Digital Steganography - Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Digital Steganography Jared Schmidt In This Presentation Digital Steganography Common Methods in Images Network Steganography Uses Steganalysis
oDetecting steganography OpenPuff Demo Conclusion / Questions Digital Steganography The art of hiding data in a file so that only the sender and intended recipient suspect the presence of hidden data o A form of security through obscurity
Very easy to accomplish Harder to detect and decrypt BMP, JPG, TXT, HTML/XML, PDF, PNG, GIF, AU, WAV, MP3, AVI, TIF, TGA, DLL, EXE LSB Method Most common form of digital steganography In a RGB image, Information is hidden in the LSB[s] of the RGB values of each pixel
oIn a 24-bit bitmap, each pixel represented by 3 bytes. 8 bits representing red value = 2^8 = 256 shades of RED 8 bits representing green value = 2^8 = 256 shades of GREEN 8 bits representing blue value = 2^8 = 256 shades of BLUE 16,777,216 possible colors Effectively have 3-4 bits of data to hide information in for every pixel o32bpp format contains an alpha channel 8 required for ASCII character
Color Perception Changing the LSB of the Red value by 1 (in 24-bit color depth) is undetectable by the human eye. Nokia 808 PureView: 41 megapixel camera phone. 41 megapixels / (3 pixels/byte)
= 13.66MB of data can be hidden in a single image. JPEG Steganography Most common image format oLossy compression Uses type-II DCT to achieve compression. oNeighboring pixels typically have similar color values. oInformation less important to human eye (sharp
transitions in brightness, color hue) is discarded Steganographic methods work by manipulating rounding in the DCT coefficient matrix of a JPEG file JPEG Encoding/Decoding Process Comparison of JPEG Compression A blocking effect occurs with higher
o In TCP/IP networks, unused bits in the IP and TCP header may be used Packet based length steganography o Manipulation of the MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) VoIP - Lost Audio Packets Steganographic Method (LACK) o Transmitter intentionally delays packets by an excessive amount of time. o Payload of these lost packets contains the secret information
Uses Individuals or organizations storing sensitive information in steganographic carriers. Layered encryption / decoy data Digital watermarking to verify intellectual ownership or authenticity Open Source Steganography Tools OpenPuff, S-Tools
Illegitimate Uses Terrorist Organizations oEasy form of covert communication oMay 16, 2012 Over 100 Al-Qaeda training manuals and detailed future plots discovered in a porn video found on an operatives flash drive. Stealing/transmitting confidential data or corporate plans Finding Steganography on the Web
Provos and Honeyman, researchers at the University of Michingan, conducted a scan of 2 million Ebay images and 1 million USENET images in 2001 and found no suspect images. UN report title Use of Internet for Terrorist Purposes oMembers of a Colombian guerilla group found communicating using steganographic spam emails Steganalysis Analyzing images for possible hidden data Many algorithms perform a statistical analysis to detect
anomalies in the cover object oE.g. repetitive patterns could indicate use of a steganography tool or hidden message Investigating pixel neighborhoods to find inconsistencies with ways files are compressed. Problems with Detecting Steganography Impractical to actively scan all internet content for
steganography Data is likely encrypted Data can be hidden in certain parts of image or scattered based on a random seed Messages can be hidden in chains of files oCan be hidden in several files using different techniques for each Time consuming
Cover and Stego Image Comparison Original Image (cover) Stego Image (with hidden data) Conclusion How digital steganography is achieved oImages, audio, video
oNetwork methods (manipulation of packets) Uses of Steganography oLegitimate / Illegitimate How it can be detected oChallenges with detection Questions?
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