Dia 1 - UNECE

Dia 1 - UNECE

Statistics Netherlands Container transport chains and codification of commodities Peter Smeets Senior statistical researcher Statistics Netherlands Working Party on Transport Trends and Economics Group of Experts on Hinterland Connections of Seaports Geneva, 28 October 2008 United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 1 Overview of the presentation Statistics Netherlands Users Needs Data sources A. Transport chains - Linking sources (problems en possibilities) - Examples B. Commodities - Free text - Coding system - Validation - Provisional results Future developments United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division

2 Disclaimer Statistics Netherlands All data are provisional and may not be quoted or published The content of this presentation represents the personal views of the author and need not necessarily coincide with those of Statistics Netherlands It is a pilot study and incorporation into regular program is to be decided on United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 3 Users needs Statistics Netherlands Key users of statistical data (freight transport) rank missing information: 1. Content of containers 2. Transport chains (hinterland connections) 3. Transit with transhipment This information is important for infrastructural planning Expanding activities/ marketing Modal shift programs

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 4 Data sources Statistics Netherlands Detailed information available from incoming maritime transport reported to CUSTOMS (Sagitta system, pre-arrival information) Container identification numbers Commodity description (free text field) Railway companies Container identification numbers Barge information and communication system (BICS) (edifact based system) Container identification numbers United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 5 A. Transport chains Statistics Netherlands

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 6 Pilot project part A Statistics Netherlands Intention to link incoming maritime container transport with: Inland waterways (BICS) Railways statistics linking based on: container number In order to model the MODAL SPLIT United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 7 A1. Railway statistics Statistics Netherlands Project steps Develop method to link information based on the container numbers (micro approach) Use micro data to develop a model for transport links (macro approach) Produce output: transit with transhipment tables Advise whether standard output on regular base is feasible.

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 8 Current status Statistics Netherlands First steps in linking micro data (maritimerailways) Problems with data quality: almost 50% of the container numbers misses the last digit (control digit). Customs data April 2007 linked to Railway data April and May 2007. Liking on container number and nearest date. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 9 Results (1) Statistics Netherlands 25% of the railway containers loaded in a maritime area could be linked to the maritime containers Problems with short distance traffic: Cycle is too short Empty containers: 98% intra EU-transport (UK, IE) First analyses concentrate on

DEEP-SEA full container loads (FCL) United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 10 Results (2) Statistics Netherlands Number of containers (FCL) trans shipped via NL (DEEP SEA-RAIL) by country of loading and country of unloading, April 2007 Country of unloading (RAIL) Top 10 country of loading (SEA) CH DE AT BE PL SK HU IT

CN 462 310 419 156 45 SG 198 69 55 217 6 KR 72 172 9 12

99 JP 31 283 26 6 MY 82 169 28 1 US 106 42 30 1 35

HK 77 18 52 11 4 IN 68 7 72 3 TW 59 9 19 1 ZA

20 3 52 1175 1082 762 Total FR 31 6 1467 4 5 2 4 560 135

19 1 519 4 8 354 280 21 6 21 5 241 3 1 31 197 total 38 195 1

7 8 401 NL 1 127 26 174 119 78 152 109 15 United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 1 4004 11 A2 Inland waterways (IWW) Statistics Netherlands

Electronic Data from Barge Information and Communication system (BICS) are used (April and May 2007) Data linked by container number Problem: IWW journeys can reported more than once: result double counting United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 12 Example: Inland waterways Statistics Netherlands The ship xxxxx sails on 23-4-2007 from Rotterdam (NL) to Duisburg (DE). It carries 114 containers. Of which 20 empty and 94 loaded. 79 of the loaded containers can be linked with maritime data (Customs data) by containernumber. 58 containers are 20 ft and 21 containers are 40 ft (or more)

Total number of TEU (Twenty feet Equivalent Units) : 58 + 21*2 = 100 TEU Some containers have more than 1 shipment (total 101 shipments) Total weight of the goods is 1437 tonnes 8 different ship brokers provided the information to the customs The containers were carried by 15 different sea vessels that called Rotterdam between 1 and 22 April 2007. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 13 Statistics Netherlands Number of containers in barge xxx by country of loading 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 China Oman Singapore Hong Kong Maleisia South

Korea Japan Sri Lanka United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 14 Statistics Netherlands Number of containers on barge xxxx via Rotterdam to Duisburg by place of loading 30 25 20 15 10 Singapore Salalah Port Kelang Colombo Busan (Ex Pusan) Kwangyang

Nagoya, aichi Hong Kong Yantian Xiamen Xingang Shanghai Ningbo 0 Chiwan 5 CNCWN CNNGB CNSHA CNXGG CNXM N CNYTN HKHKG JPNGO KRKAN KRPUS LKCM B MYPKG OMSLL SGSIN United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 15 Future work Statistics Netherlands

Further development of linking algorithms Eliminating false linking Analysing representativety of linked data Setting up a model tot estimate the modal split United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 16 B. Commodities Statistics Netherlands Most important user question in freight transport: What is inside the containers? United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 17 Facts: Statistics Netherlands Since the transit statistics have been stopped in the mid 90ties, there is no information about the content of containers that are entering or leaving the Netherlands. Trade statistics only describe import and

export and not transit with transhipment. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 18 Why now (1) Statistics Netherlands The container transport shows a yearly increase of 10% worldwide since 1995. 25-30% of the goods unloaded in Rotterdam is containerised Further growth is expected.: on 5 September 2008 a new terminal in Rotterdam is opened with a capacity of 2,3 mln containers (TEU) per year. Extension of the port of Rotterdam is started. Partly used for container terminals. Exploitation of the new railway line the Betuwelijn heavily leans on container transport United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 19 Why now

(2) Statistics Netherlands Modal choice of the hinterland transport depends partly on the type of commodity. Political choices can better be founded if there is more knowledge about the commodities in containers. (promotion of modal shift) United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 20 Statistics Netherlands What do we know about the content of containers? Nothing !! (or by coincidence) United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 21 Statistics Netherlands United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 22

Statistics Netherlands United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 23 Statistics Netherlands Beachcombing after an accident with Container ship Napoli, Jan 2007 40.000 bibles, printed in the Netherlands on its way to SouthAfrica United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 24 Statistics Netherlands United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 25 Why automatic coding of commodities ? Statistics Netherlands Data is or will be available in free-text format (electronically) ( CUSTOMS pre-arrival system Sagitta for maritime and in soon also for aviation )

Too much data to codify manually Knowledge of data processing workers can be stored in rules and conversion tables (from heads to tables) There fore: Pilot project to look for possibilities for automatic (automated) coding United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 26 Source : Customs Statistics Netherlands From the pre-arrival information of the Customs system SAGITTA the goods descriptions (free text format up to 255 chars) are selected. Indication: 1.000.000 different descriptions /year Numbers are growing because of

- increasing number of ship-brokers that make use of the system - also data of outgoing container flow will be available United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 27 Statistics Netherlands United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 28 Statistics Netherlands United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 29 Basic principles Statistics Netherlands Coding system general applicable (independent from production system and modality) Central processing Fine tuned with parameters Knowledge and rule based system. Growing and extendible system Not coding everything, but stop after a certain threshold Drawing a sample from remainder, codify it manually and gross up. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division

30 Basic principles Statistics Netherlands The aim is to codify automatically 60-75% of the goods automatically (representing 80-90 of the weight) Automatic coded 60-75% Maximum Error: 1% Remainder Drawing a sample from remainder, codify it and gross up United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 31 Method automatic coding Statistics Netherlands Decision rules - Using specific general available information (UN/HS) Algorithms - Full text search

- Elimination of irrelevant information Databases - Knowledge tables - Coding table (from description to code) - List of non relevant words - Signature strings United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 32 Specific information : Signature strings Statistics Netherlands Free text field sometimes contains widely used information : - Dangerous goods codes (UN-number) - Harmonised system (HS-code) Traceable codes using. SIGNATURE STRINGS, followed by a specific code Dangerous goods: U.N.NO.: UN# UNNR UN NUMBER: etc. Harmonised System (customs) HS CODE HS. NO. H.S.CODE NO.

CUSTOMS COMMODITY CODE NO. etc. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 33 Dangerous goods Description Reference (NL) Statistics Netherlands NSTR UNNR (S.T.C.2 PALLETS) P-CHLOROPHENOL (UN#2020 CLASS:6.1 PACKING GROUP:III) Chloorfenolen, vast 8190 2020 (HEXAMETHYLDISILAZANE) *IMO 3 UNNR 2924* Vloeistof, brandbaar, bijtend, n.e.g.

8190 2924 (4,480 BAGS) RESORCINOL (1.3DIHYDROXYBENZENE) SCE PO NO.4500000838 INV NO.ERP7568 "SEAWAY BILL" IMO CLASS:6.1 UN NO.:2876 PACKING GROUP:III LABEL:TOXIC(N) FLASH POINT : 164C TOXICITY : 980 MG (LD/TLV) EMERGENCY CONTACT Resorcinol 8190 2876 United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 34 Harmonised system (HS/CN) Statistics Netherlands Description NSTR HS/CN (PALLETS) STEEL BOLTS WITH NUTS HS CODE 73181600 C Y TO CY FREIGHT PREPAID

9490 73181600 "MOON STAR" BRAND TITANIUM DIOXIDE NO.500R (20 PALLETS) H.S.CODE:282300 8190 282300 HI-LINE BEDFRAME SPF KD, HT, PET AS PER COMMERCIAL INVOICE GA0015 DATED OCT. 2/06 : HS COMMODITY CODE 4407.10.31CLEARING AGENT: THE MAERSK CO. LTD MAERSK HOUSE, CLAN WILLIMTERRACE GRAND CANAL QUAY, DUBLIN 2 IRELANDCAED01A998VC198920061000768 SC NO: 92 0560 44071031 United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 35 Relevant words: specific popularcommodities Statistics Netherlands PRIO string1 string2

Replace with 1 FROZEN CHICKEN 1 FROZEN ORANGE PULP 1 FROZEN SALMON 1 FROZEN BEEF 1 GARMENTS 1 I.Q.F. STRAWBERRIES

1 PATE DE CACAO 1 POTATO STARCH 1 SEED POTATO 1 WHEAT STARCH 1 FR PORK FROZEN PORK 2 POTATOES

2 SOY BEANS SOYABEANS 2 ORANGES 2 PLYWOOD 9 MAKITA 9 NISSAN 9 VOLVO FROZEN STRAWBERRIES MURANO United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division

36 Specific descriptions Statistics Netherlands Commodity description normalised reference (NL) NSTR - 16 CTNS = 319 PCS OF LADIES JACKET PO.06.06.846 STYLE.63510 MATERIAL 100% NYLON TASLAN WP/WR - 117 CTNS = 2,406 PCS OF LADIES JACKET PO.06.06.847 STYLE.69650 MATERIAL 100% NYLON TASLAN TD MC - 49 CTNS = 950 PCS OF LADIES JACKET PO.06.06.861 STYLE.612 GARMENTS Kleding 9630 "DAIKIN" AIR CONDITIONER ------------------------ ***OOSTENDE TERMINAL 431 PACKAGES (417 CARTONS & 1 PALLE T & 13 CRATES) AIR CONDITIONERS Airconditioning

installatie 9390 84145990 1610 CARTONS ZIMBABWEAN ORANGES ON PALLETS ORANGES Sinaasappelen 0311 08051080 "YOKOHAMA" BRAND TIRES . K8502 200 PCS. K8636 600 PCS. K8565 200 PCS.. SC.NO TYO36000 . INTENDED MOTHER VESSEL:MAERSK SHEERNESS 0604 . (*) SWITZERLAND DOOR . TYRES Banden 9710 40122090 ORANGES - VALENCIA . ORANGES Sinaasappelen

0311 08051080 - DETAILS AS PER ATTACHED SHEET - BUTADIENE RUBBER Rubber, synthetische butadieen- 0920 40022000 ** FAX:31-104130029ATTN:MR.M.METHORST (INNER PKG: 2880 BL BALES) *SYNTHETIC RUBBER *(SOLUTION-POLYMERIZED STYRENE*BUTADIENE RUBBER) United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division HS/CN 37 Normalisation and codification Statistics Netherlands ..

Deleting of irrelevant words and elements Linking normalised description with codification table (most important table of the system) normalised Reference (NL) NSTR CN/HS UNNR ADR NST 2007 ACETIC ACID Azijnzuur 8190 08.2 ACRYLONITRILE Acrylonitril

8190 29261000 ADIPINSAURE Zuren, adipine- 8190 29171210 08.2 BARIUM TITANATE Titanaten van onedele metalen 8190 28419090 08.1 CASHEW NUT KERNELS Cashewnoten zonder dop 0359

08013200 01.4 CHRISTMAS PRODUCTS Versieringsartikele n voor kerstmis 9790 95051090 13.2 1093 United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 30 08.2 38 Results automatic coding Statistics Netherlands Share of automatic coded and not coded commodities (April 2007) 100,0% 90,0%

80,0% 70,0% 60,0% not coded 50,0% Coded 40,0% 30,0% 20,0% 10,0% 0,0% Number of codes W eight United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 39 Method applied on other months (1) Statistics Netherlands Percentage of automatic coded goods descriptions in containers Jan-Dec 2007 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50%

Not coded 40% Coded 30% 20% 10% 0% United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 40 Method applied on other months (2) Statistics Netherlands Percentage of automatic coded weight of containerised goods jan-dec 2007 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% Not coded 50% 40% Coded

30% 20% 10% 0% United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 41 Remaining (not coded) Sample of 10% from the not coded goods (about 3300 elements) Statistics Netherlands Automatic coded 60-75% Manually coding Imputation using the random hot deck method Remainder United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 42 Results Statistics Netherlands Goods in containers by chapter NSTR, April 2007

tonnes (x 1000) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 7 Fertilisers 3 Petroleum products 2 Solid mineral fuels 4 Ores and metal waste unknown 6 Crude and manuf.minerals, building materials 5 Metals products 8 Chemicals 0 Agriculture products and livestock 1 Foodstuffs and animal feeds 9 Other goods and manufactures United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 43

Average weight of 20 and 40 ft containers based on number of containers per chapter NSTR Statistics Netherlands 14,7 Average weight of 40 ft containers (tonnes) 30 Foodstuffs and animal feeds Agriculture products and livestock Fertilisers Ores and metal waste Chemicals Metals products Petroleum products Solid mineral fuels 15 Other goods and manufactures unknown Crude and

manuf.minerals, building materials 0 0 15 30 Average weight of 20 ft containers (tonnes) 15,9 United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 44 Degree of containerisation, 1992 - April 2007, unloaded goods by chapter NSTR 10,0 0,0% % 20,0 % 30,0 % 40,0 % 50,0

% 60,0 % 70,0 % Statistics Netherlands Agriculture products and livestock Foodstuffs and animal feeds Solid mineral fuels Petroleum products Ores and metal waste apr-07 Unloaded 1992 Metals products Crude and manuf.minerals, building materials Fertilisers Chemicals Other goods and manufactures United Nations Economic

Commission for Europe - Transport Division 45 Statistics Netherlands % Container transport by sea Transit statistics 1992 and april 2007 compared 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Unloaded in NL (1992) Unloaded in NL : source customs (April 2007) United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 46

84 03 05 14 97 93 91 99 61 96 ZZ 09 94 95 12 89 13 53 16 18 81 56 63 69 51 TOP 25 commodity groups (NST/R) (based on number of containers). Relative share per container size class, April 2007 Statistics Netherlands Pig iron/crude steel;ferro-all. Other manuf. building materials Other stone earths and minerals Non-ferrous metals Basic chemicals Oil seeds, oleaginous fruit, fat Other non-perishable foodst;hops Bars, sections etc., railway tr. Stimulants and spices Other chemical products Beverages Glass, -ware, ceramic products 20 ft Manufactures of material 40 ft Other Other raw animal & veget. mat. Uncodeble Leather, textiles and clothing Sand, gravel, clay and slag Miscellaneous articles T ransport equipment Other machin. etc, parts thereof Other manufactured articles Perishable foodstuffs

Wood and cork Fruit and vegetables, fresh Paper pulp and waste paper 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% % United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 90% 100% 47 Statistics Netherlands Top 10 NST/R Commodity groups, share of containertypes

97 Other manufactured articles 93 Other machin. etc, parts thereof 03 Fruit and vegetables, fresh 96 Leather, textiles and clothing 89 Other chemical products 91 Transport equipment 14 Perishable foodstuffs 94 Manufactures of material 81

Basic chemicals 16 0% Other non-perishable foodst;hops 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division Standard (G) Refrigerated (R+H) Automobile(S1) or

named cargo container (SN) Tank (T) OTHER 48 Future developments Statistics Netherlands 1. Decide on options: Closing pilot and have data for just one month (April 2007) Extending to one year and repeat it in 3 or 4 years Incorporation in production process of maritime statistics 2. Cost benefit analysis of the options 3. Coding tables must be extended more This is very time consuming (expensive). 4. Improving sampling method

5. Enrichment of existing uni-modal statistics with commodity details (NSTR/NST2007) (Maritime, IWW, Rail) United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 49 Statistics Netherlands Thank you for your attention Questions or remarks? Peter Smeets Statistics Netherlands Division of Business Statistics Statistical Analysis Department Unit Traffic and Transport P.O. Box 4481 6401 CZ Heerlen, The Netherlands Phone +31 45 570 6432 E-mail: [email protected] United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Transport Division 50

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