Comparison of Surface Resistivity to Bulk Diffusion Testing ...

Comparison of Surface Resistivity to Bulk Diffusion Testing ...

Comparison of Surface Resistivity to Bulk Diffusion Testing of Concrete Christopher C. Ferraro Ph.D. Assistant In Engineering Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering, University of Florida Mario Paredes P.E. State Corrosion Engineer Florida Department Research Significance Corrosion induced deterioration is the most common cause of bridge degradation in Florida FDOT Chloride Penetration Research Program Started In 2002, Consisted of 3 phases:

1st Phase (2002-2003): Characterization of structural concrete placed in the field using 2nd Phase(2003-2007): Find the best electrical indicators of permeability correlated to diffusion AASHTO T277/ASTM C1202 Chloride Penetration Test Surface Resistivity (Florida Method FM5-578)

Bulk Diffusion (NT Build 443) RMT (NT Build 492) AASHTO T277/ASTM C1202 Chloride Penetration Test Surface Resistivity (Florida Method FM5-578) 3rd Phase (2007-2009): Surface Resistivity as a nondestructive test to evaluate field structures The Chloride Ion Penetration Test Cut and Epoxy 26th Curing Day Desiccate 27th Curing Day 4 The Chloride Ion Penetration

Test Cell Formation Performing Test 3rd Day of Test 28th Curing Day 3rd Day of Test 28th Curing Day Chloride Ion Penetration Test AASHTO-T277/ASTM C1202 Negatively charged ions move from the anode reservoir to the cathode 6 Stanish, K.D. et reservoir. al Chloride Ion Penetration Test Limitations

Temperature Ionic Contribution Hydroxyl ion formation Conductive Materials Effort Required for Specimen Preparation Cost 7 Diffusion Test Bulk Diffusion (NT Build 443) Cylinder is sliced at 364 days of exposure for Chloride analysis 16.5 % NaCl

Each slice is in thick Bulk Diffusion Test NordTest NTBuild 443 16.5 % NaCl Solution Concrete Cylinder (4 in diameter, 4 in length) Sealed on All Faces Except One Electrical Indicators of Ion Penetration FM5-522 NT Build 443 - RMT Stanish, K.D. et al 10 Impress Current

Surface Resistivity FM 5-578 Surface Resistivity Testing Small AC signal Wenner Array Probe a a a Resistivity Meter KOhm - cm Bottom Probe Spacing a =1.5" 8"

4" To p Surface Resistivity Broomfield, J. et al Applied Current Measured Voltage Chloride Ion Penetration Test Limitations Advantages of the Surface Resistivity Test

Temperature Ionic Contribution Hydroxyl ion formation Effort Required for Specimen Preparation Cost Conductive Materials Still a problem 14 Comparison of Resistivity and Chloride Ion Penetration 529 Data Sets Surface Resistivity (k-cm) Chini, A. et al Coulomb Values

Precision of Methods Single-Operator Precision for penetration testing Single Operator Coefficient of Variation: Surface Resistivity = 8.2% Chloride Penetration Test = 12.3% 16 91 Day SR Correlation to 1 & 3 year BD 100 Resistivity (KOhm-cm) y = 49.85x-0.7379 2 R = 0.7884

y = 42.781x-0.6125 2 R = 0.7383 1 Year 3 Year 10 1 0.1 1.0 10.0 Diffusion (10-12 m2/s) 100.0 Research Program cont.

The third phase of research Surface resistivity as a NDT test to evaluate field structures Surface Resistivity as a Performance Test for Transport Properties PresuelMoreno et.al (yesterdays sesson) 18 Geometry Effects real measure Curvature of sample forces equi-potential lines into smaller areas.

The result is a modified resistivity reading. The real resitivity of concrete can be calculated by real = measure/K Where K is a correction factor that accounts for the geometrical effects of the test (Morris, W. et al.) 19 Geometry Effects Morris, W. et al 20 Geometry Effects Surface Resistivity vs Distance from Top of 6 x 12 Cylinder 7.5

Surface Resistivity (KOhms-cm) 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 0 1 2 3 4 5

6 7 Distance from Top (Inches) 0 Min 15 Min 30 Min 45 Min Drying Time21 60 Min 75 Min 180 Min 8

Geometry Effects Surface Resistivity vs Time 6 x 12 Surface Resistivity (KOhms-cm) 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 0 20 40

60 80 100 120 140 Minutes 0" 1" 2" 3" 4" 5"

Distance From Top 22 6" 7" 160 180 Geometry Effects Surface Re sistiv ity v s Time and Distance 7.0 6.5 7.0-7.5 6.5-7.0 6.0-6.5 6.0

5.5-6.0 5.0-5.5 5.5 5.0 4 3 D is tan c 2 e fr om C 1 -1 e nte r (In c he s ) 30 Mi nu 60 te s

) 180 Ti m e( Surface Resistivity (KOhms-cm) 7.5 -2 23 -3 0 -4 Geometry Effects Surface Resistivity vs Curing Condition

Class V W/C=0.39 Fly Ash=20% 180 RCP DATA SURFACE RESISTIVITY (Kohms-cm) 160 Moisture Room Lime Tank Outside (Air cured) 140 28 Days Coulomb 5792 6715 4918

SR 180 Days Coulomb 954 1411 1182 28 Days KOhm-cm 7.5 7.1 20.7 180 Days KOhm-cm 40.2 25.7 155.2 120 100 80 60

40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 DAYS Moisture Room 24

Lime Tank Outside 160 180 200 References: Florida Method of Test for Concrete Resistivity as an Electrical Indicator of Its Permeability, (FM5-578) Florida Department of Transportation, 2004 Standard Method of Test for Resistance of Concrete to Chloride Ion Penetration, (T259-80), American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., 1980 Standard Method of Test for Electrical Indication of Concretes Ability to Resist Chloride, (T277-93), American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., 1983 Standard Test Method for Electrical Indication of Chlorides Ability to Resist Chloride (ASTM C1202-94) 1994 Annual Book of ASTM Standards V 04.02, ASTM, Philadelphia, pg. 620-5 Berke, N. S., and Hicks, M.C., Estimating the Life Cycle of Reinforced Concrete Decks and Marine Piles Using Laboratory Diffusion and Corrosion Data, Corrosion Forms and Control for Infrastructure, ASTM STP 1137, V. Chaker, ed., American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1992

Broomfield, J., and Millard, S., Measuring Concrete Resistivity to Assess Corrosion Rates, Concrete Report from the Concrete Society/Institute of Corrosion Liaison Committee, pp. 37-39 Chini, A., Muszynski, L., Hicks, J., Determination of Acceptance Permeability Characteristics of Performance-Related Specifications for Portland Cement Concrete, Florida Department of Transportation, July 11, 2003 Hooton, R., Thomas, M., Stanish, K., Prediction of Chloride Penetration in Concrete, Federal Highway Administration, October 2001 Morris, W., Moreno, E.I. and Sagues, A. A., Practical Evaluation of Resistivity of Concrete in Test Cylinders using a Wenner Array Probe, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 26, No. 12, pp. 1779-1787, 1996 Powers, R., Sagues, A., Cerlanek, W., Kasper, C., Li, L., Liang, H., Poor, N., Baskaran, R., Corrosion Inhibitors in Concrete Interim Report, Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-RD-02-002, March 2002 Stanish, K., Hooton, R., Thomas, M., Testing the Chloride Penetration Resistance of Concrete: A Literature Review, FHWA Contract DTFH61-97-R-00022Prediction of Chloride Penetration in Concrete Streicher, P.E. and Alexander, M.G., A Chloride Conduction 25Test for Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 1284-1294, 1995

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