Design of a Solar sign monitoring system - New Paltz

Design of a Solar sign monitoring system - New Paltz

DESIGN OF A SOLAR SIGN ANALYSIS SYSTEM By: Joshua Trow and Kevin Eiser Sponsored by FALA Technologies Table of Contents

Introduction Hardware Core Power Supply Storage Firmware

Software Analysis Introduction Sign is already on the market Users ask for more information Trouble shooting information

Overview Base product (sign) already exists Module records sign output data Voltage, current, temperature

Low power Self contained Single external cable for serial transfer Not piggybacked off of solar power Design Requirements Wide Temperature Range -40C to 85C

Shock Protection 3 ft drop onto concrete Long battery life 90+ days without user interaction

Small Size Less than 6 cube Price Less than $125 in bulk Design Approach

Hardware Incoming data is 1200/9600 Baud RS-232 Need to save data for over 90 days Firmware Low power major factor

Software Error check Make pleasing and informative graphs Designer Backgrounds SUNY New Paltz classes Digital System Design

Embedded Systems Microprocessor Systems All based on 68HC12/HCS12 Assembly Too low level for a project of this size

Alternative: Atmel 8-bit RISC microprocessors Atmel 8-Bit RISC Family Simple to program C/Wiring hybrid C provides basic layout, core processing Wiring provides simplicity/readability

Convenient demo/practice board Arduino Open Source Very active user base Many user contributed libraries Low power shutdown modes Arduino Software

Simple but powerful Toolbar compile/upload Built in serial monitor Similar to Hyperterminal Compiler shows

current file and maximum size Arduino Hardware Clean layout All usable pins brought to edges Easily replaceable core chip Can work as chip holder for

programming if necessary Hardware Flowchart System Design Arduino/ATMega core 1.8-5.5V safe operating range

SD card Mass storage Around 1MB/day 2.7-3.6V safe operating range MAX232 family chip

Serial level conversions 3.3 5V safe power supply range Power Supply Design MAX651 DC/DC switching power supply Up to 95% efficient at loads up to 2.5A 3.3V output with input up to 16V

Support components Current sense resistor Inductor Diode P-Channel MOSFET Filtering Capacitors Electronic Schematic

Power Supply Circuitry Power Supply Layout Alpha System Test Alpha System Alpha System Power Consumption,

Ideal Active modes ATMega328P 2.13 mA MAX3232E 1 mA SD specified to 250 mA Idle modes

ATMega328P - .4 mA MAX3232E 1 mA (no low power mode) SD 1 mA? ((.5+1+2)/1000)*24*180 = 15.12 Ah Beta/New Paltz Prototype

Actual Power Requirements Active Mode With 3.3V regulator (LM7833), 5V source 9.6 mA average source current Regulator datasheet specifies 4.5 mA bias 9.6 - 4.5 = 5.4 mA Figuring 6 mA (6/1000)*24*180 = 25.92 Ah

A 26 Ah battery will last 180 days at current power levels, WITHOUT power regulator Seems unrealistic to assume use this way DC/DC switching power supply DC/DC Switching Power Supply

Uses the MAX651 SOIC-8 chip Takes input voltage up to 16V, provides 3.3V at output Operates at up to 95% efficient In our operating conditions, closer to 75% Still much better than the 50% for the linear regulator

Complex and restrictive layout (5.4mA/.75/1000)*24*180=31.04 Ah 31.04Ah*3.3V=102Wh/12V=8.6Ah 8.6Ah, 12V battery is reasonable Firmware Reliably receive and store data Four Parts

Avr/sleep.h Gives the option to call a function to enter the device to sleep mode, simplifies setup Fat16.h File structures SdCard.h Interface to card EEPROM.h

Allows access to EEPROM Firmware Flowchart Software Design

User Friendly Show how the sign is working Check sign for errors Show potential power savings Track Sunrise and Sunset times Calculate Power Saved Show how battery is used Software Design

Check to ensure sign is working LEDs on or off at right times Battery charges Duty Cycle Check to ensure sign is saving power Battery low = lower duty cycle

Software Design Must be self contained Easy to use

Show graphical analysis Software Design Initially used JAVA Background from Computer Science I and II at SUNY New Paltz

Switched to MatLab Background from Computer Simulation Lab Stand-alone Issues Economical Switched back to JAVA Alpha Software

JAVA Arrays Array vs. ArrayList Memory Space Input Log from Data Logger Output

Tab separated File to be imported by Excel Use of Excel Excel Pros Easy to graph Easy to Navigate Cons

Import overwrote entire file Could not maintain Excel Code Beta Software MATLAB Ease of programming Less code Simple GUIs Powerful Graphing

Stand-alone issues Built-in Library pack that must be installed 257 MB Full compiler cost $8000 Beta Software All for demonstration purposes

Getting familiar with work environment Learning what needs to be researched Beta Software GUI Beta Software Output

First Java Graphing Software Hand coded Current Graphing Software JFreeChart (jfree.org/jfreechart)

Source Code Development Eclipse IDE (Eclipse.org) GUI Development NetBeans (Netbeans.org)

GUI Example Design Constraints Economic Manufacturability Social, Political, and Environmental

Sustainability Standards RS-232

TTL SPI SOIC PDIP SD Conclusion

Real project real experience Dont reinvent the wheel Communication is critical Special Thanks to: FALA Technologies Luke Buschmann Michel Rigaud

Dr. Baback Izadi Questions?

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