Domain Eukarya: Protista Domain Eukarya Every living thing on Earth, except for bacteria and archaea More complex organization Have a nucleus Have membrane-bound organelles Mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, etc. 4 kingdoms Animalia
Plantae Fungi Protista Kingdom Protista The protists Depending on who you ask ~10-20 phyla of protists exist Single-celled and multicellular organism
Can be: plant-like, animal-like, or fungi-like Protista Reproduction Can reproduce sexually and asexually Many of the unicellular protists reproduce asexually (much like bacteria) Have a method for exchanging genetic material (called conjugation) They attach and exchange small pieces of DNA Most protists reproduce sexually Classification and Evolution of Protists Trash-can kingdom
If it is not a plant, animal, or fungus, it is a protest Very hard to classify because there is such a diversity Will likely be broken into several new kingdoms in the future Scientists usually break them down into animal-like, plant-like, and fungi-like based on their traits Were the first eukaryotes to evolve Because they are small, they have not left a lot of fossils (only a few types have been found) Comparing genetic evidence, they likely evolved early from single-celled organisms
(prokaryotes) who had acquired structures that worked similar to organelles Example: Prokaryotes eat by engulfing particles and bringing them into their membrane. Endosymbiotic Theory Endo=Inside (Think enter) Symbiosis=2 organisms of different species working together Endosymbiotic Theory=Organelles were once separate, but were eaten and formed mutualistic relationships Eventually became parts of the cell Helped organism to make energy (chloroplasts and mitochondria)
Evidence: Mitochondria in eukaryotic organisms have different DNA from the organisms who have them (called Mitochondiral DNA) This DNA shows more closely related genetic relationship to bacteria than to eukaryotes Chloroplasts in eukaryotic organisms also have different DNA than the plants and protists that contain chloroplasts This DNA can be traced directly to photosynthetic bacteria Plant-Like Protists Called algae Algae are not plants! They are protists. Contain chloroplasts
Producers-able to make their own food Many also have cell walls, similar to plants Many types of algae exist Classified on whether they are unicellular or multicellular Unicellular: Diatoms, Dinoflagellates, euglenoids Diatoms Small, unicellular algae. Exist in large populations Form beautiful structures as colonies (picture)
Cell wall is made of silica (pretty much glass) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JYB5529hDPI Dinoflagellates Have 2 flagella They spin as they move Bioluminescence https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uqJbUKEPgXc Euglenoids
Have characteristics of both plants and animals. Many have chloroplasts, some do not Some have the ability to make their own food when there is light, and must eat other organisms when there is no light Found in most aquatic environments You would find them in Fulda Lake Have a photosensitive eyespot that helps them move toward light No cell wall Can use their cell membrane as a way to move Also have flagella that helps propel them in liquid https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fI7nEWUjk3A
Red Algae Multicellular Have chlorophyll for photosynthesis Sometimes called seaweed They are red due to a red pigment Live deeper than brown and green algae Up to 200 m deep Green Algae Multicellular or unicellular
Seaweed Large amounts of chlorophyll Most plant-like of all algae Thought to be the ancestor of all plants Most live in the water, but some live outside the water Brown Algae Multicellular
Called Kelp Located between areas where green and red algae grow Usually in cooler, salty water Typically grow in forests-dense areas Contain chlorophyll and a brown pigment They are an important food source, for fish and humans Can grow up to 100m (328 feet) long
Algae Benefits and Issues Algae is an important producer in aquatic food webs Especially diatoms and dinoflagellates Algal blooms Can bloom out of control and be toxic for other organisms (even humans) Usually the result of dinoflagellates Product uses Carrageenan (from certain algae) is used in toothpaste, salad dressing, and pudding to give
it a creamy texture Ice cream and marshmallows use algin from brown algae to make them thick Algin Diatoms are used (because of their glass-like cell walls) in insulation and road paint (the stuff that shines at night) Animal-like Protists Also known as protozoans Live in or on dead organisms that are found in water Usually classified based on how they move
Ciliates Protozoans that have cilia (hair-like structures on outside of cell) that help them swim Flagellates Have flagella that help them move Pseudopods (false feet) Part of the cell extends and pulls them along Others Some cannot move and must instead get nutrients from other organisms Parasites Importance of Protozoans Food source for organisms
Help build up sediment Symbiotic relationships Termites have protozoans in their gut that help them break down wood Dark Side of Protozoans Some protozoans can cause disease Typically, they have a very complicated life cycle Often have an intermediate host that they must infect before getting to humans Plasmodium malariae
Protozoans of the genus Plasmodium cause malaria Begins when a person is bitten by a mosquito carrying undeveloped Plasmodium protozoans In the human, they develop and begin reproducing in red blood cells When the offspring grow, they cause the RBC to burst, releasing them to reproduce in other RBCs Another mosquito bites the human and picks up red blood cells containing the offspring They then bite another human, transmitting the disease The cycle repeats Symptoms of malaria
Prognosis With treatment, recovery is possible However, it can kill hours after infection, before treatment is possible In 2013, there were nearly 200 million people infected with malaria Vomiting, fever, tiredness, severe headache 584,000 died https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qvlTOhCmxvY
African Trypanosomiasis (African sleeping sickness) Protozoan: Trypanosoma bruceli Intermediate Host: Tsetse fly Primary Host: Humans Symptoms: Itching and headaches at first. Months later, heart and kidney dysfunction, brain infection, disrupted sleep patterns, and brain damage. Fatal if not treated. Toxoplasmosis Protozoan: Toxoplasmosis gondii
Intermediate Host: Mice, birds Primary Host: Cats Unintended Host: Humans Symptoms: Most show no symptoms. However, brain inflammation and changes in behavior result. In mice, the protozoan results in the mouse becoming attracted to cat urine This results in the mouse being eaten by the cat Humans become affected by cleaning cats litter boxes Can be fatal in humans, but not commonly
Pregnant women risk passing it on to the fetus, and the fetus can become seriously infected. Crazy cat lady syndrome Fungus-Like Protists Protists that were once considered to be fungi Produce spores, similar to fungi, for reproduction All are consumers Most can move using pseudopods
Slime Molds Dog vomit mold or scrambled egg mold Protists that form delicate, web-like structures on their food source Mostly found on decaying logs or wood Can feed on any dead or decaying organism Decomposers or consumers Sometimes both Water Molds and Downy Mildews
Grow like mold on plants and animals Some are parasitic Water molds can kill fish Downy mildew can kill plants Most are decomposers Have cell walls closely resembling plants Produce spores like fungi Can have negative economic effects
Water mold can spread quickly and kill a lot of fish Downy mildew has, in the past, nearly wiped out crops Also caused the Irish Potato Famine Killed over 1 million people through starvation
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