Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing framework (theory) of memory (Craik and Lockhart, 1972) Be able to describe and evaluate the experiment which supports the framework.
This was conducted by Craik & Tulving (1974) Craik & Tulving Levels of processing (1975)
Standardised Instructions Write yes in the top left hand corner of a sheet of paper Write no in the top right hand corner of the same sheet You will see a slide with a question followed by another slide with a one word answer.
Point to the correct answer (yes if correct or no if incorrect) on your sheet The next is an example of the type of question. Is this word written in
lowercase letters? apple Does the word fit the
sentence I use a to write with pen
Ok ready to start? Is the word in capital letters?
FIELD Does the word fit the sentence .......... is a type of
pudding? Rice Is the word written
in green ink? dance Does the word
rhyme with lush ? BRUSH
Does the word fit the sentence Bees make .........? HONEY
Does the word fit the sentence I go to . when it is late ?
lamp Does the word rhyme with word
yellow? POOL Does the word
rhyme with trunk ? twig
Does the word fit the sentence please shut the . ?
CLAW Is the word in lower case letters?
sheet Does the word rhyme with
ship? SOAP Does the word fit
the sentence the .. gives us medicine. NURSE
Is the word in lower case letters?
GLOVE Does the word rhyme with goose
juice Is the word in capital letters?
daisy Thank you. That completes this part of the study
Now answer these maths questions How did you do?
Youre ability to retrieve this information will now be tested Either recall all the target words (free recall) or put a tick by all the target words you recognise on the list max 15 (recognition task)
What experimental design is this? What is the weakness with this design? How was this weakness overcome? What kinds of questions were you
asked? Is the word written in lower case or capitals, is it written in red or green? Does the word rhyme with.? Does the word fit in the sentence.? Or is it
a type of ..? 3 levels of processing Shallow = structural/visual
Middle level = phonemic/phonetic Deep level = semantic Write a hypothesis for this
experiment What did Craik and Tulving expect to find? Would they have used a one tail or two tail hypothesis? IV= Type of question
DV = Number of words recalled Now write the null hypothesis Structural Phonemic Semantic field
dance pool honey
nurse glove juice
soap claw Design
Having collected data is the design independent or repeated? Although C & T had many conditionslook this up as part of your homework
Design = repeated measures as the conditions are the 3 levels of processing Shallow = structural/visual Middle level = phonemic/phonetic Deep level = semantic
Collect scores from 3/4other people you need 4 x free recall and 3 x recognition scores Work out a measure of central tendency (the
mean) for each condition The mean number of words recognised Condition a) structural/visual Condition b) auditory/phonemic Condition c) Semantic
Do your results support the LOP model of memory? Look at NLN materials next Visually represent your data How will you present your findings?
What kind of graph would work best? Always go for the simplest visual presentation Can you identify any weaknesses with the experimental design?
Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing framework for memory research (Craik and Lockhart, 1972) and one other theory or model of memory (other than cue dependent theory).
Suitable examples: reconstructive memory (Bartlett, 1932) multi-store model of memory (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) working memory (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974)
spreading-activation Model of Semantic Memory (Collins & Loftus, 1975). Describe and evaluate in detail Godden and Baddeleys (1975) study of cue
dependent forgetting/memory and one other study of memory or forgetting in the Cognitive Approach. This must be selected from the following: Peterson & Peterson (1959) Suppression
of rehearsal and the role of interference Craik and Tulving (1975) Levels of processing Ramponi et al (2004) Levels of processing effects on involuntary or
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