DISCOVERY AND LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Marshall Breeding Independent Consult, Author, Founder and Publisher, Library Technology Guides http://www.librarytechnology.org/ http://twitter.com/mbreeding 19 June 2013 HKU Library Leadership Institute Challenge: More integrated approach to information and service delivery Library Web sites offer a menu of unconnected silos: Books: Library OPAC (ILS online catalog module) Search the Web site Articles: Aggregated content products, e-journal collections OpenURL linking services E-journal finding aids (Often managed by link resolver) Subject guides (e.g. Springshare LibGuides) Local digital collections
ETDs, photos, rich media collections Metasearch engines Discovery Services often just another choice among many All searched separately Online Catalog ILS Data Search: Scope of Search Search Results Books, Journals, and Media at the Title Level Not in scope:
Articles Book Chapters Digital objects Web site content Etc. Next-gen Catalogs or Discovery Interface (2002-2009) Single search box Query tools Relevance ranked results (for some content sources) Faceted navigation Enhanced visual displays Did you mean Type-ahead
Cover art Summaries, reviews, Recommendation services ILS Data Discovery Interface search model Search: Local Index Digital Collections ProQuest Search Results Metasearch Engine EBSCOhos t MLA Bibliograph y ABC-CLIO
Real-time query and responses Discovery Products http://www.librarytechnology.org/ Differentiation in Discovery Products increasingly specialized between public and academic libraries Public libraries: emphasis on engagement with physical collection + e-books Academic libraries: concern for discovery of heterogeneous material types, especially books + articles + digital objects Discovery from Local to Web-scale Initial products focused on technology
AquaBrowser, Endeca, Primo, Encore, VuFind, LIBERO Uno, Civica Sorcer, Axiell Arena Mostly locally-installed software Current phase is focused on pre-populated indexes that aim to deliver Web-scale discovery Primo Central (Ex Libris) Summon (Serials Solutions) WorldCat Local (OCLC) EBSCO Discovery Service (EBSCO) Encore Synergy (no index, though) ILS Data Public Library Information Portal Search Results Usagegenerate d Data Custome r Profile Consolidated Index Search:
Digital Collections Web Site Content Communit y Informatio n Aggregate d Content packages Customerprovided content Reference Sources Archives Pre-built harvesting and indexing Web-scale Index-based Discovery ILS Data (2009- present) Search Results Usagegenerate d Data
Custome r Profile Consolidated Index Search: Digital Collections Web Site Content Institution al Repositori es Aggregate d Content packages Open Access E-Journals Reference Sources Pre-built harvesting and indexing Web-scale Search Problem
ILS Data Search Results Consolidated Index Search: Digital Collections Web Site Content Institution al Repositori es Aggregate d Content packages E-Journals Problem in how to deal with resources not provided to ingest into consolidated index ?? ? Pre-built harvesting
and indexing Non Participating Content Sources Discovery Service Installations Discovery Product 200 200 201 7 2008 9 0 2011 2012 Installed Primo 12 AquaBrowser 55 339 Encore 72 LS2 PAC 37 Civica Sorcer
10 34 7 3 42 76 23 86 Web-scale Search Problem ILS Data Search Results Consolidated Index Search: Digital Collections Web Site Content Institution al Repositori es
Aggregate d Content packages E-Journals Problem in how to deal with resources not provided to ingest ?? ? Pre-built harvesting and indexing Non Participating Content Sources Challenge for Relevancy Technically feasible to index hundreds of millions or billions of records through Lucene or SOLR Difficult to order records in ways that
make sense Many fairly equivalent candidates returned for any given query Must rely on use-based and social factors to improve relevancy rankings Evaluating Index-based Discovery Services Intense competition: how well the index covers the body of scholarly content stands as a key differentiator Difficult to evaluate based on numbers of items indexed alone. Important to ascertain now your librarys content packages are represented by the discovery service. Important to know what items are indexed by citation and which are full text Important to know whether the discovery service favors the content of any given publisher Open Discovery Initiative
NISO Work Group to Develop Standards and Recommended Practices for Library Discovery Services Based on Indexed Search Informal meeting called at ALA Annual 2011 Co-Chaired by Marshall Breeding and Jenny Walker Term: Dec 2011 May 2013 Balance of Constituents 17 Marshall Breeding, Vanderbilt University Jamene Brooks-Kieffer, Kansas State University Laura Morse, Harvard University Ken Varnum, University of Michigan Lettie Conrad, SAGE Publications Beth LaPensee, ITHAKA/JSTOR/Portico Jeff Lang, Thomson Reuters Jenny Walker, Ex Libris Group John Law, Serials Solutions Michael Gorrell, EBSCO Information Services David Lindahl, University of Rochester (XC)
Sara Brownmiller, University of Oregon Lucy Harrison, College Center for Library Automation (D2D liaison/observer) Michele Newberry Linda Beebe, American Psychological Assoc Aaron Wood, Alexander Street Press Jeff Penka, OCLC (D2D liaison/observer) Integrating e-Books into Library Automation Infrastructure Current approach involves mostly outsourced arrangements Collections licensed wholesale from single provider Hand-off to DRM and delivery systems of providers Loading of MARC records into local catalog with linking mechanisms No ability to see availability status of ebooks from the librarys online catalog or discovery interface
2013: The current state of discovery Online Catalogs of ILS modules in decline Increasing numbers of academic libraries offer discovery services Index-based search emerges Summon, Primo/Primo Central, EBSCO Discovery Service, WorldCat Local Indexes growing in comprehensiveness and depth. Relevancy algorithms gaining sophistication Increasing numbers of publishers and providers cooperate with library discovery services Open Discovery Initiative launched October 2011 New-generation Library Management Fragmented Library Management
LMS for management of (mostly) print Duplicative financial systems between library and local government or other parent organization E-book lending platform (multiple?) Interlibrary loan (borrowing and lending) Self-service and AMH infrastructure Electronic Resource Management PC Scheduling and print management Event scheduling Digital Collections Management platforms (CONTENTdm, DigiTool, etc.) Discovery-layer services for broader access to library collections No effective integration services / interoperability among disconnected systems, non-aligned metadata schemes Is the status quo sustainable?
ILS for management of (mostly) print Duplicative financial systems between library and campus Electronic Resource Management (non-integrated with ILS) OpenURL Link Resolver w/ knowledge base for access to full-text electronic articles Digital Collections Management platforms (CONTENTdm, DigiTool, etc.) Institutional Repositories (DSpace, Fedora, etc.) Discovery-layer services for broader access to library collections No effective integration services / interoperability among disconnected systems, non-aligned metadata schemes Integrated (for print) Library System Public Interfaces: Staff Interfaces: Interfaces Business Logic Data Stores Circulation
Serials Online Catalog BIB Protocols: CORE ` Holding Circ $$$ User Vendor Policies / Items Transact Funds E-resource License Procurement Management E-Journal License Vendors Titles Terms Common approach for ERM Staff Interfaces: Public Interfaces: Budget
License Terms Application Programming Interfaces Circulation Cataloging Acquisitions Serials Online Catalog Titles / Holdings Vendors BIB Holding Circ $$$ User Vendor Policies / Items Transact Funds Access Details Gaps in Automation Almost no systematic automation support for references and research services
Customer Relationship Management? Resource sharing / Interlibrary loan management Collection development support Comprehensive Resource Management No longer sensible to use different software platforms for managing different types of library materials ILS + ERM + OpenURL Resolver + Digital Asset management, etc. very inefficient model Flexible platform capable of managing multiple type of library materials, multiple metadata formats, with appropriate workflows Support for management of metadata in bulk Continuous lifecycle chain initiated before publication Academic Libraries need a new model of library management
Not an Integrated Library System or Library Management System The ILS/LMS was designed to help libraries manage print collections Generally did not evolve to manage electronic collections Other library automation products evolved: Electronic Resource Management Systems OpenURL Link Resolvers Digital Library Management Systems -- Institutional Repositories Library Services Platform Library-specific software. Designed to help libraries automate their internal operations, manage collections, fulfillment requests, and deliver services Services
Service oriented architecture Exposes Web services and other APIs Facilitates the services libraries offer to their users Platform General infrastructure for library automation Consistent with the concept of Platform as a Service Library programmers address the APIs of the platform to extend functionality, create connections with other systems, dynamically interact with data Library Services Platform Characteristics Highly Shared data models Delivered through software as a service Multi-tenant Unified workflows across formats and media Flexible metadata management
Knowledgebase architecture Some may take hybrid approach to accommodate local data stores MARC Dublin Core VRA MODS ONIX Bibframe New structures not yet invented Open APIs for extensibility and interoperability Library Services Platforms Category Responsible Organization WorldSha Alma re Managem ent Services OCLC. Ex Libris Key precepts Global Consolidat networke
level workflows, approach to unified managemen managem t and ent: print, discovery electronic, based on digital; central data: Hybrid stores data Intota Sierra Services Platform Kuali OLE Serials Solutions Innovative Interfaces, Inc Kuali Foundation Knowledge base
driven. Pure multitenant SaaS Serviceoriented architecture Technology uplift for Millennium ILS. More open source components, consolidated Manage library resources in a format agnostic approach. Integration into the broader academic enterprise infrastructure Library Services Platforms Category Status Discovery? WorldSha re Managem
ent Services In Production: 100+ libraries Alma Intota Sierra Services Platform Designed for WorldCat Local, Partnership with EDS as Designed Designed for Designed for for Primo / Summon, APIs Encore, EDS Primo for other for Discovery Central, Index APIs for In In In
productio Developme production: n nt: 150+ libraries. (Mostly Millennium migrations) Kuali OLE In Development . Some early adopting partners expect production in 2013 (2014?) No Discovery: APIs available. Initial partners will use Blacklight, Development Resources (2011) Company Dev Sup Sales Admin Other Total Ex Libris Follett Software Company
Innovative Interfaces, Inc. SirsiDynix Corporation Serials Solutions Axiell The Library Corporation Polaris Library Systems VTLS Inc. 170 87 83 84 80 57 39 27 24 231 143 158 166 50 66 91 42 48 54 86 43 51 46 34
Catalyst IT 3 3 12 3 3 1 13 BibLibre Koha Total (estimated) PTFS 4 15 5 3 16 8 8 6 5
2 3 Koha 155 Evergreen Equinox Software 5 21 Open Systems Achieving openness has risen as the key driver behind library technology strategies Libraries need to do more with their data Ability to improve customer experience and operational efficiencies Demand for Interoperability Open source full access to internal program of the application
Open APIs expose programmatic interfaces to data and functionality Open Source Integrated Library Systems Major thread in library systems development Koha Evergreen Kuali OLE New Library Management Model Search: Library Services Platform API Layer ` Stock Stock Manageme Manageme nt nt Enterprise Enterprise
Resource Resource Planning Planning Learning Learning Manageme Manageme nt nt Digital Digital Coll Coll ry Consolidated ve index e co ic is rv D Se SelfSelfCheck Check// Automated Automated Return Return Unified Presentation Layer ProQue ProQue
st st EBSCO EBSCO JSTOR JSTOR Other Other Resour Resour ces ces Smart Smart Cad Cad// Payment Payment systems systems Authentica Authentica tion tion Service Service Development / Deployment perspective
Beginning of a new cycle of transition Over the course of the next decade, academic libraries will replace their current legacy products with new platforms Not just a change of technology but a substantial change in the ways that libraries manage their resources and deliver their services Eventual product consolidation Alma for resource management Eventual transition of Voyager and Aleph Immediate transition of Verde SFX DigiTool for digital collections Primo / Primo Central for Discovery Rosetta for Preservation Possible integration into Alma?
Progressive consolidation of library services Centralization of technical infrastructure of multiple libraries within a campus Resource sharing support Direct borrowing among partner institutions Shared infrastructure between institutions Examples: 2CUL (Columbia University / Cornell University) Orbis Cascade Alliance (37 independent colleges and universities to merge into shared LSP) Competing Models of Library Automation Traditional Proprietary Commercial ILS
Traditional Open Source ILS Aleph, Voyager, Millennium, Symphony, Polaris, BOOK-IT, DDELibra, Libra.se LIBERO, Amlib, Spydus, TOTALS II, Talis Alto, OpenGalaxy Evergreen, Koha New generation Library Services Platforms Ex Libris Alma Kuali OLE (Enterprise, not cloud) OCLC WorldShare Management Services, Serials Solutions Intota Innovative Interfaces Sierra (evolving) Convergence Discovery and Management solutions will increasingly be implemented as matched sets
Ex Libris: Primo / Alma Serials Solutions: Summon / Intota OCLC: WorldCat Local / WorldShare Platform Except: Kuali OLE, EBSCO Discovery Service Both depend on an ecosystem of interrelated knowledge bases APIs exposed to mix and match, but efficiencies and synergies are lost Leveraging the Cloud Moving legacy systems to hosted services provides some savings to individual institutions but does not result in dramatic transformation Globally shared data and metadata models have the potential to achieve new levels of operational efficiencies and more powerful discovery and automation scenarios that improve the position of libraries overall.
Pieces of artwork are also classified into groups of various kinds, for example, portraits, still lifes, works by Picasso, or works of the 19th century; a given piece may belong to more than one group. Exercise 2.8. Problem.
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