Day 2: Evaluating Performance: Schoolwide Assessment of ...

Day 2: Evaluating Performance: Schoolwide Assessment of ...

Institute on Beginning Reading Day 2: Evaluating Performance: Schoolwide Assessment of Student Performance Content Development Content developed by: Roland H. Good, Ph. D. College of Education University of Oregon Beth Harn, Ph. D. College of Education University of Oregon Edward J. Kameenui, Ph. D. Deborah C. Simmons, Ph. D. Professor, College of Education Professor, College of Education University of Oregon University of Oregon Michael D. Coyne, Ph. D. University of Connecticut Prepared by: Patrick Kennedy-Paine University of Oregon Katie Tate

University of Oregon Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 2 Acknowledgments Oregon Department of Education U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs Bethel School District, Eugene, Oregon Dr. Drew Braun, Dr. Carl Cole, Lori Smith, Rhonda Wolter, Administrators, Staff, and Students Dr. Sharon Vaughn, University of Texas at Austin, Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne

2003 3 Permissions Some video clips are used with the permission of Reading Rockets, a project of Greater Washington Educational Telecommunications Association (WETA). More information is available at: http://www.ReadingRockets.org/ Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 4 Copyright All materials are copy written and should not be reproduced or used without expressed permission of Dr. Edward J. Kameenui or Dr. Deborah C. Simmons. Selected slides were reproduced from

other sources and original references cited. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 5 Objectives: What You Will Learn and Do The objectives of todays session are to: 1. Differentiate purposes of assessment. 2. Delineate how the DIBELS assessment system differs from traditional assessment systems. 3. Use DIBELS to evaluate outcomes at the school, grade, class and student level. 4. Administer and score DIBELS. 5. Interpret DIBELS results. 6. Develop a plan to use DIBELS quarterly with all students. 7. Evaluate the current assessment system in your school. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 6 Guiding Questions 1. 2. Todays Focus

3. 4. 5. 6. Goals: What outcomes do we want for our students in our state, district, and schools? Knowledge: What do we know and what guidance can we gain from scientifically based reading research? Progress Monitoring Assessment: How are we doing? What is our current level of performance as a school? As a grade? As a class? As an individual student? Outcome Assessment: How far do we need to go to reach our goals and outcomes? Core Instruction: What are the critical components that need to be in place to reach our goals? Differentiated Instruction: What more do we need to do and what instructional adjustments need to be made? Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 7 IBR Foundational Features: Translating Research into Practice : e d i

w l o o h ll Sc A & Each Prev Orie ention nted Res Foc ults use d y l l a ic f i t n Scie ed

Bas Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 8 Building an Effective Reading Program for All Students: Essential Components For Each Student Assessment Goals Efficient Informative at the School Class Individual Level For All Students Instruction Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 9

Start-Up Activity: Reviewing Day 1 Answer the following questions based on what you learned in Day 1. 1. By implementing scientifically-based instructional practices within a prevention model, we will enable more students to be ________ . 2. The goal of schoolwide reading model is to: a) Help schools build capacity and sustained use of scientifically based practices specifically tailored to their school b) Maximize the number of students being readers by the end of grade 3 c) Prevent individual children from experiencing reading frustration improving instruction for all d) All of the above

Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 10 Start-Up Activity: Reviewing Day 1 Answer the following questions based on what you learned in Day 1. 3. What is the primary assessment system we will use to evaluate our schools progress in meeting the early literacy and reading needs of all children? _______________ 4. One way of achieving our goals is to systematically pace our instruction of the big ideas. We can determine when to introduce and how to sequence key instructional objectives by using: a) Lock-step following of the curricular program without linkage to student learning b) Curriculum maps

c) Our instincts Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 11 Objectives: What You Will Learn and Do The objectives of todays session are to: 1. Differentiate purposes of assessment. 2. Delineate how the DIBELS assessment system differs from traditional assessment systems. 3. Use DIBELS to evaluate outcomes at the school, grade, class and student level. 4. Administer and score DIBELS. 5. Interpret DIBELS results. 6. Develop a plan to use DIBELS quarterly with all students. 7. Evaluate the current assessment system in your school. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 12 Reading Assessment for Different Purposes An effective, comprehensive reading program includes reading assessments for four purposes:

Outcome - Provides a bottom-line evaluation of the effectiveness of the reading program in relation to established performance levels. Screening - Designed as a first step in identifying children who may be at high risk for delayed development or academic failure and in need of further diagnosis of their need for special services or additional reading instruction. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 13 Reading Assessment for Different Purposes An effective, comprehensive reading program includes reading assessments for four purposes: Diagnosis - Helps teachers plan instruction by providing in-depth information about students skills and instructional needs. Progress Monitoring - Determines through frequent measurement if students are making adequate progress or need more intervention to achieve gradelevel reading outcomes. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 14 Role of Assessment

Role of Assessment: Video of Dr. Edward QuickTime and aYUV420 codec decompressorare ne Kameenui Purpose of Timely Assessment Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 15 Role of Assessment Role of Assessment: Video of Dr. Edward Kameenui Purpose of Timely Assessment: Assessing the quality of our investment _____________________________________ How well do we want the lowest reader in each grade to read? 1st Grade: 40 wpm minimum, 60 wpm desirable

2nd Grade: 90 wpm 3rd Grade: 110 wpm What is the significance of reading this well? Good indicator of comprehension _______________________________ Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 16 Outcome Assessment Purpose: To determine level of proficiency in relation to norm or criterion. When: Typically administered at end of year. Can be administered pre/post to assess overall growth.

Who: All students Relation to instruction: Provides index of overall efficacy but limited timely instructional information. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 17 Screening Assessment Purpose: To determine children who are likely to require additional instructional support (predictive validity). When: Early in the academic year or when new students enter school. Who: All students

Relation to instruction: Most valuable when used to identify children who may need further assessment or additional instructional support. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 18 Diagnostic Assessment Purpose: To provide specific information on skills and strategy needs of individual students. When: Following screening or at points during the year when students are not making adequate progress. Who: Selected students as indicated by screening or progress monitoring measures or teacher judgment. Relation to Instruction: Provided specific

information on target skills; highly relevant. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 19 Progress Monitoring Assessment Purpose: Frequent, timely measures to determine whether students are learning enough of critical skills. When: At minimum 3 times per year at critical decision making points. Who: All students Relation to Instruction: Indicates students who require additional assessment and intervention. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 20

Objectives: What You Will Learn and Do The objectives of todays session are to: 1. Differentiate purposes of assessment. 2. Delineate how the DIBELS assessment system differs from traditional assessment systems. 3. Use DIBELS to evaluate outcomes at the school, grade, class and student level. 4. Administer and score DIBELS. 5. Interpret DIBELS results. 6. Develop a plan to use DIBELS quarterly with all students. 7. Evaluate the current assessment system in your school. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 21 Purposes of Assessment in the Schoolwide Model Teaching without assessment is like driving a car without headlights. Assessment for all children must: 1. Focus on essential, important skills 2. Be instructionally relevant 3. Be efficient to administer 4. Be sensitive to change in skill performance 5. Measure fluency of performance

DIBELS provide the feedback to ensure our program is meeting the needs of all children Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 22 Essential Features of DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills) Preventing Reading Difficulties Through Early Identification Dynamic Responsive to Changes in Student Performance Identifies students who need additional support Evaluates student response to intervention Indicators Focused on an Essential Skill Enables assessment to be efficient Basic Early Literacy Skills Relevant to Instructional Planning Links essential literacy skills to prevent reading failure Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne

2003 23 Relation of DIBELS to Purposes of Assessment Utility of DIBELS Purpose of Assessment Utility Screening Yes Progress Monitoring Yes Diagnostic Possibly with expert teachers Outcome Selected measures

Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 24 The Need for Results-Focused Assessment Instructional Time is Precious: Need to spend time teaching, not testing DIBELS measures do not assess all aspects of reading Short duration fluency-based measures Some Skills are More Important Than Others: Assesses skills predictive of later reading proficiency Provides timely feedback to schools and teachers to enable responsive instruction Allows early identification of students who need instructional support Assesses whether children are learning enough Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 25 Acknowledgments University of Oregon Research Team that

Developed the DIBELS Measures: Primary Researchers: Roland Good Ruth Kaminski Contributing Researchers: Scott Baker Cheri Cornachione Hank Fien Lisa Habedank Stewart Rachell Katz Debby Laimon Karen Rush Michelle Shinn Joshua Wallin John Bratten Patricia Coyne Kathleen Fleming Beth Harn Jennie Knutson Elida Lopez Dawn Sheldon-Johnson Sylvia Smith Jennifer Watson Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 Shaheen Chowdri Shanna Davis

Jerry Gruba Diane Hill Katherine Kohler Ambre ReMillard Mark Shinn David VanLoo 26 Acknowledgments DIBELS research was supported and funded by: Early Research Institute on Measuring Growth and Development (H180M10006) and Student-Initiated Grants (H023B90057; 90CD0819; H023B90057), funded by the U. S. Department of Education, Special Education Programs. Further information and research on the measures is available at: http://dibels.uoregon.edu Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 27 What DIBELS Assess: Critical Outcomes and Indicators The NRP and NRC reports identified five essential skills or Big Ideas: Phonological Awareness: The ability to hear and manipulate sounds in words.

Alphabetic Principle: The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to read words. Accuracy and Fluency with Connected Text: The effortless, automatic ability to read words in connected text to develop understanding. Vocabulary: The ability to understand (receptive) and use (expressive) words to acquire and convey meaning. Comprehension: The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to extract meaning. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 28 Assessing Each Big Idea with DIBELS Big Idea DIBELS Measure Phonological Awareness Initial Sounds Fluency (ISF) Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF) Alphabetic Principle Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)

Fluency and Accuracy Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) Vocabulary Word Use Fluency (WUF) Comprehension Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) & Retell Fluency (RTF) Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 29 Why Focus on Fluency? To gain meaning from text, students must read fluently. Proficient readers are so automatic with each component skill (phonological awareness, decoding, vocabulary) that they focus their attention on constructing meaning from the print (Kuhn & Stahl, 2000). Component skills need to be well developed to support understanding. It is not enough to be simply accurate; the skill

must be automatic. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 30 Role of Automaticity or Fluency Role of Automaticity or Fluency: Video of Dr. Reid Lyon QuickTime and aYUV420 codec decompressorare ne Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 31 Role of Automaticity or Fluency Role of Automaticity or Fluency: Video of Reid Lyon The focus of reading instruction is not only on getting students to know sounds or letters but to: Get to the meaning __________________

Building automaticity in the component skills is Learning to ride a bike analogous to: _____________________ Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 32 First Grade Curriculum Map Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 33 A Qualitative Difference in Beginning Readers QuickTime and aYUV420 codec decompressorare needed QuickTime to see this and picture. aYUV420 codec decompressorare ne Ive thrown a lot of rocks into the lake by our cabin. Sometimes I think fill the whole

lake. In one minute, weIve canthrown obtaininaenough reliabletoindicator of early But it never seems toThe get two full. students As you can tell, I substantially like to throw reading proficiency. require rocks. But throwing toward rocks the is always lot more fun with different instruction goal ofabeing lifelong Grandpa. He can make anything. readers.

Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 34 What Are the Skill Differences Between These Readers? The on-track reader has a strategic approach to reading: Alphabetic Principle: decodes words she does not know. ___________________________ Fluency with connected text: ___________________________________ reads words with accuracy and speed to enable ____________ comprehension Other attributes: ____________________ Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 35 What Are the Skill Differences Between These Readers?

The struggling reader does not have an effective strategy to gain access to the meaning of the passages: Alphabetic Principle: ____________________________________ Has an ineffective strategy for reading unknown _____ words. Fluency with connected text: Limited fluency deters comprehension _____________________________ Other attributes: ____________________ Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 36 Prevention Oriented: Relation Between ORF and Other Outcome Measures OSA Reading/Literature, Spring, Grade 3 240 230 220 210 Grade 200 3 190

180 OSA Reading/Literature, Spring, 170 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Oral Reading Fluency, Spring, Grade 1 160 88% of students who met the end-of-first-grade ORF goal went on to meet or exceed Oregons State Benchmark Test in grade 3. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 Play audio clip 37 Objectives: What You Will Learn and Do The objectives of todays session are to: 1. Differentiate purposes of assessment. 2. Delineate how the DIBELS assessment system differs from

traditional assessment systems. 3. Use DIBELS to evaluate outcomes at the school, grade, class and student level. 4. Administer and score DIBELS. 5. Interpret DIBELS results. 6. Develop a plan to use DIBELS quarterly with all students. 7. Evaluate the current assessment system in your school. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 38 How Do We Change Reading Outcomes? 1. Earlier rather than later: prevention oriented 2. Schools not just programs 3. Results not just improvement 4.

Science not just opinion Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 39 Results Focused: Evaluating Progress At Multiple Levels Schoolwide DIBELS can answer: 1. How are we doing as a school? 2. How are we doing at each grade? 3. How is each class doing? 4. How are individual students doing? Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 40 How Are We Doing as a School? End of Year Histogram - Oral Reading Fluency 36% 43% Low Risk Some Risk At Risk End of Year

Benchmark: 40 CWPM How would you describe this schools end-of-year first graders? Circle one of the following: a) b) c) All on-track Majority on-track Some on-track Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 41 What Skills Did These First Graders Have at the End of Kindergarten? End of Year Histogram - Phoneme Segmentation Fluency 16% 60% End of Year Benchmark: 35 correct phonemes Established

Emerging Deficit Almost half the kindergartners finished the year without strong skills in phonological awareness Making these students at ______ risk for reading difficulties, a prediction in this case that came true. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 42 DIBELS Tell Us if Odds Are in Our Favor Scatter Plot: The Relation Between Phonological Awareness and Oral Reading Fluency Students in this section had deficit alphabetic principle skills at the middle of First Grade and ended the year as at risk readers. Students in this section had established alphabetic principle

skills at the middle of First Grade and ended the year as readers. Odds of being an Established Reader on ORF in May of first grade when Established on PSF in May of kindergarten is 37 out of 44, or 87%. Odds of being an Established Reader on ORF in May of first grade when Deficit on PSF in May of kindergarten is 1 out of 6, or 16%. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 Play audio clip 43 A Compass is Only Helpful If We Know Our Destination (Outcomes) Each measure has a scientifically-based goal Two parts to every goal:

How much / How well? By when? Measure How Much? By When? Initial Sounds Fluency 25 or more Middle of K Phonemic Segmentation Fluency 35 or more End of K Nonsense Word Fluency 50 or more Middle of First 1st: 40 or more 2nd: 90 or more

3rd: 110 or more 1st: End of Year 2nd: End of Year 3rd: End of Year Oral Reading Fluency Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 44 Stepping Stones of Early Literacy QuickTime and aYUV420 codec decompressorare needed to see this picture. Video of Dr. Roland Good Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 45 When to Administer DIBELS Monitoring student skill development Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003

46 Allocating Resources More Efficiently Early identification of students most in need of additional instructional support Mid-Year Kindergarten Class List Name Mari Initial Sound Fluency Score Percentile Status 1 4 Deficit Christian Ann 2 5 Debbie Yasmin Kaimana Jillian Chance

Jimmy Letter Naming Fluency Score Percentile Status 35 67 Low risk Instructional Recommendation Strategic - Additional Intervention 5 Deficit 10 Deficit 21 13 42 Some risk 29 At risk Intensive - Needs Substantial Intervention Intensive - Needs Substantial Intervention 10 13 16 19 20 21 25

35 45 54 57 60 Emerging Emerging Emerging Emerging Emerging Emerging 47 40 21 30 41 40 87 77 42 58 79 77 Strategic - Additional Intervention Strategic - Additional Intervention Strategic - Additional Intervention

Strategic - Additional Intervention Benchmark - At Grade Level Strategic - Additional Intervention Sam Justin 21 23 60 Emerging 65 Emerging 50 30 90 Low risk 58 Low risk Strategic - Additional Intervention Benchmark - At Grade Level Adam Jumpei Miyu Zach Kilia 25 28

29 34 42 70 76 78 85 92 5 28 28 27 49 13 54 54 52 89 Strategic - Additional Intervention Benchmark - At Grade Level Benchmark - At Grade Level Benchmark - At Grade Level Benchmark - At Grade Level Established Established

Established Established Established Low risk Low risk Some risk Low risk Low risk Low risk At risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 47 How to Use DIBELS in Your School: Schoolwide Administration Designed to Collect Data Efficiently at the School Level Short duration: 1-minute

administration Repeatable with 20 alternate forms Reproducible and convenient to use Fluency based Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 48 Training: Standardized Method of Administration For scores to be useful, we must administer the measures according to standardized administration and scoring directions. Presenting each measure: Present the directions as written Use the specific materials Timing each measure: Use a stopwatch

Scoring each measure: Follow scoring rules for each measure Score immediately after completing Standardization provides each child an equal opportunity to display skills. Engage student to do his or her best Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 49 Separating Teaching & Testing Time Scores will be used to assist in making instructional decisions Therefore, we must administer the measures without: Assisting the student during the task

Modifying the task, materials, or time Standardized, reliable data collection and scoring are essential! Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 50 Objectives: What You Will Learn and Do The objectives of todays session are to: 1. Differentiate purposes of assessment. 2. Delineate how the DIBELS assessment system differs from traditional assessment systems. 3. Use DIBELS to evaluate outcomes at the school, grade, class and student level. 4. Administer and score DIBELS. 5. Interpret DIBELS results. 6. Develop a plan to use DIBELS quarterly with all students. 7. Evaluate the current assessment system in your school. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 51 Learn the Measures

Three things to consider for each measure: What essential skill does it assess? What is the appropriate time and grade? What is the goal (how much, by when)? Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 52 Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF): What important skill does it assess? Phonological Awareness The ability to hear and manipulate sounds in words at the phrase level What is the appropriate time and grade? Mid-year kindergarten through first grade What is the goal? How well? 35 phonemes or more By when? End of kindergarten Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne

2003 53 What PSF Looks Like As you view the video, attend to: The child: Characterize task performance (circle one): Complete Segmentation with Fluency Partial Segmentation with Fluency Partial Segmentation with No Fluency Some Segmentation with Errors The examiner: Comfortable with materials Comfortable with student Comfortable with administration Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003

54 What PSF Looks Like QuickTime and aYUV420 codec decompressorare needed to see this picture. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 55 How Do We Administer and Score the PSF Measure? Materials: 1. Examiner copy of word list with phoneme scoring columns. Student has no materials when assessing phonological awareness. 2. Stopwatch 3. Pencil Preparing the Student: 1. Good testing conditions (e.g., lighting, quiet, comfortable) 2. Provide model in standardized manner and follow correction procedures as necessary

Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 56 How Do We Administer and Score the PSF Measure? 1. Place the segmentation word list in front of you but shield it so the student cannot see what you record. 2. Say these specific directions to the student: I am going to say a word. After I say it, you tell me all the sounds in the word. So, if I say Sam, you say /s/ /a/ /m/. Lets try one. (One second pause.) Tell me the sounds in mop. CORRECT RESPONSE: If student says, /m/ /o/ /p/, you say Very good. INCORRECT RESPONSE: If student gives any other response, you say, The sounds in mop are /m/ /o/ /p/. Your turn. Tell me the sounds in mop. "OK. Here is your first word." Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003

57 Maximizing Administration Time Stopwatch: Present the first word and start the stopwatch and time for 1 minute. Scoring: Underline each different, correct sound segment produced. (See specific scoring rules and examples.) Put a slash (/) through sounds produced incorrectly. Maintaining momentum: As soon as the student is finished saying the sounds, present the next word. Allow the student 3 seconds for each sound segment. Discontinue: If a student has not given any correct sound segments in the first 5 words, discontinue the task and record a score of zero (0).

Ending testing: At the end of 1 minute, stop timing and calculate the number of correct phonemes per minute. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 58 Scoring Rules for PSF Correct Segmentation: A correct sound segment is any different, correct part of the word. For example, the sound /t/ is a correct segment of "trick", as are /tr/ and /tri/ (see rule 2, following page). Examiner says "trick," student says "t...r...i...k" Examiner says "cat," student says "k...a...t" WORD: STUDENT SAYS: SCORING PROCEDURE:

trick cat t...r...i...k k...a...t /t/ /r/ /i/ /k/ /k/ /a/ /t/ Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 CORRECT SEGMENTS 4/4 3/3 59 Elongating Sounds Correct Segmentation: No need for an audible pause between the sounds to receive credit. If you can hear each individual sound when the student runs them together, score each sound as correct. Use your professional judgment based on the response and your knowledge of your program. If still not sure, do not give credit WORD:

STUDENT SAYS: SCORING PROCEDURE: rest rrrreeeessssttt /r/ /e/ /s/ /t/ Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 CORRECT SEGMENTS 4 /4 60 Errors in Segmenting: No Segmentation No Segmentation: If student repeats the entire word, no credit is given for any correct parts. Circle the word to indicate no segmented response was given. WORD: STUDENT SAYS: SCORING

PROCEDURE: trick cat trick cat /t/ /r/ /i/ /k/ /k/ /a/ /t/ Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 CORRECT SEGMENTS 0/4 0/3 61 Errors in Segmenting: Incomplete Segmentation Incomplete segmentation: Student is given partial credit for each sound segment produced correctly, even if student has not segmented at the phoneme level. The underline indicates the size of the sound segment. For example:

Examiner says trick, student says tr...ick Examiner says cat, student says c...at WORD: STUDENT SAYS: SCORING PROCEDURE: trick cat tr...ik cat /t/ /r/ /i/ /k/ /k/ /a/ /t/ Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 CORRECT SEGMENTS 2/4 2/3 62 Errors in Segmenting:

Overlapping Sounds Overlapping: Student receives credit for each different, correct sound segment of the word. Underline the different sound segments produced For example: Examiner says trick, student says tri...ick Examiner says cat, student says c...cat WORD: STUDENT SAYS: SCORING PROCEDURE: trick cat tri...ick ccat /t/ /r/ /i/ /k/ /k/ /a/ /t/

Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 CORRECT SEGMENTS 2/4 1/3 63 Errors in Segmenting: Omission of Sounds Omission: Student does not receive credit for sound segments not produced. If student provides the initial sound only, be sure to wait 3 seconds for elaboration. WORD: STUDENT SAYS: SCORING PROCEDURE: trick cat t...ik c (3 seconds)

/t/ /r/ /i/ /k/ /k/ /a/ /t/ Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 CORRECT SEGMENTS 2/4 1/3 64 Errors in Segmenting: Mispronunciation of Sounds Mispronunciation: Student does not receive credit for sound segments that are mispronounced. Put a slash (/) through the incorrect sounds. For example, there is no /ks/ sound in the word "trick." WORD: STUDENT SAYS:

SCORING PROCEDURE: trick cat t...r...i...ks ba...t /t/ /r/ /i/ /k/ /k/ /a/ /t/ Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 CORRECT SEGMENTS 3/4 2/3 65 Student Characteristics Pronunciation & Dialect: Student is not penalized for imperfect pronunciation due to dialect or articulation. For example, if the student says /r/ /e/ /th/ /t/ for "rest"

because of articulation difficulties, give full credit. Use professional judgment and prior knowledge of the students speech pattern to assess skill performance. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 66 Student Characteristics Schwa Sounds: Schwa sounds (/u/) added to consonants are not counted as errors. WORD: STUDENT SAYS: SCORING PROCEDURE: trick cat tu...ru...i...ku ku...a...tu /t/ /r/ /i/ /k/

/k/ /a/ /t/ Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 CORRECT SEGMENTS 4/4 3/3 67 Lets Try Again Benchmark K -2 DIBELS TM Phoneme Segmentation Fluency hat /h/ /a/ /t/ hear /h/ /ea/ /r/ as /a/ /z/ punch /p/ /u/ /n/ /ch/

__ 5 _/6 means /m/ /ea/ /n/ /z/ by /b/ /ie/ _5 __/6 /sh/ /i/ /p/ _0 __/6 QuickTime and aYUV420 codec decompressorare needed this/m/ picture. ship seem to see /s/ /ea/ _5 _/6 ought /o/ /t/ pack

/p/ /a/ /k/ _3 __/5 jam /j/ /a/ /m/ if /i/ /f/ _5 __/5 yell /y/ /e/ /l/ ham /h/ /a/ /m/ _5 __/6 calls /k/ /o/ /l/ /z/ as

/a/ /z/ _5 __/6 key /k/ /ea/ crowd /k/ /r/ /ow/ /d/ _2 __/6 Total 35 Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 68 Analyzing the Observation for Instructional Implications Current Skills Emerging phonological awareness at the phoneme level. Strong on initial and final consonants and medial

vowels. Inconsistent with the task. Instructional Needs Integrate with alphabetic principle instruction. Need more practice to build automaticity. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 69 Tips for Scoring Score what you hear! Practice with at least 7 students before using the scores to make programming decisions. One sound wont make a major difference in skill assessment, but pondering for 5 seconds on whether to score 2 or 3 phonemes on a response will. Look over words you are presenting to increase the pacing.

Practice phonemes in the booklet to increase reliability and consistency in scoring. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 70 Breakout Activity: Practicing the Measure Locate the Phonemic Segmentation Fluency Breakout Activity 1. Form a 3-person group 2. Assign roles: 3. Examiner

Student Observer Practice administering measure (3 rounds) Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 71 Initial Sounds Fluency (ISF): What important skill does it assess? Phonological Awareness The ability to hear and manipulate sounds in words. What is the appropriate time and grade? Beginning of the year, kindergarten What is the goal?

How well? 25 phonemes or more By when? Middle of kindergarten Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 72 What ISF Looks Like As you view the video, attend to: The child: Characterize task performance (circle one): Sound Isolation with Fluency Sound Isolation with Limited Fluency Sound Recognition with Limited Fluency Some Sound Recognition with Errors The examiner: Comfortable with materials Comfortable with student Comfortable with administration Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003

73 What ISF Looks Like QuickTime and aYUV420 codec decompressorare needed to see this picture. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 74 How Do We Administer and Score the ISF Measure? Materials: 1. 2. 3. 4. Examiner probe Student picture pages Stopwatch Pencil Preparing the student:

Good testing conditions (e.g., lighting, quiet, comfortable) Provide model in standardized manner and follow correction procedures as necessary Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 75 How Do We Administer and Score the ISF Measure? 1. 2. Place student copy of 4 randomized pictures in front of child. Say these specific directions to the child: This is mouse, flowers, pillow, letters (point to each picture while

saying its name). Mouse (point to mouse) begins with the sound / m/. Listen, /m/, mouse. Which one begins with the sounds /fl/?" Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 76 How Do We Administer and Score the ISF Measure? Correct Response on Sample Item: Student points to flowers, you say: Good. Flowers begins with the sounds /fl/. Incorrect Response: Flowers (point to flowers) begins with the sounds /fl/. Listen, /fl/, flowers. Let's try it again. Which one begins with the sounds /fl/? Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 77 How Do We Administer and Score

the ISF Measure? "Pillow (point to pillow) begins with the sound /p/. Listen, /p/, pillow. What sound does letters (point to letters) begin with?" Correct Response: If the student says /l/ you say: Good. Letters begins with the sound /l/. Incorrect Response: If the student says any other response, you say: Letters (point to letters) begins with the sound /l/. Listen, /l/, letters. Let's try it again. What sound does letters (point to letters) begin with? Then you say: "Here are some more pictures. Listen carefully to the questions." Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 78 Maximizing Administration Time

Stopwatch: Read the question, start stopwatch. After child gives response, stop stopwatch. Record the total time to answer each of the 16 questions. When the examiner is talking, the watch is not running. Scoring: Score is correct or incorrect (see specific scoring rules and examples). Maintaining momentum: Make sure to introduce each picture page. Allow student 5 seconds to answer each question. Discontinue: If a student gets no items correct in the first 5 items, discontinue the task and record a score of zero (0). Ending testing: After administering all 16 items, record the total duration of thinking/response time found on your stopwatch. Count number of items correct. Calculate final score (see formula).

Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 79 Scoring Rules for ISF Identification Responses (Which picture begins with?) If the child points to the correct picture or names it, score as correct. PROMPT: STUDENT SAYS: Which picture begins with /p/? pie SCORE: 0 1 If the child names or renames the picture with a word that begins with the target sound, score as correct. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne

2003 80 Scoring Rules for ISF Identification Responses (Which picture begins with?) If the child points to the correct picture or names it, score as correct. PROMPT: STUDENT SAYS: Which picture begins with /p/? pie SCORE: 0 1 If the child names or renames the picture with a word that begins with the target sound, score as correct. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003

81 Scoring Rules for ISF Production Responses (What sound does . begin with?) Correct Initial Sound or Sounds: If the word starts with an initial consonant sound, the child can respond with the first consonant or consonant-consonant blend. For example, if the word is clock, a correct initial sound would be /c/ or /cl/. The student must give the sound, not the letter name. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 82 Lets Try Again QuickTime and aYUV420 codec decompressorare needed to see this picture. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 83 Analyzing the Observation for

Instructional Implications Current Skills Emerging phonological awareness at the initial sound level. Inconsistent production for initial sounds. Very accurate on identification of sounds. Instructional Needs Develop overall phonological awareness at the phoneme level. Integrate skills in phonological awareness with alphabetic principle. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 84 Tips for Scoring Make sure to introduce each picture page. Score what you hear! Practice with at least 7 students before using the scores to make

programming decisions. Practice with stopwatch. Time how long it takes student to answer question. Make sure to record the total time at the end. Look over the words and pictures you are presenting to increase pacing. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 85 Quick Review PSF and ISF assess what big idea? Phonological awareness: Ability to hear and manipulate sounds in words. When do we want students to have completely established skills in phonological awareness at the phoneme level? End of kindergarten (a score of 35 or more on the PSF

measure) Why? PA is not enough to make a reader but it is predictive. (see next pages for kindergarten curriculum maps) Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 86 Quick Review Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 87 Moving From Sound to Print: Mapping Phonemes to the Print Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 88 Relation of PA to the Alphabetic Principle

The odds of having established alphabetic principle skills in time, given student had established PA skills at the end of kindergarten was 29 of 38, or 76%. The odds of having established alphabetic principle skills in time, given student had limited PA skills at the end of Kindergarten was 0 of 2, or 0%. Phonological awareness does not guarantee proficiency on the alphabetic principle, but the skills are highly linked. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 Play audio clip 89 Role of Alphabetic Principle: Mapping the Phonemes to Print What is the Alphabetic Principle? The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to read words. Comprised of two parts: Alphabetic Understanding: Letter-sound correspondences.

Phonological Recoding: Using systematic relationships between letters and phonemes (lettersound correspondence) to retrieve the pronunciation of an unknown printed string or to spell. (see next page for first grade curriculum map) Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 90 Role of Alphabetic Principle: Mapping the Phonemes to Print Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 91 Role of Alphabetic Principle Role of Alphabetic Principle: Video of Dr. Louisa Moats

QuickTime and aYUV420 codec decompressorare ne Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 92 Role of Alphabetic Principle Role of Alphabetic Principle: Video of Louisa Moats If students can decode nonsense words then students understand: Words are made up of sounds Sound-symbol correspondence Structure of words People who are proficient at reading nonsense Reading for meaning words are better at: _________________ Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 93

Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF): What important skill does NWF assess? Alphabetic Principle:The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to read words. What is the appropriate time and grade? Middle of the year in kindergarten and throughout first grade What is the goal? First Grade: How well? 50 letter-sounds or more By when? Middle of first grade Kindergarten: How well? 25 letter-sounds or more by end of kindergarten Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003

94 What NWF Looks Like As you view the video, attend to: The child: Characterize task performance (circle one): Reads at the word level with Fluency Reads at the word level with Limited Fluency Reads at the sound level with Fluency Reads at the sound level with Limited Fluency The examiner: Comfortable with materials Comfortable with student Comfortable with administration Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 95 What NWF Looks Like QuickTime and aYUV420 codec decompressorare needed to see this picture. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003

96 How Do We Administer and Score the NWF Measure? Materials: 1. Examiner probe 2. Student pages (practice page sim lut and test page) 3. Stopwatch 4. Pencil Preparing the student: Good testing conditions (e.g., lighting, quiet, comfortable) Provide the model in standardized manner and follow correction procedures as necessary Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 97 How Do We Administer and Score

the NWF Measure? Say these specific directions to the child: Look at this word (point to the first word on the practice probe). Its a make-believe word. Watch me read the word: (point to the letter s) /s/, (point to the letter i) /i/, (point to the letter m) /m/ sim (run your finger fast through the whole word). I can say the sounds of the letters, /s/ /i/ /m/ (point to each letter), or I can read the whole word sim (run your finger fast through the whole word). Your turn to read a make-believe word. Read this word the best you can (point to the word lut). Make sure you say any sounds you know. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 98 How Do We Administer and Score the NWF Measure? CORRECT RESPONSE: If the child responds lut or with some or all of the sounds, say INCORRECT OR NO RESPONSE: If the child does not respond within 3 seconds or responds incorrectly, say Thats right. The

sounds are /l/ /u/ /t/ or lut Watch me: /l/, (point to the letter u) /u/, (point to the letter t) /t/. Altogether the sounds are /l/ /u/ /t/ (point to each letter ) or lut (run your finger fast through the whole word) . Remember, you can say the sounds or you can say the whole word. Let s try again. Read this word the best you can (point (poin t to the letter l) to the word lut). Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 99 How Do We Administer and Score the NWF Measure? Student Copy kik kaj lan yuf

bub wuv nif suv yaj tig woj fek nul pos dij nij vec yig zof mak sig av zem vok sij pik al dit um sog faj

zin og viv vus nok boj tum vim wot yis zez nom feg tos mot nen joj vel sav Place the student copy of the probe in front of the child. Here are some more makebelieve words (point to the student probe). Start here (point to the first word) and go across the page (point across the page). When I say begin, read the words the best you can. Point to each letter and tell me the

sound or read the whole word. Read the words the best you can. Put your finger on the first word. Ready, begin. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 100 Maximizing Administration Time Stopwatch: Start watch after student says the first word/sound and time for 1 minute. Scoring: Underline each correct letter sound produced (see specific scoring rules and examples). Slash each incorrect letter sound produced. Maintaining momentum: Allow the student 3 seconds for each letter sound. After 3 seconds, provide the sound to keep the student moving.

Discontinue: If a student does not get any correct in the first row, discontinue the task and record a score of zero (0). Ending testing: At the end of 1 minute, put a bracket after the last letter-sound/word produced and calculate the total letter-sounds correct in one minute. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 101 Scoring Rules for NWF Correct Letter Sounds A correct letter sound is scored as the most common sound in English. 1. For example, all the vowels are scored for the short sound and the most common sound for the letter c is /k/. See pronunciation guide for remaining letter sounds.

Marking the booklet Underline exactly the way the student completes task. 2. For example, if the student goes soundby-sound, underline each letter individually. If the student reads the target as a whole word, underline the entire word. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 102 Scoring Rules for NWF 3. Partially Correct Responses If a word is partially correct, underline the letter sounds produced correctly. Put a slash (/) through the letter if the letter sound is incorrect. 4. For example, if stimulus word is "sim" and student says "sam," the letters "s" and "m" would be underlined because those letter sounds were produced correctly, giving a score of 2.

Repeated sounds Letter sounds pronounced twice while sounding out the word are given credit only once. For example, if stimulus word is "sim" and the student says /s/ /i/ /im/, the letter "i" is underlined once and the student receives 1 point for the phoneme "i" even though the letter "i" was pronounced correctly twice (a total of 3 for the entire word). Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 103 Scoring Rules for NWF 5. 3-second rule - sound by sound If student hesitates for 3 seconds on a letter, score the letter sound incorrect, provide the correct letter sound, point to the next letter, and say, "What sound?" 6. This prompt may be repeated. For example, if the stimulus word is "tob" and the student says /t/ (3 seconds), prompt by saying, "/ o/ (point to b) What sound?" 3-second rule - word by word If student hesitates for 3

seconds on a word, score the word incorrect, provide the correct word, point to the next word, and say, "What word?" This prompt may be repeated. For example, if the stimulus words are "tob dos et" and the student says, "tob" (3 seconds), prompt by saying "dos (point to et) What word?" Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 104 Scoring Rules for NWF 7. Insertions Insertions are not scored as incorrect. For example, if the stimulus word is "sim" and the student says "stim," the letters "s" "i" and "m" would be underlined and full credit given for the word, with no penalty for the insertion of /t/. 8. Skipping Rows If student skips an entire row, draw a line through the row and do not count the row in scoring. 9. Self-corrections If student makes an error and then selfcorrects within 3 seconds, write "SC" above the letter

and count it as correct. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 105 Lets Try Again: Practice Scoring QuickTime and aYUV420 codec decompressorare needed to see this picture. foj suv d id hon kam un wod len aj __/14 12 res kic

fav __/15 10 nej sok wif __/14 7 tum 3 sec. Total 29 Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 106 Analyzing the Observation for Instructional Implications Current Skills Approaches at the whole word level initially Few letter-sound errors

Can blend sounds together to the word level Instructional Needs Increase automaticity for all letter-sounds Increase automaticity in phonological recoding (fof instead of /f/ /o/ /f/) Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 107 Breakout Activity Locate the Nonsense Word Fluency Breakout Activity Form a 3-person group Assign roles:

Examiner Student Observer Practice administering measure (3 rounds) Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 108 Tips for Scoring Score for the most common sounds of the letters. Short vowels: i (big), e (beg), a (bag), u (bug), o (bog) Hard sounds: c = /k/, g = /g/, j = /j/ A point for each letter, whether it is sound-bysound or read as a whole word. Score what you hear!

Underline exactly the way the student completes the task. Practice with at least 7 students before using the scores to make programming decisions. Look over words you are presenting to increase pacing. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 109 Letter Naming Fluency (LNF): What important skill does LNF assess? LNF not directly linked to a Big Idea: Used as a risk indicator What is the appropriate time and grade? Through kindergarten and fall of first grade What is the goal? While letter naming is a good predictor of early reading success, knowledge of letter sounds is more important to word reading.

Research indicates a score of 8 or below in the beginning of kindergarten is predictive of later reading difficulty. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 110 What LNF Looks Like QuickTime and aYUV420 codec decompressorare needed to see this picture. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 111 How Do We Administer and Score the LNF Measure? Materials: 1. Examiner probe 2. Student page 3. Stopwatch 4. Pencil Preparing the student:

Good testing conditions (e.g., lighting, quiet, comfortable) Provide the model in standardized manner and follow correction procedures as necessary Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 112 How Do We Administer and Score the LNF Measure? Say these specific directions to the child: "Here are some letters" (point). "Tell me the names of as many letters as you can. When I say 'begin,' start here" (point to first letter in upper left hand corner) "and go across the page" (point). "Point to each letter and tell me the name of that letter. Try to name each letter. If you come to a letter you don't know, I'll tell it to you. Put your finger on the first letter. Ready?" Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 113

Maximizing Administration Time Stopwatch: Start watch after student says the first letter name and time for 1 minute. Scoring: Slash each incorrect letter name produced. Maintaining momentum: Allow student 3 seconds for each letter name; after 3 seconds, say the name to keep the student moving. Discontinue: If student does not get any correct in the first row, discontinue the task and record a score of zero (0). Ending testing: At the end of 1 minute, put a bracket after the last letter-name produced and calculate the total letter-names correct in 1 minute.

Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 114 Scoring Rules for LNF 1. Correct Letter Names Student must say the correct letter name to receive credit. If the student provides the letter sound rather than the letter name, say, "Remember to tell me the letter name, not the sound it makes." This prompt may be provided only once. 2. Self-corrections If student makes an error and selfcorrects within 3 seconds, write "SC" above the letter and do not count as an error. 3. Skipping Rows If student skips an entire row, draw a line through the row and do not count the row when scoring. Skipped or omitted letters are not counted in scoring. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne

2003 115 Tips for Scoring Score for the letter names. If student skips a row, follow the students lead and keep going. Give the student 3 seconds for each letter. Score what you hear! Practice with at least 7 students before using the scores to make programming decisions. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 116 Oral Reading Fluency (ORF):

What important skill does it assess? Fluency and accuracy with connected text: The effortless, automatic ability to read words in connected text leads to understanding. What is the appropriate time and grade? Middle of first grade through third grade What is the goal: To be fluent at the skill by end of first grade. QuickTime and aYUV420 codec decompressorare nee How well? 40 correct words or more By when? End of first grade What about second grade? How well? 90 correct words or more

What about third grade? How well? 110 correct words or more Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 117 ORF Benchmark Levels Progressive Benchmark Levels Indicative of Low Risk for Reading Difficulties Beginning of Year Grade 1 G rade 2 G rade 3 44 76 Middle of Year 20 68 91 Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003

End of Year 40 90 110 118 Instructional Priorities Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 119 Importance of Fluency with Connected Text The ability to accurately and quickly apply word reading strategies to reading connected text. Automatic and fluent reading allows students to allocate cognitive resources to comprehension. Fluency may be almost a necessary condition for good comprehension and enjoyable reading experiences. (Nathan & Stanovich, 1991) Oral reading fluency will not tell you everything you need to know about student reading performance. However, there is a strong relationship between oral reading fluency and comprehension.

Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 120 Role of Automaticity or Fluency Role of Automaticity or Fluency: Video of Louisa Moats QuickTime and aYUV420 codec decompressorare ne Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 121 Role of Automaticity or Fluency Role of Automaticity or Fluency: Video of Louisa Moats Why do nonfluent readers get worn out after reading for a period of time?

too much attention devoted to figuring out ________________________________________ ______ words takes too long to get to the end of passage ________________________________________ and student cant remember the beginning ________________________________________ lose the sense of the passage as they ___________________________________ struggle, pause, and make word-reading ______________________________________ errors ______ Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 122 Fluent Readers Display Orchestrated Reading Skills

Fluent readers are able to: Focus their attention on understanding the text Synchronize skills of decoding, vocabulary, and comprehension Read with speed and accuracy Interpret text and make connections between the ideas in the text Nonfluent readers: Focus attention on decoding Alter attention to accessing the meaning of individual words Make frequent word reading errors Have few cognitive resources left to comprehend Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne

2003 123 Frustration: Reading With Poor Word Recognition 0% 8 h He had never seen dogs fight as theseit w______ish c___ f______t, w an unf________able g and his first ex________ t______t him l______n. y n i c a d r a It is true, it was a vi___ ex________, else he would not have lived to u

e c R Ac They were camped near the pr___it by it. Curly was the v________. log store, where she, in her friend__ way, made ad________ to a C Im n o as ____he. ____ere was no w___ing, only a leap in like a flash, a o m p t ? met______ clip of teeth, ayleap out equal__ swift, andaCurlys face p c c

a eye c to jaw. It was the wolfremannertofo was ripped openpfrom n h e n m e u fight_____, toI st____ and leap away; but there was more to it than n l s F io this. Th____ or forty huskies ran _o the spot and not com_____d husky dog the size of a full-_______ wolf, the_____ not half so large n?

that s______t circle. Buck did not com_______d that s______t in_____, not the e__ way with which they were licking their chops. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 124 What ORF Looks Like QuickTime and aYUV420 codec decompressorare needed to see this picture. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 125 How Do We Administer and Score the ORF Measure? Materials: 1. Examiner probe Say these specific directions to the child: Please read this (point) out loud. If you get stuck, I will tell you the word so you can keep reading. When I say "stop," I may ask you to tell me about what you read, so do your best reading. Start here (point to the first word of the passage). Begin.

2. Student passages 3. Stopwatch 4. Pencil Preparing the student: Good testing conditions (e.g., lighting, quiet, comfortable) Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 126 How Do We Administer and Score the ORF Measure? Say these specific directions to the child: Please read this (point) out loud. If you get stuck, I will tell you the word so you can keep reading. When I say "stop," I may ask you to tell me about what you read, so do your best reading. Start here (point to the first word of the passage). Begin. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003

127 Maximizing Administration Time Stopwatch: Start watch after student says the first word and time for 1 minute. Scoring: Slash each word produced incorrectly. Maintaining momentum: Allow student 3 seconds for each word. After 3 seconds, say the word to keep the student moving. Discontinue: If student does not get any correct in the first row, discontinue the task and record a score of zero (0). If student scores less than 10 on the first passage, do not administer the other two passages.

Ending testing: At the end of 1 minute, put a bracket after the last word produced and calculate the number of correct words in one minute. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 128 Scoring Rules for ORF: Scoring Directions are Similar to Marston, D. (1989) 1. Correctly Read Words are pronounced correctly. A word must be pronounced correctly given the context of the sentence. Example: The word read must be pronounced /reed/ when presented in the context of the following sentence: Ben will read the story. not as: Ben will red the story. 2. WRC = 5 WRC = 4 Self-corrected Words are counted as correct. Words misread initially but corrected within 3 seconds are

counted as correct. Example: Dad likes to watch sports. read as: Dad likes to watch spin...(3 seconds)sports. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 WRC = 5 WRC = 5 129 Scoring Rules for ORF 3. Repeated Words are counted as correct. Words said over again correctly are ignored. Example: I have a goldfish. read as: I have a ...have a goldfish. 4. WRC = 4 WRC = 4

Dialectic variations in pronunciation that are explainable by local language norms are not errors. Example: We took the short cut. read as: We took the shot cut. WRC = 5 WRC = 5 Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 130 Scoring Rules for ORF 5. Inserted Words are ignored. When students add extra words, they are not counted as correct words nor as reading errors. Example: I ate too much.

WRC = 4 read as: I ate way too much. 6. WRC = 4 Mispronounced or Substituted Words are counted as incorrect. Example: She lives in a pretty house. read as: She lives in a pretty home. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 WRC = 6 WRC = 5 131 Scoring Rules for ORF Omitted/Skipped Words are counted as errors. 7.

Example: Mario climbed the old oak tree. WRC = 6 read as: Mario climbed the tree. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 WRC = 4 132 Scoring Rules for ORF Words must be read in accordance with the context of the passage 8. 9. 10. Hyphenated Words count as two words if both parts can stand alone as individual words. Hyphenated words count as one word if either part cannot stand alone as an individual word.

Numerals and Dates must be read correctly in the context of the sentence. Abbreviations must be read as pronounced in normal conversation. For example, TV could be read as "teevee" or "television," but Mr. must be read as "mister." Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 133 Breakout Activity Locate the Oral Reading Fluency Breakout Activity Form a 3-person group Assign roles: Examiner Student Observer

Practice administering measure (3 rounds) Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 134 Tips for Scoring Student must read exactly what is on the page. Self-corrections and insertions are ignored and not counted as errors. Simply slash errors until you feel comfortable writing in the error types. Score what you hear! Practice with at least 7 students before using the scores to make programming decisions. Look over passages you are presenting to ensure pacing is efficient. Use the middle score of the three passages read to

assess the students skill. Have student read all three passages in one sitting Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 135 Kindergarten Benchmark Assessment QuickTime and aYUV420 codec decompressorare needed to see this picture. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 136 Grade 1 Benchmark Assessment QuickTime and aYUV420 codec decompressorare needed to see this picture. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 137 Objectives: What You Will Learn and Do The objectives of todays session are to: 1. Differentiate purposes of assessment.

2. Delineate how the DIBELS assessment system differs from traditional assessment systems. 3. Use DIBELS to evaluate outcomes at the school, grade, class and student level. 4. Administer and score DIBELS. 5. Interpret DIBELS results. 6. Develop a plan to use DIBELS quarterly with all students. 7. Evaluate the current assessment system in your school. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 138 Student Performance: Are We Making Progress? End of Year Histogram - ORF, Year 1 28% Low risk for reading difficulties 34% Some risk for reading difficulties 38% At risk for reading difficulties Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 139 Student Performance: Are We Making Progress? End of Year Histogram - ORF, Year 2 After changes in curricular program, instruction, time, professional development:

57% Low risk for reading difficulties 20% Some risk for reading difficulties 22% At risk for reading difficulties Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 140 Student Performance: Are We Making Progress? After 4 years of sustained focused effort: Cross-Year Boxplot Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 Play audio clip 141 Class List Reports: Identifying At-Risk Students in the Middle of First Grade Name Phoneme Segmentation Fluency Kevin Score

12 %ile 5 John Leone 0 44 <1 33 Yvonne Katrina 20 2 Status Emerging Nonsense Word Fluency Score 11 Oral Reading Fluency %ile

3 Status Deficit Score 0 Instructional Recommendation %ile 3 Status At Risk Intensive - Needs Substantial Intervention Deficit Established 19 22 6 8 Deficit Deficit

0 1 3 6 At Risk At Risk Intensive - Needs Substantial Intervention Intensive - Needs Substantial Intervention 8 1 Emerging Deficit 23 27 9 14 Deficit Deficit 0 7

3 19 At Risk At Risk Intensive - Needs Substantial Intervention Intensive - Needs Substantial Intervention 3 5 2 2 Deficit Deficit 27 28 14 15 Deficit Deficit 8 1

22 6 Some Risk At Risk Intensive - Needs Substantial Intervention Intensive - Needs Substantial Intervention Chiara Kawena 15 8 6 3 Emerging Deficit 28 31 15 19 Deficit Emerging

18 0 49 3 Some Risk At Risk Intensive - Needs Substantial Intervention Intensive - Needs Substantial Intervention Levi Ryan 20 9 8 4 Emerging Deficit 34 37 23 27

Emerging Emerging 11 15 31 43 Some Risk Some Risk Strategic - Additional Intervention Strategic - Additional Intervention Chester Jesse 15 18 6 7 Emerging Emerging 38 39

29 30 Emerging Emerging 85 3 94 9 Low Risk At Risk Benchmark - At Grade Level Intensive - Needs Substantial Intervention Brian Sara 7 17 3 7 Deficit Emerging

39 40 30 32 Emerging Emerging 8 10 22 28 Some Risk Some Risk Strategic - Additional Intervention Strategic - Additional Intervention Joshua Lansen 51 46 48 38

Established Established 41 45 34 41 Emerging Emerging 5 32 14 70 At Risk Low Risk Intensive - Needs Substantial Intervention Benchmark - At Grade Level Miki Jennifer Travis Isaac 38

19 45 38 23 8 35 23 Established Emerging Established Established 52 64 127 129 52 68 95 96 Established Established Established Established Some Risk

Low Risk Low Risk Low Risk Strategic - Additional Intervention Benchmark - At Grade Level Benchmark - At Grade Level Benchmark - At Grade Level Brian Tara 13 37 31 69 62 86 150 > 99 Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 142 Instructional Status Terminology For Each Measure Quarterly Benchmark Goals Final Benchmark Goals and Later

Low Risk Established Some Risk Emerging At Risk Deficit Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 143 Critical Values & Progressive Benchmarks Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 144 Critical Values & Progressive Benchmarks Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003

145 Critical Values & Progressive Benchmarks Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 146 Quick Review What are the two measures used to assess phonological awareness? ISF __________ & PSF What is the only measure not administered for a full 60 seconds? __________ ISF Which measure do we use as a risk indicator for reading

difficulty, but is not directly linked to a big idea of early literacy? _________________ LNF This measure has students read made-up words to assess phonetic analysis skills and avoid the chance the NWF student has the word memorized. ______________ Which measure has the strongest linkage to reading comprehension without a direct assessment of it? ORF ______________ Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 147 Benchmarks and Levels of Low Risk for Each DIBELS Measure Beginning ISF: 8 LNF: 8 Middle __ ____: 25 ISF LNF : 27 PSF: 18 NW F: 13

LNF : 40 __ __: 35 PSF __ __: 25 NWF PSF: 35 __ ___: 50 NWF OR F: 20 PSF: 35 NW F: 50 __ ___: 40 ORF OR F: 44 __ _____ _: 68 ORF OR F: 90 OR F: 77 OR F: 92

__ ____: 110 ORF Kindergarte n First Se cond Third LNF : 37 PSF: 35 NW F: 24 Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 End 148 Objectives: What You Will Learn and Do The objectives of todays session are to: 1. Differentiate purposes of assessment. 2. Delineate how the DIBELS assessment system differs from traditional assessment systems. 3. Use DIBELS to evaluate outcomes at the school, grade, class

and student level. 4. Administer and score DIBELS. 5. Interpret DIBELS results. 6. Develop a plan to use DIBELS quarterly with all students. 7. Evaluate the current assessment system in your school. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 149 Developing a Plan To Collect Schoolwide Data Areas Needing to be Considered When Developing A Plan: 1. Who will collect the data? 2. How long will it take? 3. How do we want to collect the data? 4. What materials does the school need? 5. How do I use the DIBELS Website? 6. How will the results be shared with the school? More details are available in the document entitled Approaches and Considerations of Collecting Schoolwide Early Literacy and Reading Performance Data in your supplemental materials Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 150 Who Will Collect the Data?

At the school-level, determine who will assist in collecting the data Each school is unique in terms of the resources available for this purpose, but consider the following: Teachers, Principals, educational assistants, Title 1 staff, Special Education staff, parent volunteers, practicum students, PE/Music Specialist Teachers The role of teachers in data collection: If they collect all the data, less time spent in teaching If they collect no data, the results have little meaning Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 151 How Do We Want to Collect Data? Common Approaches to Data Collection: Team Approach

Class Approach Combination of the Class and Team Determining who will collect the data will impact the approach to the collection Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 152 Team Approach Who? A core group of people will collect all the data One or multiple day (e.g., afternoons) Where Does it Take Place? Team goes to the classroom Classrooms go to the team (e.g., cafeteria, library) Pros: Efficient way to collect and distribute

results, limited instructional disruption Cons: Need a team of people, place, materials, limited teacher involvement, scheduling of classrooms Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 153 Class Approach Who? Teachers collect the data Where Does it Take Place? The classroom Pros: Teachers receive immediate feedback on student performance Cons: Data collection will occur over multiple days, time taken away form instruction, organization of materials Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne

2003 154 Combination of Team & Class Approaches Who? Both teachers and a team Where Does it Take Place? Teachers collect the data Team goes to the classroom What Might it Look Like? Kindergarten and First grade teachers collect their own data and a team collects 2nd-3rd grade Pros: Increases teacher participation, data can be collected in a few days, limited instructional disruption Cons: Need a team of people, place, materials, scheduling Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne

2003 155 How Long Will It Take? Kindergarten Time of Year / Measure(s) Beginning ISF & LNF Middle ISF, LNF, PSF End ISF, LNF, PSF, & NWF Approximate Time per Pupil 4 min. 6-7 min. 9 min. Number of Data Collectors

Pupils Assessed per 30 Minute Period 1 6-8 2 12-16 3 18-24 4-5 24-40 6-8 36-48 1 4-5 2

8-10 4-5 16-25 6-8 24-40 1 3-4 2 6-8 4-5 12-20 6-8 18-32 Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 156

How Long Will It Take? First Grade Time of Year / Measure(s) Beginning LNF, PSF, & NWF Middle PSF, NWF, & ORF End of Year NWF & ORF Time per Pupil 6-7 min. 8-9 min. 7 min. Number of Data Collectors Pupils Assessed per 30 Minute Period 1

4-5 2 8-10 4-5 16-25 6-8 24-40 1 3-4 2 6-8 4-5 12-20 6-8 18-32

1 4-5 2 8-10 3 12-15 4-5 16-25 6-8 24-40 Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 157 How Long Will it Take? Second & Third Grade Measure

ORF Time per Pupil 5 min. Number of Collectors Pupils Assessed per 30 Minute Period 1 6-7 2 12-14 3 18-21 4-5 24-35 6-8

36-56 Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 158 What Materials Does the School Need? DIBELS Materials Benchmark booklets Color coding Labeling Student stimulus materials Binding, laminating, etc. Other Materials Stopwatches Pencils, clipboards Class rosters

See document entitled Approaches and Considerations of Collecting Schoolwide Early Literacy and Reading Performance Data at website: http://dibels.uoregon.edu/logistics/data_collection.pdf Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 159 How Do I Use the DIBELS Website? Entering and generating reports using the DIBELS website begins with setting up your school. Sign up to get a user name and password at: http://dibels.uoregon.edu Create your school in the system (a manual for using the website is available on the website as well as in your

supplemental materials) Introduction Data System Measures Download Benchmarks Grade Level Logistics Sponsors Trainers FAQ Contact Information Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 160 Using the DIBELS Website Creating your school in DIBELS web: 1. Creating classrooms

Enter/Edit Data 2. Populating classrooms with students 3. Creating users View/Create Reports Interpret Reports Administrative Menu Migrate Students System Status FAQ Manual Contact Information Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003

161 Entering Data on DIBELS Website After your school has created the classrooms with students, you can enter the data you collected by selecting the classroom Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 162 Generating Reports Two main types of reports generated from DIBELS Website: PDF Reports: Downloadable reports designed for printing. The school and district PDF reports combine the most common reports into a single file. Web Reports: Individual reports designed for quick

online viewing. Select the specific report you would like. Enter/Edit Data View/Create Reports Interpret Reports Administrative Menu Migrate Students System Status FAQ Manual Contact Information Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 163 How Will the Results Be Shared With the School? Schedule time soon after data collection to share and distribute results

School-level: Staff meeting Grade-level: Team meetings Determine a method of addressing concerns Identifying at-risk students Answering questions about the results Re-thinking the data collection approach Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 164 Web Resources Materials Administration and scoring manual All grade-level benchmark materials Progress monitoring materials for each measure (PSF, NWF, ORF, etc.) Website Tutorial for training on each measure with video examples Manual for using the DIBELS Web Data Entry website Sample schoolwide reports and technical reports on the

measures Logistics Tips and suggestions for collecting schoolwide data (see website) Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 165 Objectives: What You Will Learn and Do The objectives of todays session are to: 1. Differentiate purposes of assessment. 2. Delineate how the DIBELS assessment system differs from traditional assessment systems. 3. Use DIBELS to evaluate outcomes at the school, grade, class and student level. 4. Administer and score DIBELS. 5. Interpret DIBELS results. 6. Develop a plan to use DIBELS quarterly with all students. 7. Evaluate the current assessment system in your school. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 166 Planning & Evaluation Tool (PET)

As school teams, you will work together on the Planning and Evaluation Tool (Simmons & Kameenui, 2000) The second section focuses on Assessment. Complete this section based on the information presented in todays session and your knowledge of your schools current assessment practices. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 167 Day 2: PET Time Complete Element 2 of the Planning & Evaluation Tool: Assessment. Review each item. Determine whether you will have individuals complete items independently or as a group (e.g, Grade level teams: All K teachers complete 1 PET, all Grade 1

teachers complete a separate PET). Report the score for each item and document the information sources available to substantiate the score reported. Allow approximately 15-30 minutes for completion. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 168 Day 2: PET Time 0 Not in place 1 Partially in place 2 Fully in place II. Assessment continued EVALUATION CRITERIA DOCUMENTATION OF EVIDENCE II. Assessment Instruments and procedures for assessing reading achievement are clearly specified, measure important skills, provide reliable and valid information about student performance, and inform instruction in important, meaningful, and maintainable ways. Assessment: 1. A s choolwide assessment system

and database are established and maintained for documenting student performance and monitoring progress (x 2). 2. Measures assess student performance on prioritized goals and objectives. EVALUATION CRITERIA DOCUMENTATION OF EVIDENCE 7. Student performance data are analyzed and summarized in meaningful formats and routinely used by grade-level teams to evaluate and adjust instruction (x 2). 8. The building has a resident expert or experts to maintain the assessment system and ensure measures are collected reliably, data are scored and entered accurately, and feedback is provided in a timely fashion. /20 Total Points 3. Measures are technically adequate (i.e., have high reliability and validity) as documented by research. 10 = 50%

% Percent of Implementation: 16 = 80% 20 = 100% 4. All users receive training and followup on measurement administration, scoring, and data interpretation. 5. At the beginning of the year, measures identify students' level of performance and are used to determine instructional needs. 6. Measures are administered formatively throughout the year to document and monitor student reading performance (i.e., quarterly for all students; every 4 weeks for students at risk). Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 169 Reflections and Reports After schools complete Element II, review items

individually and ask schools to volunteer their current status with respect to Assessment. Ask schools to identify particular items in which they scored full points and ones in which there is room for improvement. This information will be used to formulate a schoolspecific Reading Action Plan (RAP) on Day 4 of the IBR. Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne 2003 170

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