Consuls Presentation

Consuls Presentation

RECENT LIBRARY TECH TRENDS AND THEIR IMPACT ON RESOURCE SHARING Marshall Breeding Independent Consult, Author, Founder and Publisher, Library Technology Guides 5 October , 2012 Rethinking Library Services New technologies New opportunities 10th Nordic Resource Sharing Conference Summary Marshall Breeding will present a summary of the latest trends in library management systems and discovery services. Many of these new products,

especially those based on cloud computing technologies, have a profound impact on the models of resource sharing available to libraries. Breeding will also review some of the major tech products and organizational trends that have transpired in recent times. On many fronts libraries are consolidating their resource sharing arrangements to form ever larger pools of resources available to their clients. Library Technology Guides w a r b i l . ww h c e

t ry g o l no Iceland Libraries Academic Libraries in Sweden Public Libraries in Sweden Libraries in Denmark Libraries in Finland Libraries in Norway ILS Turnover Report ILS Turnover Report Reverse

Mergers and Acquisitions Eventual product consolidation Alma for resource management Eventual transition of Voyager and Aleph Immediate transition of Verde SFX DigiTool for digital collections Primo / Primo Central for Discovery Rosetta for Preservation

Possible integration into Alma? OCLC will eventually consolidate products to platforms WorldCat WorldShare All Legacy ILS CBS (PICA) VDX TouchPoint (Sisis) Zportal / Xportal (FDI) e WorldCat Link v i

t Resolver la u c e Sp Overarching concern Library success depends on technical infrastructure well aligned with its strategic missions Key Context: Each type of library faces unique challenges Academic: Emphasis on subscribed electronic resources Public: Engaged in the management of print collections

Dramatic increase in interest in E-books School: Age-appropriate resources (print and Web), textbook and media management Special: Enterprise knowledge management (Corporate, Law, Medical, etc.) Key Context: Libraries in Transition Academic Shift from Print > Electronic Public: Emphasis on Customer Engagement

E-journal transition largely complete Circulation of print collections slowing E-books now in play (consultation > reading) Increased pressure on physical facilities Increased circulation of print collections Dramatic increase in interest in e-books All libraries: Need better tools for access to complex multi-format collections Strong emphasis on digitizing local collections Demands for enterprise integration and interoperability Reconceptualization of Automation

Current organization of functionality based on past assumptions Possible new organizing principles Fulfillment = Circulation + ILL + DCB + ecommerce Resource management = Cataloging + Acquisitions + Serials + ERM Customer Relationship Management = Reference + Circulation + ILL (public services) Enterprise Resource Planning = Acquisitions + Collection Development Key Text: Changed expectations in metadata management

Moving away from individual record-by-record creation Life cycle of metadata Manage metadata in bulk when possible E-book collections Highly shared metadata Metadata follows the supply chain, improved and enhanced along the way as needed knowledge bases drive new-generation automation

Great interest in moving toward semantic web and open linked data Very little progress in linked data for operational systems AACR2 > RDA MARC > RDF & Linked Data (Library of Congress Bibliographic Framework Transition Initiative) Bibliographic Services Arena OCLC will maintain and increase dominant position But:

Other platform providers will build competing services Ex Libris Community Zone Serials Solutions expanded KnowledgeWorks Innovative Interfaces / SkyRiver Metadata now a commodity Linked data may change everything Key Context: Technologies in transition Client / Server > Web-based computing Beyond Web 2.0 Integration of social computing into core infrastructure

Local computing shifting to cloud platforms Application Service Provider offerings standard New expectations for multi-tenant software-as-aservice Full spectrum of devices full-scale / net book / tablet / mobile Mobile the current focus, but is only one example of device and interface cycles Fundamental technology shift Mainframe computing Client/Server

Cloud Computing 52845/ p:// ttp:// Software as a Service Multi Tennant SaaS is the modern approach Software functionality delivered entirely through Web interfaces One copy of the code base serves multiple sites

No workstation clients Upgrades and fixes deployed universally Usually in small increments Data as a service SaaS provides opportunity for highly shared data models WorldCat: one globally shared copy that serves all libraries Primo Central: central index of articles maintained by Ex Libris shared by all libraries implementing Primo /

Primo Central KnowledgeWorks database of e-journal holdings shared among all customers of Serials Solutions products General opportunity to move away from library-bylibrary metadata management to globally shared workflows Open Systems Achieving openness has risen as the key driver behind library technology strategies Libraries need to do more with their data Ability to improve customer experience and operational efficiencies Demand for Interoperability Open source full access to internal program of the application

Open APIs expose programmatic interfaces to data and functionality Mobile Computing Challenge: More integrated approach to information and service delivery Library Web sites offer a menu of unconnected silos: Books: Library OPAC (ILS online catalog module) Search the Web site Articles: Aggregated content products, e-journal collections OpenURL linking services E-journal finding aids (Often managed by link resolver) Subject guides (e.g. Springshare LibGuides) Local digital collections

ETDs, photos, rich media collections Metasearch engines Discovery Services often just another choice among many All searched separately Online Catalog ILS Data Search: Scope of Search Search Results

Books, Journals, and Media at the Title Level Not in scope: Articles Book Chapters Digital objects Web site content Etc. Next-gen Catalogs or Discovery Interface (2002-2009) Single search box Query tools

Relevance ranked results (for some content sources) Faceted navigation Enhanced visual displays Did you mean Type-ahead Cover art Summaries, reviews, Recommendation services ILS Data

Discovery Interface search model Search: Local Index Digital Collections ProQuest Search Results Metasearch Engine EBSCOhos t MLA Bibliograph

y ABC-CLIO Real-time query and responses Discovery Products Differentiation in Discovery Products increasingly specialized between public and academic libraries Public libraries: emphasis on engagement with physical collection + e-books Academic libraries: concern for discovery of heterogeneous material types, especially books + articles + digital objects

Discovery from Local to Web-scale Initial products focused on technology AquaBrowser, Endeca, Primo, Encore, VuFind, LIBERO Uno, Civica Sorcer, Axiell Arena Mostly locally-installed software Current phase is focused on pre-populated indexes that aim to deliver Web-scale discovery Primo Central (Ex Libris)

Summon (Serials Solutions) WorldCat Local (OCLC) EBSCO Discovery Service (EBSCO) Encore Synergy (no index, though) ILS Data Web-scale Index-based Discovery (2009- present) Search Results Consolidated Index Search: Digital Collections Web Site Content Institution al Repositori es Aggregate

d Content packages E-Journals Reference Sources Pre-built harvesting and indexing Web-scale Search Problem ILS Data Search Results Consolidated Index Search: Digital Collections

Web Site Content Institution al Repositori es Aggregate d Content packages E-Journals Problem in how to deal with resources not provided to ingest ?? ? Pre-built harvesting and indexing Non Participating Content

Sources Populating Web-scale index with full text Citations or structured metadata provide key data to power search & retrieval and faceted navigation Indexing full text of content amplifies access Every title, phrase, term becomes an access point Important to understand depth indexing Currency, dates covered, full-text or citation Many other factors

Full-text Book indexing HathiTrust: 11 million volumes, 5.3 million titles, 263,000 serial titles, 3.5 billion pages HathiTrust in Discovery Indexes Primo Central (Jan 20, 2012) [previously indexed only metadata] EBSCO Discovery Service (Sept 8 2011) WorldCat Local (Sept 7, 2011) Summon (Mar 28, 2011) Challenge for Relevancy

Technically feasible to index hundreds of millions or billions of records through Lucene or SOLR Difficult to order records in ways that make sense Many fairly equivalent candidates returned for any given query Must rely on use-based and social factors to improve relevancy rankings Challenges for Collection Coverage

To work effectively, discovery services need to cover comprehensively the body of content represented in library collections What about publishers that do not participate? Is content indexed at the citation or fulltext level? What are the restrictions for nonauthenticated users? How can libraries understand the Evaluating Index-based Discovery Services

Intense competition: how well the index covers the body of scholarly content stands as a key differentiator Difficult to evaluate based on numbers of items indexed alone. Important to ascertain now your librarys content packages are represented by the discovery service. Important to know what items are indexed by citation and which are full text Important to know whether the discovery service favors the content of any given publisher Open Discovery Initiative NISO Work Group to Develop Standards and Recommended Practices for Library Discovery Services Based on Indexed Search

Informal meeting called at ALA Annual 2011 Co-Chaired by Marshall Breeding and Jenny Walker Term: Dec 2011 May 2013 Balance of Constituents 42 Libraries Marshall Breeding, Vanderbilt University Jamene Brooks-Kieffer, Kansas State University Laura Morse, Harvard University Ken Varnum, University of Michigan Sara Brownmiller, University of Oregon Lucy Harrison, College Center for Library Automation (D2D liaison/observer) Michele Newberry Publishers Lettie Conrad, SAGE Publications Beth LaPensee, ITHAKA/JSTOR/Portico Jeff Lang, Thomson Reuters

Linda Beebe, American Psychological Assoc Aaron Wood, Alexander Street Press Service Providers Jenny Walker, Ex Libris Group John Law, Serials Solutions Michael Gorrell, EBSCO Information Services David Lindahl, University of Rochester (XC) Jeff Penka, OCLC (D2D liaison/observer) ODI Project Goals: Identify needs and requirements of the three stakeholder groups in this area of work. Create recommendations and tools to streamline

the process by which information providers, discovery service providers, and librarians work together to better serve libraries and their users. Provide effective means for librarians to assess the level of participation by information providers in discovery services, to evaluate the breadth and depth of content indexed and the degree to which this content is made available to the user. Timeline 44 Milestone Target Date Appointment of working group December 2011 Approval of charge and initial work plan March 2012

Agreement on process and tools June 2012 Completion of information gathering October 2012 Completion of initial draft January 2013 Completion of final draft May 2013 Statu s DI Survey: The rise of e-books Academic libraries: e-books included in

aggregated content packages E-books used primarily for research and consultation, not long reading Public Libraries: Subscriptions to e-book services that provide an outsourced collection of loanable e-books K-12 Schools, Colleges, Universities: interest in electronic textbooks Integrating e-Books into Library Automation Infrastructure

Current approach involves mostly outsourced arrangements Collections licensed wholesale from single provider Hand-off to DRM and delivery systems of providers Loading of MARC records into local catalog with linking mechanisms No ability to see availability status of ebooks from the librarys online catalog or discovery interface E-book Technology Issues Access to materials controlled through Digital Rights Management Closed ecosystems that control content through identity management and rights policies

Imposes significant overhead on the user experience: Download an install DRM components Establish user credentials in site trusted by DRM Works only with devices that comply with DRM restrictions Library backlash against DRM, but stands as current reality Changing models of Resource Sharing Integrated Library System Search: Holdings Model: Multi-branch

Independent Library System Main Facility Bibliographic Database Branch 1 Branch 5 Branch 2 Branch 6 Branch 3 Branch 7 Branch 4 Branch 8

Library System Patrons use Circulation features to request items from other branches Floating Collections may reduce workload for Inter-branch transfers WorldCat Resource Sharing Patron has Citation for item not held by Library WorldCat Interlibrary Loan Request Form User: Password: Needed by: Request Submission

WorldCat Resource Sharing Dec 30, 2012 5:00pm Place Request ILLiad Holdings Main Facility Bibliographic Database Branch 1 Branch 5 Branch 2 Branch 6

Branch 3 Branch 7 Branch 4 Branch 8 Library System A Resource tracking and fulfillment Interlibrary Loan Personnel ILS Synchronization Consortial Resource Sharing System Search: Holdings Holdings

Main Facility Main Facility Branch 1 Bibliographic Branch 2 Database Branch 5 Branch 6 Branch 3 Branch 7 Branch 4 Branch 8 NCI P Discovery

and Request Discovery and Request Management Management Routines Routines NCI P Library System A Branch 1 Bibliographic Branch 2 Database Branch 5 Branch 6 Branch 3 Branch 7

Branch 4 Branch 8 Library System D Bibliographic Database Holdings Holdings Main Facility Main Facility Branch 1 Bibliographic Branch 2 Database Branch 5 Branch 6

Branch 3 Branch 7 Branch 4 Branch 8 NCI P NCI ISO Z39. SIP ILL Inter-System 50 P Communications NCI P Communications Library System B

Branch 1 Bibliographic Branch 2 Database Branch 5 Branch 6 Branch 3 Branch 7 Branch 4 Branch 8 Library System E Staff Staff Fulfillment Fulfillment Tools Tools

Holdings Main Facility Branch 1 Bibliographic Branch 2 Database Branch 5 Branch 6 Branch 3 Branch 7 Branch 4 Branch 8 Library System C NCI P Resource Sharing

Application Holdings Main Facility NCI P Branch 1 Bibliographic Branch 2 Database Branch 5 Branch 6 Branch 3 Branch 7 Branch 4 Branch 8

Library System F Shared Consortial ILS Search: Holdings Model: Multiple independent libraries in a Consortium Share an ILS Bibliographic Database Library 1 Library 6 Library 2 Library 7

Library 3 Library 8 Library 4 Library 9 Library 5 Library 10 Shared Consortia System ILS configured To support Direct consortial Borrowing through Circulation Module Strategic Cooperation and Resource sharing

Efforts on many fronts to cooperate and consolidate Many regional consortia merging (Example: Illinois Heartland Library System) State-wide or national implementations New Zealand: Ktui, Te Puna Software-as-a-service or cloud based implementations Many libraries share computing infrastructure and data resources Auckland City Libraries

7 separate library services merged in 2010 Illinois Heartland Library Consortium Largest Consortium in US by Number of Members Orbis Cascade Alliance

37 Academic Libraries Combined enrollment of 258,000 9 million titles 1997: implemented dual INN-Reach systems Orbis and Cascade consortia merged in 2003 Moved from INN-Reach to OCLC Navigator / VDX in 2008 Current strategy to move to shared LMS based on Ex Libris Alma New Generation Management Appropriate Automation Infrastructure

Current automation products out of step with current realities Increasing proportions of library collection funds spent on electronic content Majority of automation efforts support print activities Management of e-content continues with inadequate supporting infrastructure New discovery solutions help with access to econtent Library users expect more engaging socially aware interfaces for Web and mobile Library Automation in the Cloud Almost all library automation vendors offer some form of cloud-based services Server management moves from library to Vendor

Subscription-based business model Comprehensive annual subscription payment Offsets local server purchase and maintenance Offsets some local technology support Leveraging the Cloud Moving legacy systems to hosted services provides some savings to individual institutions but does not result in dramatic transformation Globally shared data and metadata models have the potential to achieve new levels of operational efficiencies and more powerful discovery and automation scenarios that improve the position of libraries overall.

Is the status quo sustainable? ILS for management of (mostly) print Duplicative financial systems between library and campus Electronic Resource Management (non-integrated with ILS) OpenURL Link Resolver w/ knowledge base for access to full-text electronic articles Digital Collections Management platforms (CONTENTdm, DigiTool, etc.) Institutional Repositories (DSpace, Fedora, etc.) Discovery-layer services for broader access to library collections No effective integration services / interoperability among

disconnected systems, non-aligned metadata schemes Integrated (for print) Library System Public Interfaces: Staff Interfaces: Interfaces Business Logic Data Stores Circulation BIB Cataloging Holding / Items Acquisitions Serials

Circ User Transact Vendor Online Catalog $$$ Funds Policies LMS / ERM: Fragmented Model Staff Interfaces: Public Interfaces: Application Programming Interfaces Circulation Cataloging Acquisitions

Serials Online Catalog BIB Protocols: CORE ` Holding Circ $$$ User Vendor Policies / Items Transact Funds E-resource License Procurement Management E-Journal License Vendors Titles

Terms Common approach for ERM Staff Interfaces: Public Interfaces: Budget License Terms Application Programming Interfaces Circulation Cataloging Acquisitions Serials Online Catalog Titles / Holdings Vendors BIB Holding Circ $$$ User Vendor

Policies / Items Transact Funds Access Details Gaps in Automation Almost no systematic automation support for references and research services Customer Relationship Management? Resource sharing / Interlibrary loan management Collection development support

Comprehensive Resource Management No longer sensible to use different software platforms for managing different types of library materials ILS + ERM + OpenURL Resolver + Digital Asset management, etc. very inefficient model Flexible platform capable of managing multiple type of library materials, multiple metadata formats, with appropriate workflows Support for management of metadata in bulk Continuous lifecycle chain initiated before publication Library Services Platform

Library-specific software. Designed to help libraries automate their internal operations, manage collections, fulfillment requests, and deliver services Services Service oriented architecture Exposes Web services and other APIs Facilitates the services libraries offer to their users Platform General infrastructure for library automation Consistent with the concept of Platform as a Service Library programmers address the APIs of the platform to

extend functionality, create connections with other systems, dynamically interact with data Library Services Platform Characteristics Highly Shared data models Delivered through software as a service Multi-tenant Unified workflows across formats and media Flexible metadata management

Knowledgebase architecture Some may take hybrid approach to accommodate local data stores MARC Dublin Core VRA MODS ONIX New structures not yet invented Open APIs for extensibility and interoperability New Library Management Model Search: Library Services Platform API Layer ` Stock Stock Manageme Manageme

nt nt Enterprise Enterprise Resource Resource Planning Planning Learning Learning Manageme Manageme nt nt Digital Digital Coll Coll ry Consolidated ve index e co ic

is rv D Se SelfSelfCheck Check// Automated Automated Return Return Unified Presentation Layer ProQue ProQue st st EBSCO EBSCO JSTOR JSTOR Other Other Resour Resour ces

ces Smart Smart Cad Cad// Payment Payment systems systems Authentica Authentica tion tion Service Service Development / Deployment perspective Beginning of a new cycle of transition Over the course of the next decade,

academic libraries will replace their current legacy products with new platforms Not just a change of technology but a substantial change in the ways that libraries manage their resources and deliver their services Competing Models of Library Automation Traditional Proprietary Commercial ILS Traditional Open Source ILS Aleph, Voyager, Millennium, Symphony, Polaris BOOK-IT, DDELibra,, Open Galaxy

LIBERO, Amlib, Spydus, NCS Evergreen, Koha New generation Library Services Platforms Ex Libris Alma Kuali OLE (Enterprise, not cloud) OCLC WorldShare Management Services, Serials Solutions Intota Innovative Interfaces Sierra (evolving) Convergence Discovery and Management solutions will increasingly be implemented as matched sets

Ex Libris: Primo / Alma Serials Solutions: Summon / Intota OCLC: WorldCat Local / WorldShare Platform Except: Kuali OLE, EBSCO Discovery Service Both depend on an ecosystem of interrelated knowledge bases APIs exposed to mix and match, but efficiencies and synergies are lost Concluding thoughts Urgency to align technology with library missions Innovate locally

Collaborate aggressively collectively Drive strategic development Questions and discussion

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