Digital Accessibility & Assessments: Are we speaking the same ...
Accessibility & Accommodations in Computer-based Testing: Coming to (common) terms with the assistive technology and standards world Mark Hakkinen, PhD Accessibility, Standards & Assistive Technology Research Group Educational Testing Service Princeton, New Jersey Key Trends
Computer-based Testing needs to serve all Test Takers, including those with Disabilities Growing adoption of Accessibility Technical Standards to make this possible Accessibility is an End to End Process, from content design and authoring to delivery and support for test taker needs Terminology can be confusing Zoom
JAWS TTS Voice to Text 508 Lets bring some order to this by understanding... Accessibility Standards
Assistive Technologies And the role they play in delivering accessible Computer-based tests Accessibility Standards Assistive Technologies & Accommodations PNP
Read Aloud Refreshable Braille Kurzweil VoiceOver
APIP Tactiles Magnification Dragon Etc...
WCAG TTS Screen Reader ZoomText
ARIA Voice to Text Zoom JAWS 508
Braille NVDA Defining Accessibility Accessibility refers to the design of products, devices, services, or environments for people with
disabilities. Also known as Universal Design* or Design for All. Remove barriers to access. *Broader than UDL 7 a11y a11y
accessibility 11 characters between a and y Standards Standards are key to the successful implementation of accessibility For Content Authoring Content interchange Delivery
Compatibility with assistive technologies In Assessments The IMS Global Learning Consortium standards QTI and APIP provide for authoring and interchange of assessment items With the move to Web-based delivery of Computerbased Tests, additional standards come into play, especially for accessibility Accessibility Approaches
Assessment Alternate forms Custom built supports Limited support for assistive technologies Security concerns Learning curves resulting from custom interfaces and tools
Web Standard, universal approach to content Open Standards Assistive Technologies widely available and used Common and familiar
interfaces 12 WCAG Web Content Accessibility Guidelines Pronounced Wuh Cag WCAG is the standard for a11y Basis of Section 508 (both original and refresh) Basis of international a11y legislation
Basis of a growing number of state government a11y guidelines and requirements Basis for making conformance claims (WCAG 2.0 AA) You will see WCAG Conformance in RFPs WCAG Defined: POUR Four principles for Accessibility: Perceivable Operable
Understandable Robust Support for User Needs is Key WCAG aligns with Test Taker needs Content must be accessible and usable Support for and compatibility with Assistive Technologies Assistive Technology
Any item, piece of equipment, or system, used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities or functional limitations. Also called: AT 18 Assistive Technology is mainstream
Built-in to consumer products and services Available as add-ons Driven by standards Motivated by moral and legal reasons Growing expectation by users that technology should just work 19 Apple iOS A11y Features
Lets Identify Common AT Screen Reader For Test Takers with Visual Impairments Refreshable Braille Tactiles Zoom/Magnification For Test Takers with Visual Impairments Enlarge content so it is viewable by those with low vision
Color Contrast For Test Takers with Visual Impairments Change foreground/background colors Lets Identify Common AT Read Aloud For Language Learners and those with Learning Disabilities Software-based Text to Speech Synthesis (TTS) or pre-recorded
Read individual words or passages Synchronized Highlighting of Text as it is Spoken Keyboard Accessibility For those who cannot use a mouse, or require switch interfaces All controls and interactives controllable via keyboard only Built-In vs 3rd Party Assistive Technologies Built-in to the Operating System Platform
Mac/iOS VoiceOver, Magnification, Color Contrast, Speak (Read Aloud) Microsoft Narrator, Magnifier, Color Contrast ChromeOS ChromeVox, Zoom, Speak, Color Contrast Android Talkback, Zoom, Color Contrast Built-In vs 3rd Party Assistive Technologies Built-in to Computer-based Test Delivery Can include:
Read Aloud Zoom Color Contrast Keyboard Access Built-In vs 3rd Party Assistive Technologies 3rd Party AT Screen Readers JAWS, NVDA, WindowEyes
Zoom ZoomText, MAGiC Read Aloud Read & Write Gold, Kurzweil, etc Common confusions TTS is not a Screen Reader nor Read Aloud tool TTS is an underlying service used by AT Read Aloud does not support Visually Impaired users
Screen Readers are not for students who need text read aloud Zoom and Magnification can be built in or third party Refreshable Braille is not a stand-alone feature, it requires a screen reader JAWS is not the only screen reader Rapidly AT changing landscape WebAIM 2015 Screen Reader Survey
29 The Key to Serving Test Takers with Disabilities Understand the Assistive Technologies they use Dont Re-invent the Wheel when it comes to AT Understand the Standards needed to make Tests accessible, from authoring to delivery Understand and correctly use common terms so that we bridge the worlds of assessment and accessibility
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