Design of Beams,Columns and Footings - WordPress.com
Design of Structural Systems CIE-600 A PRESENTION ON THE DESIGN OF AN OFFICE BUILDING By Kalpesh P. Presentation Outline General information about the building Design of Slabs Design of Beams, columns and Foundation Design of shear and retaining walls Design of Stair case Green Engineering and Aesthetics Aspect Material (concrete) Usage Estimation References General Information Building An office building Located in Syracuse A three-story of 58 ft high building Has three buildings separated by an expansion joint Two freight, Two passenger elevators Two stair cases Retaining wall Height of 10 ft Materials used Concrete -6000psi and Steel-60000psi ACI and International building codes adopted Top View 10 Shear Walls
2 s Views of the building Staircase 2 Freight elevators 2 Passenger elevators Parapet 1 Staircase 16 16 Flat Pla te Flat Sla b 26 Slab w ith 25 25 25 25 25 25 Slab on g 25 25 25 25 25 25 beams round 25 25 25 25
2. Slabs Design Flat plate Flat Slab Slab with interior beam Slab on Ground Location of Design Slabs 25 25 25 25 16 16 Flat Pla te Flat Sla b 26 Slab w ith 25 25 25 25 Slab on g 25 25 25 25 beams round 25
25 25 25 Top View The use of expansion joint Expansion Joint The use of expansion joint Source by Design Handbook: section 4 http://www.copper.org/homepage.html Design Procedure Using Two-way slabs, Direct Design Method (ACI Code) Find a load combination Find a slab thickness Obtain a static moment (M ) o Distribution of a static moment Percentage of design moment resisted by column strip Find A , and Select steel for reinforcement s Shear check Panel Assignment Strip Design W B W C 25 ft 7
9 8 25 ft 25 ft Combination Loads U = 1.2(D + F + T) + 1.6(L + H) + 0.5(Lr or S or R) Dead load (D) Topping load (T) = Live load (LL) Finishing load (F) Rain load (R) Snow load (S) Roof live load(Lr) = 150 psf x thickness of slab 20 psf = 50 psf = 20 psf = 62.5 psf = 46.2 psf = 12.0 psf Design Numerical Values Types of Slab Flat Plate Flat Slab Slab with Beams Slab Thickness 9 8
MT middle top 4 MT1 middle top 4 Spacing (in), Length and type L= 15.4ft c/c 15 in L= 10.6 ft c/c 15 in L= 9.5 ft c/c 13 in L= 7.2 ft c/c 13 in L= 15.4 ft c/c 16in L=10.6 ft c/c 16in L= 15.4 ft c/c 14in L=10.6 ft c/c 14in L= 9.5 ft c/c 12in L= 7.2 ft c/c 12 in L= 15.4 ft c/c 15in L=10.6 ft c/c 15in L= 25ft c/c 12 in L= 25ft c/c 21 in L= 26.5ft c/c 21 in L= 25ft c/c 11.5 in L= 25ft c/c 20 in L= 26.5ft c/c 20 in L= 25.5ft c/c 24 in L= 17ft c/c 24 in L= 12 ft c/c 12in L= 7.5 ft c/c 12 in MTC is the same as MT but with bar #5 c/c 13.5 in CTCY is the same as CT1Y but with bar #4 c/c 12 in CTC is the same as CTY but with bar # 5 c/c 10 in CBC1Y is the same as CB1Y but with bar # 5 c/c 16 in
4 MT1 middle top 4 Spacing (in), Length and type L= 17ft c/c 13 in L= 11 ft c/c 13 in L= 9.1 ft c/c 12 in L= 6 ft c/c 12 in L= 17 ft c/c 14in L=11 ft c/c 14in L= 17 ft c/c 12in L=11 ft c/c 12in L= 9.1 ft c/c 10 in L= 6 ft c/c 10 in L= 17 ft c/c 13in L=11 ft c/c 13in L= 25ft c/c 11 in L= 25ft c/c 19 in L= 26.5ft c/c 19 in L= 25ft c/c 10 in L= 25ft c/c 17 in L= 26.5ft c/c 17 in L= 25ft c/c 27 in L= 22ft c/c 27 in L= 12 ft c/c 12.in L= 6.5 ft c/c 12.5 in MTC is the same as MT but with bar #5 c/c 13.5 in CBC1Y is the same as CB1Y but with bar # 5 c/c 16 in CTC is the same as CTY but with bar # 5 c/c 10 in MB1 is the same as MB but with bar #4 c/c 24 in CTCY is the same as CT1Y but with bar #4 c/c 12 in Flat Slab #5 [email protected] 10 , L = 9.1 #5 [email protected] 10 , L = 6 #4 [email protected] 12.5, L = 6.5 #5 [email protected] 12 , L = 9.1 #5 [email protected] 14 , L = 17 #5 [email protected] 13 , L = 17
Rebar # 3 @ 10 on center in two directions Placing rebar at 2 lower the top of the slab Design of Beams,Columns and Footings Beams Edge beams Interior Beams Columns Column at a corner Exterior Columns Interior columns Footing Footing under a corner column Footing under an edge column Footing under an interior column Common footing Graphical Representations Beam Design Loading on beams: Depends on their location in a floor and along a story The loads may include Loads from Slabs Self weight of beams Weight of walls or attachments that directly lie or attached on the beams Parapet Walls Curtain walls Partition walls
Load Transfer to beams Load transfer from slabs Load transfer from curtain walls slabs Summary of Loading on Edge Beams Floor level Flat plate Flat slab Floor with beams Grade beams Factored Design loads Due to parapet wall Udl- k/ft 0.09 0 0 0 Due to self Due to glass weight of beam curtain walls stem/web Udl k/ft Udl- k/ft 0.11 0.125 0.141 0.072 0.144 0.189 Weight from
slabs ( triangular) w (k/ft) 0.251 0.117 0 2.82 2.79 2.61 Loaded Edge frame for analysis of Edge Beam actions SAP 2000 is used for analysis Loaded frame for analysis of Interior Beam actions Loading diagram (axis 1B-2B-3B-4B-5B) for the purpose of calculating additional moments due to self weight of beam Loading diagram (axis 1B2B-3B-4B-5B) for the purpose of calculating shear in internal beams due to loads from slab Design Actions and sections Longitudinal Reinforcement(ed ge beams) Bending ( two types of sections need to be considered) Beams @level
A1 suppor t Flat plate 66.75 Flat Slab 90.53 Slab 74.42 w/beams Ground 18.21 Shear Reinforcment Vertical shear Torsional shear ( for the case of edge beams) A1-A2 A2 span suppor t 76.01 118.74 65.43 110.00 68.6 111.71 Moments (kips-ft) A2A3 A3-A4 A3 suppor span span t 59.64 103.49 59.64 60.2 105.26 60.2 57.58 100.73 57.88 A4 suppor t 118.74 110 111.71 A4A5 span
76.01 65.43 68.6 A5 suppor t 66.75 90.53 74.42 9.77 9.45 19.5 9.77 18.21 19.5 19.29 9.45 Procedures of Beam Design Check depth for moment and shear capacity Calculate reinforcements Longitudinal reinforcement ( for moment and torsion if applicable) Shear reinforcements for ( vertical shear and torsion if applicable) The max torsion in the beams was found to be smaller than the torsion capacity requirement for the x-section for torsion to be neglected The shear reinforcement was found to be governed by the max spacing as per ACI requirement i.e. for #3 double leg stirrups @ 6.75 in on centerto-center
Reinforcement summary for edge beams for frame shown earlier Longitudinal Reinforcement bw(in)= 12 Beam (bw=12 in; d=14.5in) d(in)= 13.5 A1 Support Moment A2 -66.18 Span Moment A3 -119.6 -103 76.56 Req'd reinf.(in2), supp 2.1528 Min. reinf 59.8 1.854 1.2939 A5 -119.6 59.8 1.1912 Req'd reinf.(in2), span A4
1.293864 1.19124 Bar # used 7 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 7 area of bar 0.6 0.6 0.79 0.6 0.79 0.6 0.79 0.6 0.6 #bars req'd 1.9854
2.1564 2.7250633 1.68437 2.346835 1.684367 2.725063 2.15644 1.9854 Reinf Provide bars used 2#7 2#7+1#6 3#8 2#7 2#8 + 1 #6 2#7 2#8 +1#7 2#7+1#6 2#7 Note: Similar tabular calculations are made for all beams INTERIOR BEAMS Column Design Loads Moments and axial forces from frame analyis Self-weight of columns Frame is braced
Check slenderness of the column Calculated magnified moments Design for Reinforcement is made using STAAD.etc , using the ACI code Column Attachments Third story corner column First story interior column Third story edge column Column loadings & Reinforcements [email protected] level Column type Design actions P (kips) Mx(k-ft) My(k-ft) Magnified actions Mx(k-ft) My(k-ft) Reinforcement required CORNER COLUMN [email protected] level
Column type Analysis actions P (kips) Mx(k-ft) Third st. short 41.1 66.75 66.75 66.75 66.75 8#8 bars Second st. short 84.44 49.75 49.75 49.75 49.75 4#8 bars First st slender 127.67 24.26
24.26 24.26 24.26 4#8 bars foundation short 141.39 4.88 4.88 4.88 4.88 4#8 bars My(k-ft) Magnified actions Mx(k-ft) My(k-ft) Reinforcement required Third st. short 81.04 0 114.89 7.43
114.89 6#8 bars Second st. short 163.65 4.12 56.87 13.9 56.87 4#8 bars First st slender 244.14 2.35 28.48 28.66 28.66 4#8 bars 255 .48 0 21.65 21.65 4#8 bars
Foundation short [email protected] level Column type Design actions P (kips) Mx(k-ft) EDGE COLUMN My(k-ft) Magnified actions Mx(k-ft) My(k-ft) Reinforcement required INTERIOR COLUMN Third stor. short 144.67 0 0 13.1 13.1 4#8 bars Second st.
short 287.93 0 0 27.68 27.68 4#8 bars first slender 425.2 0 0 75.17 75.17 8#8 427.5 0 0 44 44 8#8 bars foundation short Column Reinforcement
Corner Column Edge Column Interior Column ad in L g o fr a o m di C n ol g u m n Footing Loading &Design Bearing pressure distribution Critical Sections Loading Critical section for two way shear Critical section for one way shear Critical section for bending FootingReinforcement Retaining wall
Purpose Behavior of wall Components Design Sequence Drainage System Reinforcement Detailing Purpose Retaining structures hold back soil or other loose material where an abrupt change in ground elevation occurs. Behavior of Retaining wall Wall T at rear face & C at front face. Heel - T at upper face & C at bottom face. Toe - T at bottom face & C at upper face. Shear Key provides to resistance to sliding. Design Sequence Loads: Due to surcharge - 0.363 kip/ft2 ( Acting Downward) Active earth pressure 2.4kip/ft2(Acting Horizontally) Determined the dimensions of retaining wall. Checked length of heel & toe for stability against sliding & overturning. F.O.S against overturning =3.92>2 F.O.S against sliding = 2>1.5
#[email protected] #[email protected] Toe #[email protected] #[email protected] #[email protected] #[email protected] Footing Detailing Drainage System Purpose To release the hydrostatic pressure. Provided perforated 8 diameter pipe laid along the base of the wall &surrounded by gravels(stone filter) Shear wall Introduction Specification of Elevator Design Consideration Shear wall slab & footing Reinforcement detailing Introduction To resist lateral forces due to wind To provide additional strength during earthquake Shear walls often are placed in Elevator or Staircase areas Elevator Specification
No. of person Rated capacity(kg ) Rated speed(m/ s) Car internal Passenger Elevator 15 1000 1.5 5.9x4.92 Freight Elevator - 1200 1.5 7.22x7.4 Ceiling height 7.3 Design Consideration Calculated wind load which is 26psf by using ACI code( P s = I Ps30)
Vu< VVn Calculated maximum shear strength permitted by VV n = V 10 fc hfc hwd Calculated shear Strength provided by concrete is Vc = 3.3 fc hfc hwd + Nu d/4 lw Vu<
Loads & moments calculated at the base of footing Calculated factored Soil pressure = Factored load/Area Desiged footing as a strip Integrated 3 beams Machine room Slab detailing Shear wall Footing Footing& Shear wall connection Design Staircase Shear Wall Footing for shear wall Design Steps Staircase is designed as cantilever Stairs Load Calculated using Total Load= (L.L+ Floor to Floor Finish + Self Weight of Waist Slab + Weight of Step) Moment was calculated and tension is on the top Steel Area = Ast =Mu/ Fy (d-0.5a) Shrinkage and Temperature reinforcement is calculated using Area of Shrinkage = 0.0018 x b x d Development Length Check was made by using formula Reinforcement Description Bar size designation
Location & Spacing Main reinforcement #7 @ 4.5 In the Tension zone in Tread of tread Main reinforcement #4 @ 4.5 In Midlanding Span in Midlanding Shrinkage Cracking #3 @ 7 In Tread & Waist slab and temperature in both direction reinforcement Shrinkage Cracking and temperature reinforcement is provided to minimize the cracking and tie the Structure together and achieve Structural integrity Development Length is provided because to develop the required stress in bar Shear Wall SHEAR WALL IS A STRUCTURAL ELEMENT USED TO RESIST LATERAL/HORIZONTAL/SHEAR FORCES PARALLEL TO THE PLANE OF THE WALL Design Steps Calculation of wind load which is 26psf by using ACI code P s = I Ps30 Vu< Vn Calculating maximum shear strength permitted by V n = 10 fc hfc hwd Calculating shear Strength provided by Vc = 3.3 fc hfc hwd + Nu d/4 lw
water and materials Helps in Minimizing Environment aspect like generation of pollution at the source risk to human health and the environment What Aspect we have considered in Green Engineering & what function does it play? Materials Function Application Glazing Curtain Wall System Weather protection & Insulation Glass on all exterior surface Roof Garden Plantation & Aesthetics On Roof Sewage Treatment Plant To Generate Methane Drainage Treatment as an energy of Building Paints Environmental Friendly All interior portion Lighting
Less Energy Consumption Both Interior & Exterior Water Proofing Water proof structure For Concrete & Masonry Glazing Curtain wall system Function & Control Airtight and weather resistant Air leakage control Rain Penetration Control by Pressure plate Heat Loss by Cap connection Condensation Control Fire Safety Fixing System & Components Basically consist of component like Mullions vertical Frame & rails horizontal mullions Vision Glass, insulation Hardware components Anchors, Aluminum connector, Settings blocks, Corner blocks, Pressure plates, caps, gaskets Glass Size Specification Roof Garden Function Environmental Friendly Fixing System Modules with Plantation Slip Sheet /Root Barrier
Water Proof roof deck http://www.liveroof.com/ Load Consideration Load due to Modular system live roof plantation in the roof is taken consideration in slab design as 20 Psf Sewage Treatment Plant Advantage It generates Methane which can be used as a Source of Energy. We can use the piping to send to appropriate location It is an Custom make and modular in size Maintenance and Operation cost is economical It maintains the BOD & COD level of Water is obtained Schematic Representation of STP Other Green Engineering Component Paint Using low voltaic organic components paint is beneficial. Lighting Using T5 Lamps, low mercury lamps helps in reduction in energy consumption Waterproofing Aquafin-IC is used a penetrating, inorganic, cementitious material used to permanently waterproof Concrete Estimation Components Quantity in (ft3) Slabs 75000 Beams 6973 Columns 5488 Staircase
1750 Shear Wall with Staircase 5667 Shear Wall with Elevator(2) 11861.54 Footing for Shear Wall with Staircase 1200 Footing for Shear Wall with Elevator (2) 2434.86 Footing Under Column Retaining wall Total 7232 15688.52 133294.9 cft Thank You
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