Basic Theory of Human Sciences The The notes notes about about the the slides slides can can be be read read and and printed printed after after the the download download ofof the the pdf-file. pdf-file. Encyclopedic definition: Framework of reference, which demonstrates the associations between disciplines.
This fundamental knowledge helps to structure interdisciplinary discussions, teaching and research. A huge crowd of brain researchers work like ants on a gigantic brain: This is the view of the graphic designer Uwe Brandi from Gttingen, about how scientists trye to unravel details of the thinking organ. But how do the details fit together in a realistic way? Uwe Brandi, drawing and text from: GEO-Wissen Nr. 1, page 31, 1987. Multidisciplinarity in the Human Sciences Can we structure interdisciplinarity in the human sciences? Which knowledge is the foundation for which speciality? Which concepts are a basic prerequisite for the discussion of these questions? What are the minimum requirements for a theory of human sciences? 3 Basic Concepts and Realm of the Discussion
If one applies a matrix with the four central questions of biological research (causation, ontogeny, adaptation, phylogeny) and considers the different levels of inquiry (e.g. molecule, cell, organ, individual), then the interdisciplinary dimension of a topic becomes evident. Theory of central questions: slides 7-21, Theory of levels of inquiry: 22-26 The colored concepts are at least 150 years old (questions e.g.: B.de Maillet, Ch.Darwin, K.Lorenz, N.Tinbergen). Central questions and levels of inquiry are the 1. smallest common transdisciplinary denominator and 2. basis for the development of an interdisciplinary con-sensus. 4 The Periodic Table of Human Sciences Table 1 Causation
Ontogeny Adaptation Phylogeny Molecule Cell Organ Individual Group Society In this basic framework, all Human Sciences can be allocated: Disciplines (next slide, paragraph C), their Questions (paragraph A) and Results (paragraph B). The questions and planes in italics are also the subject of the humanities.
5 Table 2 Questions concerning proximate causes Questions concerning ultimate causes (1) Causation (2) Ontogeny (3) A d a p t a t i o n (a) ecological (b) within species (4)Phylogeny (A) Examples if ethological inquiry and
associated disciplines How do behavior and psyche function on the molecular, physiological, neuroethological, cognitive and social level - and Which developmental steps and which environmental factors play when / which role? I.e.: How do specific faculties of perception, subjective internal mentation, learning and behavior benefit the performer? E.g.: Why did structural associations evolve in this manner and not otherwise? Specifically: what do the relations between the levels look like? How are genetically programmed behavior patterns [e.g. "instinctive" drives and inhibitions], learning,
intellect and culture, as well as ability, volition and conscience entwined with one another and are there differences dependent on the species, age, gender and behavioral realm? How do perception, subjective internal mentation and behavior correspond with the environment? What are the ontogenetic bases of behavior and learning? E.g.: Which effect have hormones and reafferences for maturing processes and imprinting-like steps? How are instincts and learning intertwined with one another? What is learned? What are the costs, what the benefits of a behavior pattern - e.g. (a: ecological; b: intraspecific): (a) concerning caloric (b) in relation to familial intake and proximity and
energy expended? social attractiveness? Which evolutionary alterations occured in persistent phylogenetically earlier traits, caused by the selective pressure of more recent behavior patterns? Which behavior was a prerequisite of which new form? What consequences do older traits have for further developments - e.g. for synergy and antagonism in hormones and transmitters, neuroanatomical structures and behavioral traits? (space-time-structure) Which traits are homologous and which analogous? (B) Examples of behavior
Endorphine level rise during grooming in enactor and recipient. Expression: emotion - enactor - recipient relations. Friendly behavior patterns are adversaries of aggression, they can be furthered culturally. Unattractive bahavior patterns such as wanton aggression can be culturally inhibited.. Children recognize themselves in a mirror at 20 months of age. This is one of the foundations of social cognition, for example of being able to take anothers perspective as a prerequisite for cognitive altruism and cognitive cooperation Social bonding is advantageous for protection against predators,, collective hunting, building larger
structures.. Parental care and mother-child bond were phylogenetic preconditions for social bonds. Within this development in addition to their original function, elements of brood behavior became elements of social behavior, e.g. kissing & billing, and grooming & preening. (C) Level of inquiry (e.g.: atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, individual, group, society) with examples of scientific
disciplines atom, molecule: Biochemistry, cell, organ: Neurophysiology, Neurobiology, organ, individual: Neuroethology, N.-psychology, Neurology, Behavioral Physiology, B.-Genetics, B.-Endocrinology, B.-immunology, Chronobiology, Psychosomatology, Psychiatry, Ind, Gr: Human Ethology, Soziobiology, Behavioral Ecology, Psychology, Pedagogy, Psychotherapeutic Theories, Earliest History, Ges: Sociology, Law, Political Science, Economics, History, Cultural Sciences, Arts Friendly behavior helps to develop and maintain bonds as a basis for reciprocal support, e.g. during parental care and aggressive interactions cell, organ: Neuro-biology, organ, individual: Neuro-ethology,
organ, individual: DevelopmentalNeurology, Neurobiology, Ind, Gr: Human Ethology, Developmental Psychology, Psychotherapeutic Theories individual, group: Human Ethology, Behavioral Ecology, Socioekology. individual, group: Human Ethology, Soziobiology individual, group: Human Ethology The first three lines in red italics of paragraph A / columns 1-4 are mutatis mutandis applicable to (all life sciences e.g.) morphology, psychology, social and cultural sciences. In the following slides the rectangles to the central questions and the paragraphs A and B will be shown in readable size.
6 Biology as the Guiding Discipline for the Human Sciences The questions for ontogeny and causation are summarized as questions for the proximate causes. These questions are similar to those of Physics and Chemistry. Physics and Chemistry are guiding disciplines for (Behavioral) Biology. (see e.g. N. Hartmann/slide 24) 7 Biology as the Guiding Discipline for the Human Sciences The questions for phylogeny and adaptation of behavioral traits are summarized in Ethology as questions for the ultimate causes. These questions are characteristic for Biology, because only in nature on the strata of living matter phylogenetically grown phenomenons are
observable: This holds true for programs of functioning, construction plans and their adaptive value. 8 Phylogeny (A) Examples of ethological inquiry and associated disciplines Why did structural associations evolve in this manner and not otherwise? Specifically: Which behavior was a prerequisite of which new form of behavior? 9 Young Tupajas lick the saliva of their mother,
possibly to take in liquid and Immunglobulines before enough milk is produced (D.v. Holst). This behavior might have been a precondition of the bonding behavior among adult pairs (i.e. brood provisioning was a precondition of bonding, love and reciprocal altruism; cf.: Why do Tupajas show their affection grooming) 10
in this manner and not otherwise? Photos: Dietrich von Holst, University Bayreuth. Phylogeny Phylogenetic similarities (homologies) can only be reconstructed by behavioral observations only concerning smaller taxonomic entities, e.g. orders, families and genus; Behavioral phylogeny concerning great systematics remains hypothetical. 11 Phylogeny (B) Examples Concerning great systematics hypotheses exist for: of behavior 1. Cognitive aspects (Lorenz, Medicus) Evol. Epistemology, Theory of Culture, Freedom
2. Gender differences (Medicus & Hopf) 3. Dealing with resources and possession (Hammerstein, Kummer, Medicus) 4. Roots of humanity (Bischof, Eibl-Eibesfeldt, Medicus) When investigating single faculties by comparing the behavior of different species, their connections with the rest of abilities is worth to be considered (e.g. preconditions, cognitive abilities). Reconstruction of behavioral phylogeny concerning great systematics can be a guiding support. (see also Biogenetic Rule/slide 17, 18). 12 Phylogeny (B) Examples of behavior Reciprocal altruism (on an instinctive basis) can only be observed in species, which show
parental brood provisioning (or which has been shown by their ancestors). [*cognitive altruism can only be observed in apes and humans] 13 Adaptation a: ecological (A) Examples of ethological inquiry and associated disciplines b: intraspecific How do specific faculties of perception, subjective internal cognition, learning and behavior benefit the performer? E.g.: What are the costs, what the benefit of a behavior for example (a/b)
(a) concerning caloric- (b) in relation to familial intake and proximity and energy expended? social attractiveness? 14 Adaptation a: ecological (A) Examples of ethological inquiry and associated disciplines b: intraspecific How do specific faculties of perception, subjective internal cognition, learning and behavior benefit the performer? E.g.: What are the costs, what the benefit of a behavior for example (a/b)
(a) concerning caloric- (b) in relation to familial intake and proximity and energy expended? social attractiveness? 15 Ontogeny (A) Inquiry Which (a) developmental steps and which (b) environmental factors play when / which role? I.e.: (B) Examples of behavior ad (a) e.g.: implications of age at the onset of puberty. ad (b) e.g.: implications of age and nature of the partner at the first sexual
experiences. 16 The Biogenetic Rule Has No Relevance for Behavioral Ontogeny for the Following Reasons: 1. Morphological ontogeny recapitulates phylogenetically antiquated traits [mostly] not because of their original function as environmental adaptation, but because of their phylogenetically younger inductive function during embryogenesis (i.e. adaptation within the organism). Is there an evidence for antiquated behavioral traits as an adaptation within the organism? What should these antiquated traits be good for? 17 The Biogenetic Rule Has No Relevance for Behavioral Ontogeny for the Following Reasons: 2. After the morphological development of the
nervous system according to the biogenetic rule, a chronologically shifted second period of behavioral development is most unlikely, again according to this rule. 18 Causation (A) Examples of ethological inquiry and associated disciplines How do behavior and psyche function on the molecular, physiological, neuroethological, cognitive and social level? 19 Causation
(B) Example of Endorphine levels rise during behavior grooming in the enactor and the recipient. Friendly behavior patterns are adversaries [= antagonists] of aggression, they can be furthered culturally. Unattractive behavior patterns such as wanton aggression can be culturally inhibited. [= in part instinct/culture-intercalations]. 20 Causation (A) Examples of ethological inquiry and associated disciplines How do behavior and psyche
function on the molecular, physiological, neuro-ethological, cognitive, and social level - and what do the relations between the levels look like? (cf. next slide) 21 Level of Inquiry / Complexity We categorize to be able to grasp the complexity of the world. 22 When R. Riedl assigned disciplines to the levels of reference, he did not take the aspects of basic questions into consideration in his
illustrations. His achievement was to elucidate the connections between the basic causes of Aristotle with the levels of complexity. The Aristotelian causes can be assigned to the four basic questions. 23 The Laws about the Levels of Complexity by Nicolai Hartmann (1964, 3rd edition, p 432) 1 Law of Recurrence: Lower categories recur in the higher levels as a subaspects of higher categories, ... but never vice versa. 2 Law of Modification: The categorial elements modify during their recurrence in the higher levels (they are shaped by the characterstics of the higher levels). 3 Law of the Novum: ... [the] higher category ... [is] composed of a
diversity of lower elements, [it] contains a specific novum, ... which is ... [not] ... included in the lower levels... . 4 Law of Distance between Levels: The different levels do not develop continuously, but in leaps. [The levels can be clearly differentiated.] 24 Reference Level Especially when studying the proximate causes, the basal reference levels are a prerequisite
for understanding the higher levels. This results in the connection of the mentioned guiding disciplines. However, knowledge of the laws of the basal levels alone (e.g. of cell physiology) is insufficient for understanding complex behavioral patterns or a personal experience. The whole is more than the sum of its parts. 25 Each Reference Level is in Principle Equally Important. In reality different ratings (or valuations) of levels and disciplines arise. 26 Terminology and Level of Reference
Many concepts and terms are only useful within specific levels of reference and cause confusion, if they are used on the wrong level of reference. 27 Attribution of Freedoms in the Transdisciplinary Dialogue It is noteworthy how the notions of freedom differ, depending on which reference level is at the center of attention; for instance, the relatively deterministic ideas of many neurophysiologists and neurobiologists are difficult to reconcile with those of psychologists and sociologists, who usually are willing to grant us more freedom. Every reference level has (as novum) its own regularities and degrees of freedom which are not necessarily deducible from the more basal ones. From an evolutionary perspective, accomplishments are made in the process of higher development, which open up new freedoms. 28
On the causation of the devided faculties The way from external reality to internal mentation is not directly verifiable. The fact is depicted in the body-soul-problem and the separation of natural scientific anthropology and the humanities. The separation has methodical-theoretical consequences, e.g. concerning the relation between empiry und theory. 29 Guiding Framework of the Theory of Human Sciences Table 1 Causation Ontogeny Adaptation
Phylogeny Molecule Cell Organ Individual Group Society With the help of this survey questions can be asked concerning specific problems. The survey shall encourage one to overcome traditional borders between disciplines and to help make trans-facultar information flow easier. 30 Hardness (accuracy) of Data and Theories Principally it behooves us to confirm and to consider data and theories as well as possible. Reproducibility, counterhypotheses, statistical aspects, and consistency with the results of neighboring disciplines play an important role here.
Data and theories can show varying degrees of hardness according to the field of focus in the structural model (Table 1). The varying degrees of hardness are yielded by the variously complex diversities, e.g. depending on the reference level being examined (cell, organ, individual, group). 31 examples of epistemological positions useful and/or necessary e.g. in the following realms 1: only conclusive arguments and uncompromising demands on certainty are relevant (theoretical rationality) Logic, Mathematics 2: practical rationality: compromises between theory & empiricism; the purpose: factual representation of ideas
Natural Sciences, basic knowledge of e.g. Medicine and Technology 3: practical rationality of applied sciences: what works is true theoretically insufficient, but conc. application sufficently established fields of Medicine and Technology 4: belief in religious myths, which principally can often not be falsified contributions to morals and ethics examples can be found in all religions animistic, mono- und polytheistic ad 1-3: Different epistemological positions - dependent on the field of research have certain advantages and disadvantages attached to them. consequences of transfacultary different evaluations of
theory and empiricism, theoretical and practical rationality If attempts are made to understand the world without empiricism, the only measure of similarity between ideas and reality are (logical) consistency and ones own assessment. - the value of the explanation can thus be poor. Natural science persistently uses contradictions between theory and empiricism and on the basis of analyses, can explain more and more details about ever decreasing realms of the world - for the price of an overall view Two extreme views: Good science lies between theory and empiricism. Because of this conflict their compromise and recipe for success: as little speculation and fiction, and
as much consistency and certainty as possible. 1. Too high a demand on consistency and certainty of individual scientists and 2. clairvoyants& superstitious peoples fiction fiktions, which can not be used as working hypothesis ... not to see the wood for the trees regarding the interfacultary barriers psychological barriers & defence mechanisms according to Kuhn outdated paradigms are used to controvert newer ones how are contradictions managed institutionally? group dynamics within institutions and scientific societies are similar to those of tribal societies (conc. interrelational work as well as the pressure of conformance conc. the ruling paradigm) scientists between the faculties are social outsiders scientifically political shortages
transfacultary identification of basic knowledge and its imparting are not institutionalized staff savings despite an explosion of knowledge 34 Summary: Examples of corner stones, structuring transdisciplinarity Periodic Table of Human Sciences, rules of the Levels of Complexity (N. Hartmann), Dia 05 Dia 24 causations of Divided Faculties (body-soul-problem), Dia 29 parallels between Expectation / Experience (Karl Popper) Mutation / Selection Theory / Experience (Empiricism)
different approaches to Certainty, Naturalistic Dia 32 and Moralistic Fallacies 35 Everyone of us resembles one of these partially sighted persons: Transdisciplinary nobody exists, who corresponds with the ... seeing person, who ... keeps track. Basic questions and reference levels can be a seeing aid. 36
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