atal Hyk A reconstruction of the first city

in the world, Catal Huyuk, Anatolia, present day Turkey. This city flourished from about 6250 BCE to 5400 BCE, and was excavated in Thepart rectangular shape of the buildings: as there is no readily available stone to in 1961. build defensive walls, the buildings were made to face inwards, with no windows on the outside. The only entrance to the city was through ladders leading onto the roofs of the outside buildings. The streetless city offered a high degree of protection from outside attackers in this way - if under attack, the outside ladders were withdrawn, and any would be attacker was faced with a solid wall and no gate or other weak point. http://www.lwcag.org/sub-racial/chapter-the-late-paleolithicage.html Pottery (needed to

Specializatio n of Labor store/cook food) Metallurgy How did specialization of labor affect social distinctions? (L1) Copper (jewelry/tools) Neolithic pottery, excavated from Textile (domesticated Yung Long & Mun (Hong plants/ animals forTuen better Kong) fiber)

Social Distinctions How are social distinctions today different/similar than in Neolithic societies? (L2) Mostly women Accumulated wealth Trade surplus food/manufactured goods for gems, jewelry Ownership of land (privatization) = economic power (especially for families who passed down wealth) Science Neolithic Culture How do religious

and moralistic behaviors differ between Paleolithic and Neolithic peoples? (L2) Neolithic people observed natural world to ensure good harvest. Learned weather was based on position of sun, moon and stars (early calendar system) Religion Worshipped Venus figurines to ensure fertility

Celebrated/worshipped other deities associated w/ cycle of life death regeneration (for humans and harvests) Agriculture begins Origins of Urban Life Population increases Villages form What is the relationship between agricultural development and human population? (L1) (near water source)

Specialization of labor Social classes emerge Cities are born Civilization begins Cities Neolithic Villages vs. Cities What distinguished cities from Neolithic villages? (L2) (1) cities = larger, more complex than villages (i.e. governors, administrators, tax collectors to run city & priests to

transmit values/traditions) (2) cities influenced political, economic, & cultural life of larger region (i.e. political = extending authority/military power, economic = marketplaces/trading, cultural = schools/temples to spread traditions/values)

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