Derby - Geographical Association

Derby - Geographical Association

Peter S. Fox. The Geographical Association April MMXIII This PowerPoint is NOT intended to be used as a presentation but has been used to create a set of Fieldwork information notes. There are 82 pages. The order of these notes is not the order in which the Fieldwork was completed but is divided into different sections for different parts of the City. The Fieldwork considers just the City Centre and misses Friar Gate the location of the Pickford House Museum and the Handiside Bridge. Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII

Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII The Railway Quarter Siddalls Lane to the Westfield Shopping Centre London Road [A519] St Peters Quarter St Peters Street Babington Lane

Corn market Market Place Assembly Rooms, Guild Hall, Market Hall, The Quad. Market Place Full Street Derwent Street Exeter Bridge River footpath Under St. Alkmunds Way [A6] St Marys Bridge Chapel view Chester Green -Queens Street Iron Gate - Cathedral The Cathedral Quarter St. Marys Gate Bold Lane Saddler Gate Market Place Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII

Aim: To show you some of the things you might like to explore in Derby and to tell you something about the city you are in and to encourage you to ask questions to work things out for yourself. The walk itself takes about an hour and is between two and a half and three miles long is circular. I will point out eating and drinking places on route. Where things are Derby is quite a small safe city which is very difficult to get lost in and easy to explore! Look out for the River Derwent east and the Westfield Shopping Centre south; St Marys Church north; Library and Museum west. Pride Park is to the east of the city. The University is to the north west of the city about four and a half miles but buses are frequent. Safety: Your safety is your responsibility try to keep up. We will have information and

question stops on route and end up in the Market Square. If you wish to stop off and drop off that is fine! There are a few steps but these can be avoided. Toilets are at The Spot, Westfield and Eagle Centres and in bus station The centre of Derby is traffic free. Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII

Wish you were in California, New Zealand, Botany Bay or Dunkirk and not Derby well these are all places in Derby! City Status 7th June 1977 Had an M.P. from 11th century One of the first two Labour seats in the country Richard Bell M.P. donated money for the first library. Cultural Centre for the Deaf Community. Has National Sikh Centre Key firms: Rolls Royce, Toyota, Bombardier, Hero TSC Sky, Alstrom, Tomb Raider, Royal Crown Derby Pride Park is a 180 acre site to the east of the river Money from the Governments City Challenge launched October 1992 was used to develop the old Chaddesden railway sidings site still being developed. Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII

1801 11,000 1821 17,500 1841 33,000 1861 43,000 1881 58,000

1886 - 81,000 1901 69,000 1931 142,000 1974 217,930 2011 - 245,000 Made a city in 1977 Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Manufacturing Construction Services 19% + 5% 76% -

Hotels 20% Transport 4% Finance 19% Administration 29% + Tourism 6% + / - Compared with the average for Britain Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII

One of the Danish Five boroughs Nottingham, Lincoln, Leicester, Stamford were the others Where the lowland meet the Midland Plain The Gateway to the Peak River Crossing for Ryknield Street St. Davids in Wales to the river Tyne mouth across St Marys Bridge A crossing of ways Routes to the south, east and west unobstructed by hills Route to the north facilitated by the valley of the River Derwent Within easy reach of a number of important rocks and minerals coal, iron, lead, gypsum, clay, wood. Third richest county in Medieval times. A variety of agricultural land suitable for grazing cattle and sheep and

arable especially wheat. Was made a Royal Borough since before 1066 privileges monopoly in dyeing cloth, merchant guild, freedom of serfs and the luxury of expelling the Jews from the town! Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII The River Derwent [Derventio Roman] now a World Heritage Site flows from Swines Greave on the eastern side of Bleaklow 6 miles from Glossop 590m above sea level south to the River Trent to Derwent Mouth, near Shardlow on the Grand Union Canal 30m above sea level and a distance of 66 miles or 106 km The River flows through Matlock and divides Derbyshire into two but provides an easy route into the county. Now followed by Railway and Road Route

A6 Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII First came on their way to subdue the Brigantes Developed a settlement called Dervento on the banks of the River Derwent called Little Chester by the Saxons from 941-1867 this was in St. Alkmunds and all Saints Ward of the city. Rynkeld Street ran through this settlement The Romans were probably auxiliaries from France and guarded the routes from the north The Romans used the resources found in Derbyshire especially minerals - lead

Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII The Saxons avoided the old Roman settlement and built their settlement around where the Cathedral now stands. The Wardwick was farmed by the Saxons Waldas wick or Waldas farm Many of the local village and now names in suburbia are of Saxon origin: Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII The Anglo Saxon name for Derby was Northweorthig

north land or portion of the land. The Danish name for Derby was Dyrby, Deoraby, Dyreby Deor an animal, wild beast or deer by Scandinavian for abode, habitation for animals. Dwr Celtic for water Derwentby the town by the Derwent side Called Doribi on King Ethelwufs 837-857 coin and Deorabui on King Athelstane 924 -940 coin Shire = Saxon Share of land Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Spondon Shingle hill Sinfin Broad Fen Quarndon Quern place

Allestree Ethelheards tree Chaddesden Land belonging to Ceadd in a valley [den] Alvaston belonged to Alwald Mackworth where Macca lived Breadsall Where Braegd lived Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII

The Saxons were displaced by the Normans much of the land in Derby was given to William Ferrers or retained by the king. They needed a defensive site so expanded the settlement to Normanton on raised land The Danes expanded into the present Market Place and developed Iron Gate and Saddler Gate [Gate means street in Danish] At this time [AD 864] the town became a Royal Danish Borough larger and richer than Nottingham with a population of about 1,200 with 243 burgesses or citizens The settlement was recaptured by the Saxon Aethelflaeda in August AD 917 Peter S. Fox for The Geographical

Association April MMXIII Derby was a firm Saxon town and therefore lost out after the conquest, the town shrank [one third of its houses lost] and the population halved. This was part of The harrying of the north Richard de Curzon took over Kedleston Earl Ferrers built a castle at Duffield [just north of Derby ]said to rival the Tower of London in size it no longer is there. Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII

Only Medieval Church [Norman] in Derby but much restored and rebuilt 1851-3 extended 1898 The St. Peters Free School was built behind the church foundation was in 1160 by Walter Durdant, Bishop of Coventry. John Flamstead - who was Astronomer Royal was educated there. It was thought by the illiterate that Flamstead could foretell events and a poor laundress requested that he might use his art to find her missing property. With much mystery he draw circles and squares and then told her she would find her laundry in a nearby ditch she went to look

and found her missing laundry. Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Not born in Derby but lived there. He moved to live in Denby, north of Derby to avoid the plague for a time. His father was a maltster who never left the town during

his life. Born 1646 he was educated at the Free school in St Peters school behind the church Celebrated astronomer and mathematician. First Astronomer Royal and gave us innumerable observations of the sun, moon, and planets, which he made very large instruments. He equipped the Observatory in Greenwich He was described as an honest and sincere man. His friends were Newton and Cassini Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Anthony Babington 1561-1586 He became a partisan of Mary Queen of Scots who was imprisoned at Tutbury Castle near Burton upon Trent. She rested in Derby in 1585.

He was an active agent for her and the Jesuits. In 1586 Walsingham discovered his conspiracy to murder Elizabeth I and used it to bring about his downfall of Mary. Babington was executed and his considerable Derbyshire properties confiscated. Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Business was suspended for a battle of strength, agility and endurance between the Parishes of All Saints and St. Peters. And what stern resolve and persistent effort, and reckless daring were exhibited by the football champions, who, ignoring bruised shins and broken heads, sometimes swam along the

Derwent, or penetrated the slimy drains in their anxiety to obtain victory. There is a story that the balls were hung with blue ribbons on one of the pinnacles of St. Peters Church. Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII and The Plague Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Four of the six churches named in the Domesday book still survive: All Saints, St. Werburghs, St Peters and St Michaels. Most grouped together as in the Danish

tradition of a church quarter. All Saints and St Alkmunds pre-date Domesday. St Alkmunds was destroyed with the construction of the ring-road. Religious Houses: St Helens 1137; St James 1140; Blackfriars 1239 Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII

St Marys Chapel only one of the few surviving in Britain. It was designed for travellers to pray for the safe return from their journeys. St Ethelfleda is said to have built the first bridge in gratitude for a victory at Derby. The bridge was a wooden one and was replaced in stone, money raised through a pontage or bridge rate 10 pigs paid 1d. Ethelfleda was daughter of King Alfred and the Princess leader of the Mercian's she fought a desperate battle near the bridge and sent the Danes take to the castle eventually fly! It was a wooden toll bridge at one time run by a local hermit[s] - he had a dispute with Robert Allen and William Thurkell who refused to pay the toll and assaulted him they were fined

Two recusants people who would not attend the established church in the time of Queen Elizabeth Robert Ludham and Nicholas Garlick who were found hiding in a chimney were hung drawn and quartered and their bodies hung over the bridge in 1588 but were rescued by two Roman Catholic gentlemen. In the year of the Amada the Derwent Flooded and washed away the bridge In the Napoleonic Wars French prisoners maintained the bridge poor gentlemen in goldlaced coats and frilled shirts pushed wheelbarrows for 6d a day. St Marys bridge was only one way and was soon replaced only the pier on the Chapel side is original. The main route from the east Nottingham was improved by the building of Exeter Bridge by the Corporation. Reconstructed 1788 - 1793 Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Dedicated to the Virgin Mary and built in the time of Middle Ages as a place for travellers to rest and pray. A bridge hermit lived there are depended upon

offerings from travellers There were eight monasteries in Derby St Helens was dedicated in 1137 Daley Abbey was built in the 12th century The Dominican Friars or Blackfriars built a friary on Friar Gate 1239 - Nuns Green 1332 Station 18761877 closed 1964 Beeching Axe. St. James - 1140 Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII 1536 the towns monasteries were dissolved 1st August 1556 Joan Waste the 21 year old blind daughter of a Derby baker was burnt at the stake for preaching to prisoners in the local gaol. 25th July 1588 Richard Sympson, Robert Ludlam and

Nicholas Garlick were hung drawn and quartered because of their Catholic faith and their bodies hung over St. Marys bridge Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Opened in 1839 as a Roman Catholic Church Said to be one of Pugins finest buildings and one of his largest Parish Churches 1854 Built on a site not far from St. Alkmunds shrine son of Alcred King of Northumbria which was destroyed when the inner ring road was built. The road to St. Helens House formed the town ditch 1233-1248 Most of the area was demolished for the Inner Ring

Road 1965 - 1967 Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Called St Helens Monastery was founded in 1137 occupied by Monks of the order of St. Augustine and later became Derby School.

William Strutt bought St. Helens house and fitted it up as a Infirmary it was hot air heated with a steam engine to do the laundry and installed gas light. In 1872 new rooms were added which were opened by the Prince and Princess of Wales. The day school had 3,000 pupils in the 1950s Famous students included the Hobson's E. W. and J. A. who was an economist Palladian Mid 18th century Ionic Portico Was used as a centre for Further Education and now is to become the corporate headquarters for a firm of accountants. Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII

John Whitehurst a Congleton born mechanical genius and an instrument worker wrote a book on The State of the Earth and was elected Fellow of the Royal Society. He produced both the All Saints and the Guildhall Clocks. Iron Gate 1100 Core of the Saxon burh the street of Smiths street of iron workers from 1483 Woolley Inns and shopkeepers Widened in 1866-9 and 1869 71 East side demolished. Liversage after Robert Liversage set up charity 16th century. Peter S. Fox for The Geographical

Association April MMXIII Fine iron working was one of the key skills to be found in Derby q.v. Bakewell Screen and machinery for the Lombe silk Mill it is not surprising that Derby developed as a specialist centre for the making of large mainly public clocks. Whitehurst: One of the most famous of English clock makers Smiths: Still in business Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII

All Saints once had a steeple but this was pulled down and a tower raised by public subscription Robert Liversage a wealth Derby Dyer subscribed; money was also raised through Church Ales or bazaars. The tower took twenty five years to build local builders William Barrow and George Bowden. It is the tallest in the country except for Boston Stump. Hutton the historian saw a dog fall from the top and was surprised how long it took to fall to the ground and be killed. It is evidence of the wealth of the town and the importance of Wool fulling and malting

Originally it had no pews. All Saints is Derby Cathedral 16th century tower 174 ft high second highest in England completed in 1530 a reflection of the importance of the town. The architect James Gibbs the Architect of St. Martin-in-the Fields inside was paid 25 to redesign the Cathedral. The first organ was one from a local Music Hall. The first clock was made by Whitehurst. Made a Cathedral in 1927 Robert Bakewell local smith died 1752 wrought iron screen and the tomb of Bess of Hardwick, Elizabeth of Shrewsbury John Smythson 1607 architect of Wollaton Hall, Nottingham Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII

1732 on a rope attached to the tower and St. Michaels Church a man slid down the rope with his arms and legs extended blowing a trumpet and firing a pistol. The transit took eight seconds! 1734 another his coat in dishabille, no waistcoat, his shoes and shirt worse for wear, his hat not worth three pence and black string holding up his trousers. The rope this time extended to the bottom of St Marys Gate. He was to draw a wheelbarrow after him in which sat a boy of thirteen. After this an donkey was to fly down, armed with a breastplate and on each foot a lump of lead. The man arrived safely; the rope broke at the height of the Crown court - the donkey fell on top of the crowd at the bottom the a donkey was unhurt but not the crowd that it fell upon no one died! Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII

The Bell, Old County Offices, The Court House, the Judges Lodgings Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII St Marys Gate 1660 rainwater heads 1659 Judges lodgings 1811 Bold Lane after Bolt Lane crossbow bolt first named in 1570. Bold also might be from Building Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII

In 1651 George Fox, founder of the Society of Friends marched into a Derby church and interrupted a sermon. He was arrested and sentenced to twelve months imprisonment but not before be bade the magistrate, Gervase Bennett to tremble at the word of the Lord Bennett called him a Quaker and the name struck! Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII George Fox came to Derby and interrupted a church service and denounced the vicar he was arrested and came before Justice Bennett.

George Fox founder of the Society of Friends, said of him: Justice Bennett of Derby was the first that called us Quakers because I bid him tremble at the word of the Lord and this was in 1650. Justice Bennett on the other hand said that it was because of their trembling accents Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Wardwick 1876 R. Knill Freeman Gothic Style, Franco-Flemish tower Bell M.P. sponsored it! Contains the remains of Exeter House and has a fine museum and art gallery Museum 1963 T.W. East

Wardwick is the earliest Derby name 1085 Wardwick Street named after an early Saxon Princess AD 699 Saxon Market Site? Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII St Werburghs is dedicated to the granddaughter of the great Mercian King Pendra and built about AD700. The present building except for the tower [1601] dates from 1699 restored 1894. Dr. Samuel Johnson was married there to Elizabeth Tetty Porter in 1735. The Strand 1880 John Somes Story covers the course of the Markeaton Brook inspired by The Strand in London Architect Giles and Brookhouse.

Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII The Bell in Sadler Gate [recorded 1248/1261] was a famous coaching inn where horses were changed. As the coach rushed through the gates into the court yard ostlers rushed out to hold the horses. The coachman, wrapped in two large overcoats, one on the top of another and wearing a wide brimmed hat, a coloured handkerchief around his neck, put his whip away and got down from his box.

Passengers going further would dine in the coffee room. The yard was full of passengers, idlers sightseers, ostlers, coachmen and as busy as a railway platform before a train departs. A wagon from Derby to London took five days; a Stage Coach 3 days at a cost of 1/8/- with 14 Lbs of luggage children half price if on the lap. A stage was 14 miles. Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Assembly Rooms, Guild Hall and Indoor Victorian Market Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII

In the centre of the town roads radiated from the Market Place in all directions did not exist prior to 1100 Described by Defoe as A town of gentry rather than trade It was the site not only for the Market but also the Guild Hall there have been four the first a small two storey timber framed building housed the gaol, Town Council Room, Borough Court and Assizes. The present Guild Hall was built 1828 and remodelled in 1842 by Duesbury after a fire. Two reliefs by John Bell Science and Industry.

A stone market cross was located in the Market Place which at one time became broken and was called the broken cross. Thomas Bott sold his wife with a halter around her waist for 18 pence in the Market Place. War Memorial - 1924 11th November Fountain Walter Pye 1991 Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Burgess could elect their own Chief officer After living in Derby for a year and a day no man could be made a slave except in the Kings service Monopoly of cloth dyeing within a ten mile radius Markets could be held twice weekly and no man except the King could seize goods to repay a debt. The Burgesses could impose tolls on boats crossing the

Derwent Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII In the 17th century the Corporation was a closed shop and councillors were for life 1817 June England's last Revolution The Pentrich Rebellion resulted in Jeremiah Bradreth, Isaac Ludham and William Turner being hung and decapitated the Ghosts of St Werburghs 1832 Reform Riots 1835 Election of the town council put in the hands of the ratepayers

Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII West side Bank of Samuel Smith now National Westminster in Italian Palazzo style 1877-9 Iron Gate Number 43 Lloyds early 18 th century Dolphin Inn 16th century gable 1580 date The original Assembly Room was on the east side and was gutted by fire the faade was retained and now stands in the Crich Tramway Museum The inner ring road was opened in 1967 and St. Alkmunds was lost for ever. Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII

The Plague visited the town many times but was particularly severe in 1665. Hutton says: The town was forsaken; farmers declined the Market Place and grass grew. To prevent famine the inhabitants erected at the top of Nuns Green [Friar Gate] what was given the name of the Headless Cross Hither the market people, having their mouths primed with tobacco as a preservative, brought their provisions, stood at a distance form their property. The buyer was not allowed to touch any of the purchases before it was bought but when the agreement was finished he took the goods and deposited the money in a vessel filled with vinegar set for the purpose.

Hutton says that the plague never visited the premises of a tobacconist, a tanner or a shoemaker. Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Civic Centre 1971 - 6 Casson Cander and Partners site of assembly rooms gutted by fire in 1963 The old assembly room was opened in 1714 and was well known for its balls, card parties it was so select that traders and other citizens never saw beyond its threshold. The Exchange Corn Exchange 1861-1862

Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII 18 63 - 1864 Thornburn 220 ft by 110 ft , Fish market 60 feet. The roof is formed from wrought iron semi-ribs spanning 106 ft with 22 columns placed 12 feet from the side walls Could hold 6,000 standing A marvel at the time of its construction Liverpool and Birkenhead Markets are larger. Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII

The first Derby Newspaper was The Derby Postman 1717 1d A Gainsborough printer by the name of Mozley moved to Derby presses and workforce by boat. One of his apprentices was William Bemrose. Bemrose were one of the biggest security printers in Britain until they were taken over Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Exeter House, Exeter Bridge, The Council House Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII

The fist bridge built here was a wooden one linking Mayor Binghams Exeter House with his gardens n the other side. The present bridge, this is the second on the site was designed by the Charles Aslin the Council Architect and opened by Herbert Morrison 13 March 1931. Length 50m, width 15m, height 10 m little used since the building of the ring road. Tested with traction engines. Commemorative Plaques to: John Lombe Silk Mill, William Hutton Bookseller and Historian, Herbert Spencer- Scientist Principles of Biology 1864 Survival of the fittest

and Erasmus Darwin Physician and poet grandfather of Charles Darwin Radical thinker and American Revolutionist linked with the abolition of the Slave Trade member of the Lunar Society lived in Litchfield. Derwent Street was not named until 1826 the design for the first bridge was by Richard Trubshaw Samuel Harper supervised the construction ,he was Derbys first surveyor. Also Exeter House on Full Street - now demolished. This is where the Council of War was held on 6th December before Prince Charles rode on his black horse through the Market Place to Ashbourne and home. Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Built 1938 1941 Architect C. A. Aslin The Borough Architect Renovated 2013 Long Bridge crossed the River Derwent in use by

1795 unsafe 1950 demolished 1959 to take the tow path of the derby Canal across the river. Cockpit Hill from cope old Norse Kaup bargain market near old market. Mortedge Anglo-Saxon maere stream boundary Markeaton Brook. Also William Merlage held it in the 1472 also means low dirty street Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Thomas Hutton Williams Grandfather - flaxdresser in Derby never resided out of St. Alkmunds Parish, nor 100 yards from the church Never did he travel more than 12 miles from his home in the whole of his life.

William Hutton was a Historian and bookseller William worked at the silk mill which it is said had machines worked by children treading a wheel. Hutton began at the age of seven and served for seven years. Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII 4th December 1745 two soldiers rode to the George Inn and demanded billets for 9,000 [7,000] men they were the vanguard of the rebel army marching towards London. This number was slightly less than the total population of the town! Lord George Murray lodged in the Market Place, The young Pretender lodged in the mansion of Lord Exeter

in Full Street he was 25 years old. They were described as no better than a herd of Hottentots or wild monkeys Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Ship Money: Three towns in Derbyshire had to provide a ship of 350 tons wages for a crew of 140 with food and ammunition Sir John Gell was tasked with raising the money. 1642 Charles I marched through Derby after raising his Standard in Nottingham but shortly after Sir John Gell set up his Parliamentary HQ in Derby Derby supplied 860 men Derbyshire 15,000 At the end of the war in the Commonwealth the Derby

force was sent to Ireland Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Exeter House on Full Street - this was Derbys largest domestic house. This is where the Council of War was held on 6th December 1745 before Prince Charles rode on his black horse

through the Market Place to Ashbourne and home only to be defeated at the battle of Culloden in 1746. Charles Edward Stuart was hosted by the mother of his food taster Samuel Ward. He presented her with a fine diamond ring in recognition of here hospitality. 17th Century brick mansion named after the Earls of Exeter demolished in 1854. Replaced by the Charles Aslin Magistrates Court 1935 now disused but to become the new Derby Records Office. Death of the 8th Earl of Exeter sold 1757 to John Bingham the Mayor of Derby 1773, bought by Jedediah Strutt died 1797. Then occupied by the Mayor of Derby Edward Mousley. Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII

1745 December 4th Prince Charlie the New Pretender wearing tartan and a green gold bonnet over a white wig rode into the Market Place bagpipes being played. He stayed at Exeter House. His secretary Murray is said to have gone into a local Inn and asked for accommodation for 7,000 or was it 9,000? He borrowed 3,00 from the local land tax office. Some of his men were described as feends out of hell and cut throats. Left the town on 6th December 1745 for Scotland via

Ashbourne Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Thomas Cotchett brought stocking frames from Holland and a local millwright George Sorocold erected them on the north end of Derwent Island. They had 1,340 spindles and 8,410 bobbins and were operated by a 13 foot water wheel. John Lombe was an apprentice in Cotchett Mill. He discovered that Italian Machines were better than Dutch.

He went to Italy worked in an Italian Mill memorised the workings of the mill and the machinery returned in 1717 and got local workmen to build new machines and took over Cotchetts Mill Full Street Anglo Saxon ful meant foul 1599 first named on a map. Woolley says it was one of the most fashionable addresses in Derby. Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Was a millwright and engineer [c1690] was involved in the building of the Silk Mill. Showing friends around he fell into the mill race but was pulled out unhurt. Without Sorocolds skill it is doubtful whether the silk mill would have worked. Machines 1702 for Thomas Crothett replaced in 17171718 by Thomas and John Lombes Mill

Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Thomas Cotchett a Barrister and an old man brought four Dutch Silk machines [1,340 spindles and 8,410 bobbins] to Derby. He used George Sorocold to build the water wheel [13.5 feet in diameter] John Lombe was an apprentice at the mill and had heard that Italian

Machines were better than Dutch. He went to Italy to work in an Italian Silk Mill and memorised the machines and how they worked. He got back in 1717 and with money lent by his half brother Thomas took over Cotchetts Mill. With Sorocold help he replicated the machines he had seen in Italy. John died in 1729 when he was only 29, some say he was poisoned by a woman the Italians had employed. Thomas took over the mill he was later knighted. In 1828 1,000 people worked there. 1910 fire William Hutton worked there at the age of eight. Three processes Winding, throwing and doubling. Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII

A new 5 floored mill was built upon oak piles with a tall bell tower to call people to work. There were several processes Silk throwing, Winding, twisting and doubling. In 1828 1,000 hands were employed. The mill had 26 machines,102 large windows on each floor and 12,600 spindles. The factory was operated by a 23 ft water wheel. A Fire-engine was employed to keep the silk dry and in condition.

The silk was brought by river from Spain, Italy and China John Lombe died in 1729 at the age of 29! Some say he was poisoned by an Italian servant. His brother carried on. Ravaged by fire in 1910 Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII It has been argued that the Derby Silk Mill was the first real factory in Britain because: Production was power driven by machinery one water wheel was converted into 97,000 actions A bell was used to call people to work they worked for fixed hours it employed 200 people The timing of production was by machine and not workers Mass out-put Corbett noted that 73,726 yards of silk were made every turn of the water wheel.

Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Born on a farm in South Normanton Invented a frame which would knit ribbed stockings called the Derby Ribbed Frame Went into partnership with Richard Arkwright in 1771 built a water driven cotton mill at Cromford. Strutt went into partnership but built his own calico factory in Derby. This was built as a fire-proofed factory copied from the construction of the Palais Royale in Paris. Strutt Park the first.!

Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Jedediah Strutt was born in South Normanton in 1726. In 1740 he became wheelwright apprentice at Findern. In 1754 he inherited a small stock of animals and married Elizabeth Woolatt in 1755. Moved to Blackwell where he had inherited a farm from his

uncle. He started a business caring coal from Denby Mine to Belper and Derby. Strutts brother-in-law William Woolatt employee - a Mr. Roper of Locko developed the idea of an attachment to the stocking frame for making ribbed stockings. Strutt sold a horse for 5 and bought the idea off Roper Patent 1759. Strutt and Need joined Arkwright in building a Cotton Mill at Cromford which used a water frame. Note also William Strutt and Belper Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII The Locomotive Works, The Railway Station and Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII

River Derwent dredged and deepened in 1721 access to the North Sea Derby Canal to the River Trent and to Nottingham, Liverpool, London London about 169 miles by waterway 130 by rail. Railways developed: Three Railway Companies converged on Derby: The Midland Counties, Birmingham Derby and the North Midland. These

amalgamated and on 10 May 1844 became The Midland Railway. The Midland Railway did not have a London terminus so used Euston but after a link up with the Great Northern on 1st February 1858 used Kings Cross. St. Pancras opened for use on 1st October 1868. Note: Chaddesden Sidings now redeveloped as Pride Park. Variety of uses Football, Education, Offices, Retail Park still being developed.66 The Handiside bridge on Friar Gate Andrew Handiside - iron founders 1878 for the Great Northern Railway. Pickfords House [Pickford for a local Georgian Architect] also there. Development of the M1, A52 , A38 , A50 and inner ring roads Derby has excellent transport links. Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII The quarter once employed 8,000 and ranged over 20 acres 1894

The Railway works were noted for standardisation. They used the Whitworth and John Fernie system. The Roundhouse - 1860 could hold 16 locomotives at once. Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII The Midland Hotel was designed for first class passengers only. The hunting and shooting 1840 Late Georgian in style one of the earliest surviving railway hotels. Designed by Railway Thompson Francis Thompson architect to the North Midland railway. The Brunswick was designed for the shunting and hooting The Railway Institute as The Reading Society 1850 later

the Midland Institute opened in 1892 Dinner 2/2 Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII The Brunswick Queen Victoria was from the House of Brunswick it was named after her. The area was constructed by the North Midland Railway Company to house their workers. 92 houses all very over crowded many housing 12 people. Railway Terrace 2/- a week rent. The Brunswick Railway and Commercial Inn opened in 1842 Breakfast 1/6 Peter S. Fox for The Geographical

Association April MMXIII Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Joseph Wright 3rd September 1734 29th August 1797 Born in Iron Gate first painter to express the spirit of the Industrial Revolution

used contract in light and dark called chiaroscuro Italian for light and dark. Studied in London 1751 under Thomas Hudson who he later worked with. 1753 in derby painting portraits of the wealthy. Went to Liverpool 1768-1771. Married Hannah [Ann] Swift 28th July 1773 visited Italy 1775 where he witness the eruption of Mount Vesuvius 6 children only three of whom survived infancy. Worked in Bath as a Portrait painter. 1781 Elected member of the Royal Academy Close friends with Josiah Wedgewood, Richard Arkwright, Erasmus Darwin member of the Lunar Society. Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Experiment with the Bird and the Air pump 1768 Dovedale in Moonlight The alchemist in search of the Philosopher's Stone

1771 The Philosopher's Lecturing on the Orrery 1762 The Eruption of Mount Vesuvius Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII Samuel Smiths Bank Dolphin Inn 1583 East Midlands Electricity Sub station 1963-9 Peter Coake Saint Helens House Palladian 18th century Portico Severn Stars Inn 1680

Jury Street Arms of William III Bold Lane Theatre converted malt house 1773 Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII One of the first in the country on the Osmaston Road 15 acres. Given to the city by Joseph Strutt and laid out by the celebrated Loudon. A value at the time of 10,000 At first was not free to the masses except on Sundays - six pence charged on week days. The trees are planted on embankments Opened 16th September 1840 Included a Crystal Palace for growing tender plants and for exhibitions and Canon captured during the

Crimean War Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII John Heath a local banker and Alderman and Mayor of Derby 1750

decided to exploit the fashion for the use of china. He had no clue about how to make it so hired two Frenchmen who knew the technique and poached William Duesbury from the Chelsea Factory in London where he was designer as manager and chief designer. The factory was soon employing 200. The first china had a blue border. Dr. Johnson said that it was cheaper to buy vessels of silver than Derby China. William Billingsley and John Keys became important flower painters of Crown Derby John Heaths Bank failed but William Duesbury carried on. The factory has been taken over several times since latterly by Royal Dolton but is now back in private hands- has fine museum and very expensive shop walk able Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII

Rolls Royce 1906 on Osmaston Road they came from Manchester to make cars. Rolls Royce shopped around for a new site comparing land prices, water supply, railway facilities and the cost of electricity and selected Derby. Merlin engines for spitfires and the RB 211 jet engine was developed at Derby. 1960s crisis development costs of the new jet engine. Now in addition marine engines and nuclear power plants for submarines are produced in Derby. The maintenance business is now worth almost as much as the engine production business. The cars are not now made at Derby. Just before World War Two Rolls Employed 7,000 in Derby. Rolls Royce has several locations in Derby. Most of its

facilities are new. Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII This was built as another indoor market between 19691971 on a 12 acre site . Named after Eagle street 1791 Architects Elsom, Pack? and Roberts It gives access now to the Westfield Centre Originally the stalls were hexagonal as an ideal tessellation but shoppers continually got lost or couldn't

find the stall they were looking for so it reverted to a grid iron pattern It is little used now and there are few stalls. It gives access to The Derby Playhouse owned by the University of Derby Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII 45 civilian deaths 4,000 houses damaged 1942 July Rolls Royce attacked 22 killed and 40 injured Peter S. Fox for The Geographical Association April MMXIII

The Geographical Association IV MMXIII

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