Conjugate acids and bases - henniscience

Conjugate acids and bases - henniscience

Conjugate acids and bases When a substance loses ONE hydrogen ion, the species produced is called a conjugate base Whats the conjugate base of H2SO4 HSO4 Its important to notice that it only loses one proton (hydrogen ion) Similarly when a species gains one proton it is referred to as the conjugate acid.

What is the conjugate acid of ammonia? NH4+ Acid base reactions generally involve the transfer of a proton They contain two acid base pairs Consider ethanoic acid dissolving in water CH3COOH + H2O H3O+ + CH3COO Identify the 2 acid-base pairs CH3COOH / CH3COO- acid / conjugate base

H2O / H3O+ base/ conjugate acid Notice that every acid has a conjugate base and every base has a conjugate acid They come in pairs! Acid HCl Hydrochloric acid H2SO4 Sulfuric acid HNO3 Nitric acid

H3O+ Hydronium ion HSO4 Hydrogen sulfate ion H3PO4 Phosphoric acid CH3COOH Acetic acid H2CO3 Carbonic acid NH4+ Ammonium ion Base Cl Chloride ion

HSO4 Hydrogen sulfate ion NO3 Nitrate ion H2O Water SO42 Sulfate ion H2PO4 Dihydrogenphosphate ion CH3COO Acetate ion HCO3 Hydrogen carbonate ion NH3 Ammonia

HCO3 Hydrogencarbonate CO32 Carbonate ion H2O Water (neutral, pH 7) OH Hydroxide ion Even though we havent defined strong and

weak acids (or bases), its still worth mentioning that Strong acids have weak conjugate bases And weak acids have strong conjugate bases Eg HCl is a strong acid Cl- is such a weak conjugate base that we dont really consider it to be a base at all!

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